臺北市中小學教師領導運作、影響因素、成效與困境之研究——以教學輔導教師為例

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˪㔁做埴㓧冯姽揹⬠↲˫ 2013 ⸜ 6 㚰炻䫔⋩Ḽ㛇炻枩 1-30

ᇃѕѿϛωᏰఀৱሴᏲၼհȃኇ៪Ӱશȃԙਝ

ᇄ֨ცϞंـȹȹоఀᏰሄᏲఀৱ࣏ٽ!

⻝⽟扛ˣ⻝䳈”ġ

ᄢġ ौ

冢⊿ⶪᷕ⮷⬠㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎冒㮹⚳ 90 ⸜攳⥳㍐≽炻⌛怠㉼屯㶙⃒列㔁ⷓẍ➡㢵 ℞㔁ⷓ柀⮶㕡朊䘬傥慷炻ẩ⚾䘤㎖➢Ⰼ㔁ⷓ⍫冯㔁做㓡朑䘬≃慷ˤ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ℟ 橼⮎嶸㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬䎮⾝炻Ṏ⌛崭崲㔁ⷓ㇨Ⱄ㔁⭌⍣䘤㎖冒⶙䘬傥≃⍲㈧媦炻⚈㬌㛔 䞼䨞⽆冢⊿ⶪᷕ⮷⬠ᷕ怠↢㚦䴻㑼ả忶㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䘬 16 ỵ⃒岒㔁ⷓ炻ẍ姒婯㱽㶙 ℍḮ妋㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬忳ἄˣ⼙枧⚈䳈ˣㆸ㓰冯⚘⠫炻ⶴℨ⽆ᷕ䘤䎦℞ㆸ≇䘬䴻槿ˤ䵄 ⎰䞼䨞䳸㝄炻䌚农慵天䳸婾⤪ᶳ烉ᶨ炻ㆸ≇䘬㔁ⷓ柀⮶炻㚱岜埴㓧㬋䡢䘬ン⹎冯ℐ ≃䘬㓗㊩ˣ㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭怑↯䘬柀⮶㕡⺷ˣẍ⍲栀シ惵⎰ᷳ塓柀⮶㔁ⷓᶱ㕡ᷳℙ⎴⎰ ἄ烊Ḵ炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬⚘⠫⛐㕤冯⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ惵⮵ᶵ䔞ˣ⎴ṩ㈿㉺㕘⡆ⶍἄˣⶍἄ屈㑼 ≈慵⍲㗪攻ᶵ嵛䫱ˤ ġ ġ 斄挝娆烉㔁ⷓ柀⮶ˣ㔁⬠⮶ⷓˣ⺢㥳柀⮶ˣ慵揬柀⮶ˣ⮰㤕⬠佺䣦佌 ____________________ ⻝⽟扛烉ġ⣑ᷣ㔁庼ṩ⣏⬠ⷓ屯➡做ᷕ⽫㔁㌰ˤ暣⫸悝ẞ烉089261@mail.fju.edu.twġ ⻝䳈”烉ġ冢⊿ⶪ䩳㔁做⣏⬠㔁做埴㓧冯姽揹䞼䨞㇨ℤả≑䎮㔁㌰ˤġ ġ ġ ġ ġ 暣⫸悝ẞ烉shyycsz@yahoo.com.twġ

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Journal of Educational Administration and Evaluation June, 2013, Vol. 15, pp. 1-30

Teacher Leadership Operation and Its

Influencing Factors, Effects and Difficulties in

Taipei Elementary and Secondary Schools:

Taking Mentor Teachers as Examples

Derray Chang, Su-Chen Chang

Abstract

The mentor teacher program in Taipei was enacted based on the concept of teacher leadership in 2001. The purposes of this program are to cultivate outstanding teachers with teacher leading capacities, and to develop the power of teachers participating in educational reform. The mentor teacher put the concept of teacher leadership into practice, that is, to extend his talent and promise beyond his classroom. For this reason, this study adopts a qualitative approach to collect data by interviewing 16 mentor teachers in Taipei elementary and secondary schools. Its aim is to understand teacher leadership operations and its influencing factors, effects and difficulties, and to address their successful experiences. According to the results, this study finds the following conclusions: (1)Successful teacher leadership relies on the cooperation of administrative units, teacher leaders, and the partner teachers. (2)The difficulties of teacher leadership are the inappropriate pairing of mentor teacher and partner teacher, teachers rejecting the increased workload, heavy workloads, and insufficient time.

Keywords: teacher leadership, mentor teacher, constructivist leadership, recasting

leadership, professional learning community

____________________

Derray Chang: Professor / Center for Teacher Education, Fu Jen Catholic University E-mail: 089261@mail.fju.edu.tw

Su-Chen Chang: Adjunct Assistant Professor / Graduate School of Educational Administration and Evaluation, Taipei Municipal University of Education

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൦ȃᆱ፣!

㔁ⷓᷳ列䩛炻㓠斄㔁做ᷳㆸ㓿ˤThornton炷2010炸㚜㊯↢㔁做㓡朑⤪㝄㫈仢㔁ⷓ 䘬ℐ⒉⍫冯⍲㔁ⷓ柀⮶炷teacher leadership炸炻䳪㬠㲐⭂天⣙㓿ˤ⚳ℏ⢾姙⣂䞍⎵䘬⬠ 侭↮⇍⽆㔁ⷓ䘤⯽ˣ⬠㟉嬲朑ˣ婚䦳㓡朑ˣ⬠㟉㔯⊾ˣ㔁做柀⮶䫱奺⹎炻婾徘㔁ⷓ 柀⮶䘬慵天⿏⍲攳㉻㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬䞼䨞䭬⚵炷⻝⽟扛炻2010烊昛ἑ劙炻2008烊Barth, 1988; Fullan & Hargreaves, 1996; Sergiovanni, 2002炸ˤ㔁ⷓ柀⮶⶚ㆸ䔞ẋ⬠㟉朑㕘冯柀⮶䎮 婾⍲⮎⊁䘬ᷣ天䘤⯽嵐⊊ᷳᶨˤ

⚳⢾姙⣂⬠侭㍸↢㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬⽭天⿏冯㓰䙲炻ἳ⤪烉⎗ẍ㷃庽㟉攟屈㑼ˣ㍸⋯ 㔁ⷓ⢓㯋⍲㔁⬠㓰傥ˣ偗⭂᷎䔁ỷ⃒䥨㔁ⷓˣ⡆忚⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ⯙ˣ䵕㊩嬲朑䘬㊩临 ≃䫱炷Frost & Durrant, 2003; Katzenmeyer & Moller, 2009; York-Barr & Duke, 2004炸ˤ ⃀䭉㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭㑩㚱ⶐ⣏䘬㓡朑傥慷炻⼰⎗や⛐⚳ℏ⸦㲊䘬㔁做㓡朑㴒㼖ᷕ炻悥㰺 㚱塓⃭↮⛘䘤㍀␴忳䓐炻忁⎗ẍ婒㗗ᶨᾳṇ⼭╂愺䘬㰰䜉ⶐṢˤ婈⤪ Katzenmeyer 冯 Moller炷2009炸⛐℞叿ἄ˪╂愺㰰䜉䘬ⶐṢȹȹ⋼≑㔁ⷓ䘤⯽ㆸ䁢柀⮶侭˫ 炷Awakening the Sleeping Giant: Helping Teachers Develop as Leaders炸ᶨ㚠ᷕ㇨㎕㪓烉

ӧ؂΋܌Ꮲਠ္Ǵ೿Ԗ΋ဂёаԋࣁ௲ৣሦᏤޣޑ؇ᅵѮΓǴԶ೭ဂΓё аว৖ԋࣁǴࣁගϲᏢғᏢಞԶ௢୏ׯॠޑԖΚ᝻൞Ƕӵ݀ૈ୼๓Ҕ೭٤Ꮲਠ ᡂॠж౛ΓޑѮεૈໆǴךॺޑϦӅ௲ػஒૈዴߥ؂΋ՏᏢู೿ૈӧ؂΋Տଯ ࠔ፦௲ৣ௲ᏤΠǴкϩၲԋ௲ػޑ౛གྷǶȐp. 2ȑ

㔁ⷓ柀⮶彬Ṳ晾ṵ㛒㚱㖶䡢ˣᶨ农⿏䘬⭂佑炻Ữ⬠䓴⮵㔁ⷓ柀⮶⭂佑㚱ᶨℙ嬀烉 Ὢ㊯崭崲㔁ⷓ㇨Ⱄ㔁⭌㇨䘤㎖䘬傥≃⍲㈧媦炷Beachum & Dentith, 2004; Fullan & Hargreaves, 1996炸ˤThornton炷2010炸Ṏ㚦ẍ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⮎㕥ㆸ㓰Ἦ婒㖶㔁ⷓ柀⮶ 䘬䙲嗽ˤ㛔㔯ἄ侭⛐ᷕ⮷⬠忚埴㔁⬠庼⮶ㆾ⣍Ờ⋼ἄ㗪炻䡢⮎ḇ䘤䎦㚱ᶨ⣏佌㔁ⷓ Ᾱ℟㚱嬲朑䘬傥慷炻ṾᾹ㗗ẍ㔁ⷓ⮰㤕⍣⺽⮶㕘忚ㆾ㗗㔁⬠㚱⚘暋䘬侩ⷓ炻䚠⮵㕤 埴㓧柀⮶炻ḇ㗗ᶨ䧖㔁ⷓ⼙枧≃䘬䘤㎖炻⚈㬌炻冢⊿ⶪ㇨㍐≽䘬㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎ 䡢⮎℟⁁㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬䱦䤆冯⮎嶸炻㓭㛔䞼䨞⽆ᷕ怠↢㚦䴻㑼ả忶㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ炷ẍ ᶳ䯉䧙㔁⬠⮶ⷓ炸䘬 16 ỵ⃒岒㔁ⷓ炻ẍ姒婯㱽㶙ℍḮ妋㔁ⷓ柀⮶㍐≽䘬䎦㱩炻ⶴℨ ⽆℞䴻槿㬠䲵℟橼⺢嬘炻ᾦὃṾ㟉㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶⇞⹎ᷳ⍫侫ˤ㒂㬌炻䞼䨞⓷柴⤪ᶳ烉 ᶨˣġ冢⊿ⶪᷕ⮷⬠㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ側㘗䑘⠫䁢ỽ烎 Ḵˣġ冢⊿ⶪᷕ⮷⬠㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭⤪ỽ䓊䓇烎

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ᶱˣġ冢⊿ⶪᷕ⮷⬠㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭⤪ỽ➡妻烎 ⚃ˣġ冢⊿ⶪᷕ⮷⬠㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶㚱ỽㆸ㓰烎 Ḽˣġ冢⊿ⶪᷕ⮷⬠⼙枧㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ⚈䳈䁢ỽ烎 ℕˣġ冢⊿ⶪᷕ⮷⬠㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ⚘⠫䁢ỽ烎⤪ỽ妋㰢烎

ຯȃМᝦ௤ଆ!

㟡㒂㛔㔯㍊䨞ᷳ⓷柴炻忚埴ẍᶳ㔯䌣ᷳ㍊妶烉

ΙȃఀৱሴᏲӵ୽ϱϛωᏰϞधශ૕๜!

⚳ℏ冒⽆ 1990 ⸜ẋ䘬㔁做㓡朑⍲˪ⷓ屯➡做㱽˫ˣ˪㔁ⷓ㱽˫䫱㱽Ẍ℔ⶫẍἮ炻 ⬠㟉㪲≃⶚慵埴↮惵炻㔁ⷓ昌Ḯ⍫冯㟉⊁㚫嬘⢾炻㔁姽㚫䓙㔁ⷓ䳬ㆸ炻⮵㕘忚㔁ⷓ 䘬倀ả⍲ᶵ怑ả㔁ⷓ䘬嗽䎮㚱㰢⭂㪲炻⬠㟉㔁ⷓ㚫Ṏ㚱㪲⍫冯⬠㟉⎬枭慵⣏䘬㰢䫾 炷匲⊅⇑炻2005烊哉忚晬炻2004炸ˤ㬌⢾炻昛ἑ劙炷2008炸㚜㊯↢忁䧖䓙ᶲ侴ᶳ䘬普 ᷕ㍏⇞䭉䎮㓡䁢↮㔋冯➡≃䘬䘤⯽㧉⺷炻⬠㟉柀⮶␴㔁ⷓ奺刚㛇⼭嬲⼿㧉䱲ˣ⣂⃫ ␴墯暄炻ⷞ䴎冢䀋⛐⛘傰䴉ᶳ㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬従↯⿏ˤ 䃞侴㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬䎮゛冯䎦⮎ᷳ攻⬀㚱䚠䔞⣏䘬ⶖ嶅炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬㼃⛐傥慷᷎㰺 㚱塓怑䔞⛘⺽柀␴䘤㎖ˤ⢷㜿㶭炷1999炸ẍⷞ柀㔁ⷓㆸ攟⛀橼䘬䴻槿炻䘤䎦㔁ⷓ℟ 㚱⿅䵕₝⊾ˣ埴≽ᾅ⬰冯㚵⽆㪲⦩䘬佺⿏炻忁䧖⬱忠ˣᾅ⬰ˣ㚵⽆㪲⦩䘬㔁ⷓ㔯⊾ ᷎ᶵ⇑㕤⎴₽㔁⬠柀⮶䘬攳∝ˤ㬌⢾炻哉忚晬炷2007炸㚦⛐ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⬠㔁ⷓ㔁⬠柀 ⮶ᷳ⺢㥳冯䘤⯽——ẍ⬠佺柀➇⎔普Ṣ䁢ἳ˭ᷳ䞼䨞ᷕ䘤䎦㚱役ᶫㆸ炷69.7%炸䘬⍿ 娎侭娵䁢⬠佺柀➇⎔普Ṣˬ㰺㚱⽭天˭忚埴㔁⬠柀⮶炻侴⍵ㅱˬ㰺㚱⽭天˭忚埴㔁 ⬠柀⮶䘬⍇⚈⣏农⎗㬠䁢ˬ㔁ⷓ⮰㤕冒ᷣ⿏檀˭ˣˬ⎔普Ṣ㭷⸜廒㳩㑼ả˭ˣˬ⎔普Ṣ 㗪攻ᶵ⣈⍲䞍傥ᶵ嵛˭䫱⍇⚈ˤ⽆哉㮷䘬䞼䨞ᷕ炻⎗㍐婾ㆹ⚳ᷕ⮷⬠㔁ⷓṵ㚱䚠䔞 ⣂㔠婌娵䁢柀⮶⎒㗗㟉攟ㆾᷣả䘬ḳ炻侴㔁ⷓ㗗⎴ḳ炻㰺㚱⽭天忚埴冯㍍⍿㇨媪䘬 㔁⬠柀⮶ˤ 冢⊿ⶪᷕ⮷⬠㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎冒⽆㮹⚳ 88 ⸜攳⥳夷∫ˣ90 ⸜攳⥳㍐≽ẍἮ炻 ὧ㗗㉙叿㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬㤪⾝炻怠㉼屯㶙⃒列㔁ⷓ➡㢵℞㔁ⷓ柀⮶㕡朊䘬傥慷炻᷎㍸ὃ 㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⛐㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᶲ䘬㨇㚫冯准冢炻ẩ⚾䘤㎖➢Ⰼ㔁ⷓ⍫冯㔁做㓡朑䘬≃ 慷ˤ㟡㒂⻝⽟扛冯⻝䳈”炷2010炸ᷳ䞼䨞炻ẍ⍫冯冢⊿ⶪᷕ⮷⬠㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎ 䘬⬠㟉䁢㕥㷔⮵尉炻冢⊿ⶪ㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬㔜橼⸛⛯䁢 4.67炻⛐䘤⯽㊯⺽ˣ偗⭂娵⎴ˣ

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⮰㤕冒ᷣˣ⎴₽⋼≑ˣℙ⎴⍫冯ˣ攳㓦㹅忂⍲㚱⇑䑘⠫䫱⎬⎹⹎䘬⸛⛯↮㔠ṳ⛐ 4.50~4.75炻ẍℕ溆慷堐侴妨炻㬌慷堐⼿↮Ⱄᷕ檀⹎堐䎦炻栗䣢冢⊿ⶪ㔁ⷓ㇨䞍奢䘬 㔁ⷓ柀⮶䎦㱩怬䬿ᶵⶖˤ⚈㬌炻冢⊿ⶪ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ㇨㑼ả䘬㔁ⷓ柀⮶䴻槿ㅱ娚㚱 㶙ℍ㍊妶ᷳ₡ῤˤ

ΠȃఀৱሴᏲϞཎဎᇄϱొ!

炷ᶨ炸㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳシ佑 㔁ⷓ柀⮶彬Ṳṵ㛒㚱㖶䡢ˣᶨ农⿏䘬⭂佑炻忈ㆸ㔁做⚰⢾䘬Ṣ⢓炻䓂军㔁做⬠ 侭⮰⭞炻ḇ㛒傥⃭↮㌴㎉㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬㤪⾝炷悕様⯽炻2007炸ˤἳ⤪烉Patterson 冯 Patterson 炷2004炸娵䁢㔁ⷓ柀⮶Ὢ㔁ⷓ⎴₽ᷳ⎰ἄ炻℞䚖䘬⛐㓡┬㔁冯⬠炻ᶵ婾柀⮶侭㗗⏎ ℟⁁㬋⺷ㆾ朆㬋⺷借ỵ烊Katzenmeyer 冯 Moller炷2009炸⇯ᷣ⻝㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭⛐㔁⭌ℏ ␴崭崲㔁⭌ᷳ⢾忚埴柀⮶炻ṾᾹ娵⎴㔁ⷓ㗗⬠佺侭ˣ柀⮶侭䘬䣦佌炻⼙枧℞Ṿ㔁ⷓ ᶨ⎴㓡忚㔁做⮎⊁炻⎴㗪㍍⍿忼ㆸ柀⮶䳸㝄䘬屔ả烊ᶩᶨ栏冯⻝⽟扛炷2009炸㍸↢ 㔁ⷓ柀⮶㗗㔁ⷓ⋼≑㔁ⷓ䘬㬟䦳炻Ṏ⌛炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶Ὢ⛐㖊⭂䘬䳬䷼䚖㧁ㆾ䳬䷼栀㘗 ᶳ炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭忳䓐⼙枧≃炻冯℞Ṿ㔁ⷓℙ⎴⎰ἄˣ䚠Ḻ㓗㎜冯⬠佺ˣᶨ崟㓡忚㔁 做炻ℙ⎴䁢㍸⋯⬠䓇⬠佺冯ㆸ㓰屈屔ˤ 㛔㔯ἄ侭㟡㒂㔯䌣㍊妶䳸㝄⮯㔁ⷓ柀⮶⭂佑䁢ˬ㔁ⷓὅ℞㬋⺷借ỵㆾẍ朆㬋⺷ 䘬㕡⺷炻⛐㔁⭌ℏ炻䈡⇍㗗崭崲㔁⭌ᷳ⢾炻届䌣㕤㖊㗗⬠佺侭ḇ㗗柀⮶侭䘬䣦佌炻 ⼙枧ṾṢᶨ⎴㓡忚㔁做⮎⊁炻忚侴㍸⋯⬠䓇⬠佺䘬㬟䦳ˤ˭⊭⏓ᶳ↿Ḽᾳ天溆烉䫔 ᶨ炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶㗗㔁ⷓ䘤㎖⼙枧≃䘬㬟䦳烊䫔Ḵ炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶⎗ẍ䘤䓇⛐㬋⺷借ỵᶲ炻 㚜⎗ẍ䘤䓇⛐朆㬋⺷借ỵᶲ烊䫔ᶱ炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶⎗ẍ䘤䓇⛐㔁ⷓ㇨Ⱄ䘬㔁⭌ℏ炻Ữ㚜 塓㛇⼭傥崘↢㔁⭌䘤㎖㬋⎹䘬⼙枧≃烊䫔⚃炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬庫Ἓ䭉忻Ὢ⛐ˬ⬠佺侭␴ 柀⮶侭䘬䣦佌˭炷a community of learners and leaders炸烊䫔Ḽ炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶᷎ᶵ㗗䁢Ḯ柀 ⮶侴柀⮶䘬炻侴㗗天屈㚱䷦㓰屔ả䘬ȹȹ㓡┬㔁做⮎⊁炻忚侴㍸⋯⬠䓇⬠佺䘬ㆸ㓰ˤ

炷Ḵ炸㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳℏ㵝

⚳⢾ Dickerson炷2003炸ˣDiMaggio炷2007炸ˣWest炷2008炸⍲ Phillips炷2009炸䫱 ⣂ỵ⬠侭㍸↢Ḯ㔁ⷓ柀⮶㵝味䘤⯽㊯⺽ˣ偗⭂娵⎴ˣ⮰㤕冒ᷣˣ⎴₽⋼≑ˣℙ⎴⍫ 冯ˣ攳㓦㹅忂⍲㚱⇑䑘⠫䫱ℏ㵝ˤ

⚳ℏṎ㚱䞼䨞侭㍸↢㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬ℏ㵝炻⤪烉㜿㫋₨炷2009炸娵䁢㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬ℏ 㵝䁢㍸⋯⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ㝄ˣ㉻⯽㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䞍傥ˣὫ忚⎴₽⎰ἄ㓡┬ˣ⍫冯⬠㟉埴㓧㰢

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⭂烊昛㵹⏃炷2010炸㍸↢㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬ℏ㵝⊭㊔婚䦳柀⮶ˣ㔁⬠柀⮶ˣ⮰㤕⬠佺䣦佌 䘬䘤⯽ˣ⬠㟉Ⰼ䳂㰢䫾䘬⍫冯ˣ䳬䷼㹅忂冯⋼婧ˣ屯㸸㍸ὃ冯䴙㔜ˤ 㬠䲵⚳ℏ⢾䚠斄䞼䨞炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬ℏ㵝⎗ẍ⽆䎕䳂ˣ⎴ḳˣ⬠㟉⍲㟉⢾⚃ᾳⰌ 朊≈ẍ婾徘烉烀.⛐䎕䳂Ⰼ朊炻㔁ⷓ⛐冒⶙㔁⬠ⲿỵ䘬柀⮶㗗㚨➢㛔䘬㔁ⷓ柀⮶炻℞ 柀⮶桐㟤㚫⼙枧䎕䳂㯋㯃⍲⬠䓇ㆸ⯙炻㔁ⷓ⛐㔁⭌ᷕ昌Ḯ㈖㺼ˬ㔁⬠侭˭ˣˬ庼⮶侭˭ ⢾炻Ṏ塓㛇⼭傥⽆ḳ冯冒⶙⮰㤕ⶍἄ㚱斄䘬埴≽䞼䨞ⶍἄ烊烁.⛐⎴ḳⰌ朊炻㔁ⷓ柀 ⮶侭㚨ⷠ㈖㺼⮰㤕䘤⯽Ὣ忚侭䘬奺刚炻㹅忂⋼婧ˣ嗽䎮堅䨩炻䘤㎖⎴₽庼⮶炷peer coaching炸䘬≇傥烊烂.⛐⬠㟉Ⰼ朊炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭㌴㎉㔁做㓡朑䘬傰≽炻德忶䚠斄䘬 㚫嬘⍫冯㟉⊁䘬䘤⯽冯㰢⭂炻ἄ䁢埴㓧冯㔁ⷓᷳ攻㹅忂䘬㧳㦹烊烃.⛐㟉⢾Ⰼ朊炻㔁 ⷓ柀⮶侭⽆ḳ㟉⢾婚䦳䘤⯽ㆾ侭ⷞ柀⛀昲↮ṓ⮰㤕ㆸ攟寸䡑ㆸ㝄䫱炻ㆸ䁢Ṿ㟉㓰㱽 䘬㤟㧉ˤ

έȃఀৱሴᏲޱϞี௨ȃஉଋᇄี৤!

Moir 冯 Bloom炷2003炸㚦㊯↢伶⚳≈ⶆˬ俾⟼⃳欗勚㕘㔁ⷓ㕡㟰˭炷Santa Cruz New Teacher Project炸ᷳ㇨ẍㆸ≇炻℞斄挝ὧ㗗㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䘬♜㟤怜怠⍲➡妻䘤⯽ˤ ⬠㟉埴㓧Ṣ⒉⍲㔁ⷓ⎴ṩ⛐怜怠℟㚱㼃≃䘬㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭㗪炻Katzenmeyer 冯 Moller炷2009炸㍸ὃᶱᾳ夷㸾⎗ὃ⍫侫烉烀.㗗傥⸡䘬炷competent炸炻烁.㗗⎗ᾉ岜䘬 炷credible炸炻烂.㗗⸛㖻役Ṣ䘬炷approachable炸ˤ Ault炷2009炸娵䁢㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䘬䈡岒㗗⇞⹎㍐≽䘬慵天⚈䳈炻⚈㬌㍸↢⚃枭Ṣ㟤 䈡岒ἄ䁢㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䘬怜怠夷㸾⍲➡妻婚䦳䘬ℏ⭡烉烀.㗗斄㆟䘬炷consideration炸ȹȹ 冯Ṣ⺢䩳列⤥䘬Ṣ晃斄Ὢ炻烁.㗗⮔⣏␴冒䓙䘬炷tolerance and freedom炸ȹȹ栀シ↮ ṓ柀⮶␴㰢䫾㪲炻烂.傥 䳸㥳⿏䘬┇≽炷initiation of structure炸ȹȹ栀シ㍍⍿㊹㇘᷎ 䵕嬟⎴ṩ檀㯜㸾堐䎦炻烃.傥⣈婧妋炷demand reconciliation炸——栀シ嗽䎮堅䨩ˤ

LiebermanˣSaxl 冯 Miles炷1988炸娵䁢㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭ㅱ℟⁁䧵㤝嬲朑䘬傥≃炻⊭ ㊔ 烉 傥 ⣈ 烀 . ⺢ 䩳 ᾉ ả 冯 斄 ㆟ 炷 building trust and rapport 炸炻 烁 . 忚 埴 䳬 ䷼ 姢 㕟 炷organizational diagnosis炸炻烂.嗽䎮㔜ᾳ忶䦳炷dealing with process炸炻烃.忳䓐屯㸸 炷using resources炸炻烄.䭉䎮ⶍἄ炷managing the work炸炻烅.⋼≑㔁ⷓ➡梲傥≃冯冒ᾉ 炷building skill and confidence in others炸ˤ

䁢Ḯ㚱㓰➡妻⍲䘤⯽㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭炻Katzenmeyer 冯 Moller炷2009炸㍸↢ˬ㔁ⷓ柀 ⮶䘤⯽㧉⺷˭炷leadership development for teacher˳LDT˴炸炻⤪⚾ 1 ㇨䣢炻Ṏ⌛㔁ⷓ柀 ⮶侭⽭枰⃰⽆姽Ộ冒⶙攳⥳炻忚侴㌴㎉⬠㟉嬲朑䘬傰䴉炻䃞⼴䱦䅇⼙枧䫾䔍炻ㇵ傥

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⚾ 1 㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘤⯽㧉⺷

屯㕁Ἦ㸸烉ȾAwakening the sleeping giant: Helping teachers develop

as leaders,ȿby M. Katzenmeyer & G. Moller, 2009, p. 58.

㍉⍾㚱㓰䘬埴≽妰䔓ˤ 䵄⎰ᶲ徘炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭㇨暨㡅ẞ炻⎗ẍ⽆柀⮶侭䘬Ṣ㟤䈡岒⍲傥≃ℑ㕡朊忚埴 ㍊妶ˤ⯙Ṣ㟤悐↮⽭枰㗗斄㆟䘬ˣ攳㓦䘬ˣ栀シ↮ṓ䘬ˣῤ⼿ᾉả䘬烊⯙傥≃㕡朊 ⽭枰℟⁁ẌṢᾉ㚵䘬㔁⬠㓰傥ˣ㬋䡢䘬柀⮶ᾉ⾝ˣ⎴ṩ㍍⍿䘬柀⮶㕡⺷冯㚱㓰䘬嬲 朑柀⮶䫾䔍炻᷎傥姢㕟⓷柴ˣ㹅忂⋼婧ˣ嗽䎮堅䨩ˤ㬌⢾炻⮵冒⶙ˣ⮵⬠㟉悥㚱㶭 㤂䘬娵嬀炻傥⣈䡢↯㌴㎉⬠㟉嬲朑䘬怑䔞㗪㨇炻┇≽冯ᶵ㕟ᾖ㬋埴≽妰䔓ˤ㔁ⷓ柀 ⮶侭䘬➡妻冯䘤⯽炻⌛憅⮵⇵徘暨㯪炻忚埴婚䦳䘬夷∫冯➟埴ˤ

ѲȃఀৱሴᏲϞኇ៪Ӱશ!

⼙枧㔁ⷓ柀⮶忳ἄ䘬⚈䳈⼰⣂炻ἳ⤪烉㟉攟䘬柀⮶埴䁢炷Murphy, 2005炸ˣ㔁ⷓ 柀⮶侭䘬Ṣ㟤䈡岒炷Ault, 2009炸冯柀⮶㕡⺷炷Lambert, 2003炸ˣ⬠㟉䘬䳬䷼䳸㥳 炷Lieberman & Miller, 2004; York-Barr & Duke, 2004炸ˣ⬠㟉䘬䳬䷼㔯⊾炷Fullan, 1995; York-Barr & Duke, 2004炸ẍ⍲⬠㟉䘬柀⮶㓗㊩䲣䴙炷⻝⽟扛炻2010炸䫱炻ẍᶳ↮⇍ 䯉徘ᷳ烉 㓡嬲⬠㟉 ㆹ⛐⒒墉烎 ᾳṢ姽Ộ ㆹ㗗婘烎 ⼙枧䫾䔍 ㆹ⤪ỽ柀⮶烎 埴≽妰䔓 ㆹ傥 Ṩ湤烎

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炷ᶨ炸㟉攟䘬柀⮶埴䁢 Murphy炷2005炸ᷣ⻝㟉攟㚱⽭天慵揬柀⮶炷recasting leadership炸炻侴㭼庫怑⎰㔁 ⷓ 柀 ⮶ 䘬 㟉 攟 柀 ⮶ 埴 䁢 Ὢ 廱 ✳ 柀 ⮶ 炷 transformational leadership 炸 冯 ⁔ ⊾ 柀 ⮶ 炷facilitative leadership炸炻Ṏ⌛㟉攟⤪℟㚱櫭≃炻᷎傥溻准Ṣ⽫ˣ㘢⿏┇䘤ˣᾳ⇍斄 ㆟ˣ⃳㚵屯㸸旸⇞ˣ⺢䩳⛀昲ˣ㍸ὃ⚆棳ˣ⋼婧␴䭉䎮堅䨩炻⇯㚱⇑㕤㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ ㍐≽ˤFullan炷2002炸娵䁢㟉攟ᷣ天㗗㈖㺼㔁⬠柀⮶侭䘬奺刚炻㽨⊝᷎㓗㊩㔁ⷓ届䌣 ⽫≃ẍ㍸⋯⬠䓇䘬ㆸ⯙␴⬠佺烊Thornton炷2010炸⇯㍸↢㟉攟㚨⤥傥⣈䎮妋᷎㓗㊩㟉 ℏ℞ṾṢ䘬柀⮶炻Ṏ⌛䛇㬋冯℞Ṿ㔁ⷓℙṓ柀⮶炷truly share leadership with their teachers炸ˤ

炷Ḵ炸㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䘬Ṣ㟤䈡岒冯柀⮶㕡⺷

Ault炷2009炸娵䁢䓙㕤㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭⼨⼨᷎㛒℟㚱㱽⭂借㪲炻⚈㬌㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭冯⎴ ₽ᷳ攻㭷㖍䘬Ḻ≽斄Ὢ炻⍾㰢℞Ṣ㟤䈡岒㗗⏎䁢℞Ṿ㔁ⷓ㇨㍍⍿炻㗗㓭Ṣ㟤䈡岒㗗 ⼙枧䘬⚈䳈ᷳᶨˤLudlow炷2011炸⺽䓐ˬ㔁ⷓ柀⮶㍊䨞倗⎰㚫˭炷Teacher Leadership Exploratory Consortium炸㇨㍸↢䘬ˬ℠䭬㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䘬㧁㸾˭炷Model Teacher Leader Standards炸炻娵䁢㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭⽭枰℟⁁⍵⿅⍲⎰ἄ䘬Ṣ㟤䈡岒ˤ 㬌⢾炻Lambert炷2003炸㍸↢ᶨᾳ㢵➢㕤ˬ斄Ὢˣ䣦佌ˣ⬠佺␴䚖䘬˭䘬ˬ⺢㥳 柀⮶˭炷constructivist leadership炸炻⤡娵䁢㔁ⷓ柀⮶᷎朆㗗ᶨᾳ奺刚炻侴㗗ᶨ䧖埴䁢ȹȹ 傥⣈Ὣἧ䣦佌⍫冯侭⛐ᾉả䘬䑘⠫ᷕ㽨䘤㼃傥炻傥⣈婧㞍ḳ⮎䛇䚠炻傥⣈倂䃎㕤シ 佑䘬⺢㥳炻᷎傥⣈㟡㒂朑㕘シ⚾⍣⟹忈埴䁢ˤ 炷ᶱ炸⬠㟉䘬䳬䷼䳸㥳 Lieberman 冯 Miller炷2004炸娵䁢䥹Ⰼ橼⇞䘬䳬䷼䳸㥳炻᷎ᶵ⇑㕤㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬䘤⯽炻 ⚈䁢㚫嬻㔁ⷓ娵䁢忁㗗↢㕤埴㓧天㯪㇨⢾≈䘬ⶍἄˤỮ㗗⤪㝄㗗ẍ㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽䣦佌 䘬㕡⺷㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶炻侩ⷓ㚫奢⼿忁㗗徥㯪㔁ⷓ⮰㤕ㆸ攟⽭枰 䘬ⶍἄ炻⍿⇘䘬旣≃ Ṏ㚫㷃⮹ˤThornton炷2010炸㍸↢⮰㤕⬠佺䣦佌炷professional learning community炸㗗 ⎗ẍ嶐崲ᶵ⎴⛀昲᷎崭崲⸜䳂䓴䶂䘬䳬䷼炻⛐㝸㕡朊傥⣈㘖⍲㔁ⷓ柀⮶ˤ

炷⚃炸⬠㟉䘬䳬䷼㔯⊾

Thornton炷2010炸㊯↢䇚Ḯ徥㯪⬠㟉䘬忚㬍炻㔁ⷓ␴埴㓧橼䲣⽭枰㗗ᶨ崟⎰ἄ᷎ ᶼℙ∝シ佑ˤFullan炷1995炸Ṏ㍸⍲ᶨ佌Ṣᶨ崟ⶍἄ侴朆ᾳ⇍ⶍἄ炻忁㧋傥⣈⺢䩳崟 ⎰ἄ䘬㔯⊾炷collaborative culture炸炻ḇ傥⣈㓗㊩⣂㧋ン䘬柀⮶㕡⺷冯䳸㥳炻侴ᶼḇ㬋

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㗗慵⟹⬠㟉㔯⊾㇨暨天䘬ˤ 炷Ḽ炸⬠㟉䘬柀⮶㓗㊩䲣䴙 ⻝⽟扛炷2010炸㊯↢㟉攟天ヶ怠ˣ➡妻㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭炻ẍ⍲溻⊝㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭㍍⍿ 柀⮶䘬ả⊁ˤ㟉攟昌Ḯ㑼ả㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䘬ˬⷓ‭˭炷mentor炸ㆾˬ㔁䶜˭炷coach炸⢾炻 㚜慵天䘬㗗㟉攟傥怑㗪䘤䎦㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䘬⚘⠫᷎⍲㗪Ỡ↢㎜ㇳ炻ᶵỮ䴎Ḱ㔁ⷓ柀⮶ 侭䈑岒炷⤪䴎Ḱ柀⮶㳍層ㆾ揀溆屣炸⍲朆䈑岒ᶲ炷⤪䣦㚫⛘ỵ冯㥖嬥炸䘬婀⚈炻㚜 ㅱ⛐㬋⺷冯朆㬋⺷⟜⎰䴻ⷠ偗⭂㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭⮵㕤⬠㟉⍲⎴ṩ䘬届䌣ˤ

ϤȃఀৱሴᏲϞԙਝᇄ֨ც!

Katzenmeyer 冯 Moller炷2009炸⽆⚃ᾳ奨溆Ἦ婾徘㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬⎰䎮⿏␴⽭天⿏烉 炷ᶨ炸㔁ⷓ柀⮶⎗ẍ⺢䩳䳬䷼⬠佺䘬傥慷炻✳⟹⬠佺✳⬠㟉烊炷Ḵ炸ẍ㔁ⷓ⎴₽䚠Ḻ 柀 ⮶ 炻 ⺢ 䩳 ⬠ 㟉 㗗 ᶨ ᾳ 㮹 ᷣ 䣦 㚫 䘬 㧉 䭬 烊炷 ᶱ 炸 㔁 ⷓ 柀 ⮶ ⎗ ẍ ⡆ 㪲 岎 傥 㔁 ⷓ 炷empowering teacher炸炻㒜⣏㪲≃➢䢶炻䘤㎖㪲≃↮ṓ䘬㓰䙲烊炷⚃炸溻⊝㔁ⷓ㏺昌 ⮰㤕⬌䩳炻⻟⊾㔁ⷓ⮰㤕ᷣ佑ˤ Katzenmeyer 冯 Moller炷2009炸忚ᶨ㬍㬠䲵⣂⸜䘬⮎嫱䞼䨞冯⮎⊁㍐⺋䴻槿炻㊯ ↢㔁ⷓ柀⮶℟㚱㍸⋯⮰㤕㓰傥デˣ䔁ỷ⋻崲㔁ⷓˣ⻟⊾䓇㵗䘤⯽ˣ㓡┬冒ㆹ堐䎦ˣ ⼙枧℞Ṿ㔁ⷓˣ⡆⻟㔁ⷓ䷦㓰屔ảˣ⃳㚵⮵朑㕘䘬㉝㈿ˣ⍲䵕㊩嬲朑䘬㊩临≃䫱ℓ ᾳ㓰䙲ˤ ⃀䭉㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶㚱℞ᶨ⭂䘬≇㓰炻Ữ暋⃵㚫怕忯劍⸚⚘⠫ˤMurphy炷2005炸 冯 Smyser炷1995炸䘮㊯↢㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭ⷠ枰㈧㑼㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬墯暄ả⊁⌣仢᷷㔁ⷓ柀⮶ 䘬䞍傥ㆾ㈨ⶏ炻侴仢᷷借⇵➡妻炻ẍ⍲➡妻⼴䘬㊩临䘤⯽炻䘬䡢㗗㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬㍐≽ ⚘⠫ᷳᶨˤ ょ㔁ⷓ柀⮶㛔岒ᶲ㗗ˬ䓙ᶳ侴ᶲ˭炷bottom up炸䘬㔁做㓡朑炻庫仢᷷ˬ䓙ᶲ侴ᶳ˭ 炷top down炸䘬㓡朑㓰䌯␴ℐ朊㘖⍲⿏ˤ⚈㬌炻⬫䘬ㆸ㓰⎗傥庫䃉㱽䩳䪧夳⼙炻⎗傥 枰天䶑ㄊ㻠忚䳗䧵䘬㬟䦳炻ㇵ傥㘖⍲军⎬ᾳ⬠㟉炻⚈㬌䈡⇍枰天㓡朑侭䘬侸⽫䫱⼭ˤ ⎎⢾炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬⮎㕥⼨⼨⍿旸㕤⬠㟉䳬䷼䘬䥹Ⰼ橼⇞炷Darling-Hammond, 1988炸ˣᾳṢᷣ佑ᶼᾅ⬰⮩攱䘬⬠㟉㔯⊾炷Lortie, 1975; Smylie & Hart, 1999炸ˣ㟉攟 㪲⦩䌐㕟䘬柀⮶㕡⺷炷Murphy, 2005炸ˣ㔁ⷓ⎴ṩ䘬㈿㉺炷Hart, 1994炸ˣ㔁ⷓ㗪攻㚱 旸ᶼ㔁⬠屈㑼㰰慵炷LeBlanc & Shelton, 1997炸ˣ㽨⊝冯婀⚈ᶵ嵛炻ẍ农㔁ⷓᶵ栀シ㑼 ả柀⮶侭炷York-Barr & Duke, 2004炸ˣṢ≃⍲䈑≃㓗㎜ᶵ嵛炷Little, 1987炸ˣẍ⍲㔁ⷓ 柀⮶侭➡做妻䶜䘤⯽ᶵ嵛炷Katzenmeyer & Moller, 2009炸䫱慵慵⓷柴冯㊹㇘ˤ

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୤ȃंـ೩ॎᇄᄂࢊ!

ΙȃंـПݲᇄंـᄇຫ!

㛔䞼䨞ᷣ天德忶姒婯㱽吸普屯㕁炻㬠䲵䞼䨞䘤䎦ˤ䞼䨞⮵尉㍉䩳シ⍾㧋炻䓙䞼 䨞⮷䳬ㆸ⒉䴻ℑ㫉⮰㟰㚫嬘炻⽆冢⊿ⶪ㚦䴻㑼ả忶㔁⬠⮶ⷓ᷎㑼ả㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭奺 刚炻ᶼ㚱⃒列堐䎦ᷳ㔁ⷓᷕ怠⍾ 16 ỵ⍿姒侭炻℞ᷕ 8 ㇨⚳⮷㔁ⷓˣ4 ㇨⚳ᷕ㔁ⷓ⍲ 4 ㇨檀ᷕ㔁ⷓ烊姒婯侭⊭㊔ 3 ỵ徨ẹ⚳⮷ᷣảˣ1 ỵ⚳⮷ᷣảˣ1 ỵ⚳⮷㟉攟⍲ 2 ỵ ⣏⬠㔁ⷓˤ忁ṃ⚳⮷ᷣả⍲㟉攟悥㚦㑼ả忶㔁⬠⮶ⷓ᷎㑩㚱䡑⢓⬠ỵ炻⮎⊁䴻槿寸 ⭴᷎℟䞼䨞㟡➢ˤ姒婯㗪攻ˣ姒婯侭ˣ⍿姒侭屯㕁⍲䶐䡤⤪堐 1 ㇨䣢炻⍿姒侭‹↢ 堐䎦⤪堐 2 ㇨䣢ˤ 堐 1 姒婯⮵尉䚠斄屯㕁ᶨ奥堐 ⍿姒侭ẋ嘇点 ⬠㟉 ⍿姒侭借䧙 姒婯侭 姒婯㖍㛇 䶐䡤 E1 ⚳⮷ ⮶ⷓ C 100.1.03 E11000103 E2 ⚳⮷ 㔠⬠䥹柀➇⎔普Ṣ C 100.1.10 E21000110 E3 ⚳⮷ 婆㔯䥹柀➇⎔普Ṣ C 100.2.14 E31000214 E4 ⚳⮷ 㔁做屯㸸ᷕ⽫ᷣả D 100.1.03 E41000103 E5 ⚳⮷ 劙婆䥹柀➇㔁ⷓ D 100.1.19 E51000119 E6 ⚳⮷ 㔁⊁ᷣả G 100.1.04 E61000104 E7 ⚳⮷ ⮶ⷓ G 100.1.21 E71000121 E8 ⚳⮷ ⮶ⷓ G 100.6.14 E81000614 J1 ⚳ᷕ 㔁⊁ᷣả A 100.1.10 J11000110 J2 ⚳ᷕ 㔁⬠䳬攟 B 100.1.24 J21000124 J3 ⚳ᷕ ⚳㔯侩ⷓ B 100.1.28 J31000128 J4 ⚳ᷕ ⮶ⷓ D 100.1.04 J41000104 S1 檀ᷕ 㔠⬠䥹ả㔁ⷓ E 100.1.03 S11000103 S2 檀ᷕ 㔁⊁ᷣả F 100.1.02 S21000102 S3 檀ᷕ ⚳㔯䥹ả㔁ⷓ F 100.1.13 S31000113 S4 檀⓮ ⚳晃屧㖻䥹㔁ⷓ F 100.1.03 S41000103 姣烉点 E ẋ堐⚳⮷烊J ẋ堐⚳ᷕ烊S ẋ堐檀ᷕˤ

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堐 2 姒婯⮵尉柀⮶‹↢堐䎦ᶨ奥堐 ⍿姒侭ẋ嘇 ⍿姒侭䯉ṳ E1 㥖䌚 2009 ⸜冢⊿ⶪ䈡㬲⃒列㔁ⷓ␴冢⊿ⶪ䫔 39 ⯮ᷕ⮷⬠䥹⬠⯽奥㚫⃒列㊯⮶㔁ⷓ炻⋩ ⸜⇵攳⥳▿娎ⷞ柀ᶨᾳẍ䓇␥㔁做䁢ᷣ䘬ⶍἄ⛲炻㚜䧵㤝⍫≈⬠㟉䘬㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䣦 佌炻ⷞ柀䵄⎰柀➇䘬侩ⷓᶨ崟⮰㤕ㆸ攟ˤ E2 㔠⬠柀➇⎔普Ṣ炻⮯丒㛔㓭ḳ圵忚㔠⬠婚䦳炻ⷞ柀㔠⬠柀➇䘬侩ⷓᶨ崟䶐⮓⬠㟉䈡刚婚 䦳炻᷎㚱㓰ⷞ柀㕘ㇳ㔁ⷓ炻⣏⣏㍸⋯⬠䓇⬠佺ㆸ㓰ˤ E3 ℟㚱⍵⿅傥≃冯∝㕘㔁⬠シ栀䘬婆㔯柀➇⎔普Ṣ炻䞼䘤∝㕘婆㔯㔁⬠䫾䔍炻ⷞ柀教嬨ⶍ ἄ⛲炻ⷞ≽⎴₽ᶨ崟⮰㤕ㆸ攟炻᷎㑼ảᷕ⣖婆㔯㔁⬠庼⮶⛀䘬⛀⒉炻嵹念冢䀋⎬䷋ⶪ⮷ ⬠炻ẍˬ䎦幓婒㱽˭䘬㕡⺷↮ṓ䴻槿炻⸓≑⎬䷋ⶪ侩ⷓ㓡忚婆㔯㔁⬠ˤ E4 㚱㓰㍐≽䞍嬀䭉䎮炻⺢伖↮ṓ⸛冢炻⋼≑㔁ⷓ┬䓐㔠ỵ㔁㛸炻ㆸ䁢㔁⬠㳣≽䘬㓗㎜䪁␴ 婚䦳∝シ䘬≈ⶍ䪁炻䓓⬴ㆸℐ⚳椾∝ˣ冢⊿䫔ᶨ䘬⣂≇傥 e ⊾㔁⭌ˤ E5 ẍ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䁢➢䢶炻䧵㤝⍫冯㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽姽揹炻⛐℞ⷞ柀䘬劙婆柀➇炻㚱朆ⷠ⋻ 崲䘬⛀昲堐䎦炻⤪劙婆㶙侽教嬨妰䔓ˣˬ㱽⯤⢓炷Phonics炸劙婆教嬨櫼㱽⬠昊˭ˣ劙婆㔁 ⬠䥹㈨⊾䫱ˤ E6 㚵⊁䘬⬠㟉晾䃞⛘嗽ῷ怈炻Ữ㔁ⷓ⍫≈⮰㤕姽揹䘬㭼䌯檀忼 100%炻99 ⸜⹎㚜䌚⼿冢⊿ ⶪ㔁ⷓ埴≽䞼䨞㭼岥⛀橼䳬䫔ᶱ⎵炻侴 E6 ᷣả㬋㗗柀⮶忁佌㔁ⷓ徥徸㔁做⣊゛䘬慵天㍐ ㇳˤ E7 㑼ảℑ⯮㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⎔普Ṣˣ㔁ⷓ㚫㚫攟ˣ庼⮶䳬攟ˣ屯㕁䳬攟炻忁ṃ屯㬟嬻 E7 ⿅侫 ␐⺞ˣ䅙⽫≑Ṣ䘬㛔岒⯽曚䃉䔹炻晐㗪㸾⁁Ỡ↢㎜ㇳ炻㍸㓄枰天⸓≑䘬⼴忚炻⬠㟉㭷ỵ ⎴ṩ⮵℞㔁做䅙婈炻⛯⁛枴ᶵ⶚ˤ E8 农≃㕤⬠䓇䘬⑩⽟㔁做炻᷎䳸⎰䔞⛘䣦㚫Ṣ㔯桐厗炻䞼䘤悱⛇㔁㛸炻⺢㥳㟉㛔婚䦳炻㕤 冢⊿ⶪ㬟⯮埴≽䞼䨞ᷕⰊ䌚Ἓ䷦炻㚜㕤㮹⚳ 97 ⸜䌚⼿冢⊿ⶪ䈡㬲⃒列㔁ⷓˤ J1 㚵⊁䘬⬠㟉㕤 2009 ⸜岷⼿冢⊿ⶪ⃒岒⬠㟉ˬ⬠㟉㔯⊾˭⍲㔁ⷓˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭ℑ枭㬲㥖炻 ⎴⸜᷎忂忶冢⊿ⶪˬ㔁做 111 㧁䪧⬠㟉˭䘬娵嫱炻J1 䁢側⼴㚨慵天䘬曰櫪Ṣ䈑ˤ J2 ẍ℞㔁⬠䳬䘬㇘䔍⛘ỵ␴忶⼨媠⣂㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬䴻槿炻䴙㔜㍐≽⎬柀➇䘬㔁⬠㳣≽炻᷎㔜 ⎰㔁⬠庼⮶⛀昲ˣ㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽姽揹冯㔁ⷓ⮰㤕⬠佺䣦佌炻夷∫嵛ẍ㺧嵛⣂㔠侩ⷓ暨㯪 䘬㔁ⷓㆸ攟㳣≽ˤ J3 䥱㊩㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䘬ᶨ屓䎮⾝炻㛇姙冒⶙傥ㆸ䁢㍊䄏䅰炻䄏Ṗ冒⶙炻ḇ䄏Ṗ⎴ḳˣ⭞攟 ␴⬠䓇ˤ⮵⤡侴妨炻㔁⬠⯙⁷䓐⽫曰Ḻ≽䘬ᶨ椾㫴炻忁椾㫴㛔Ἦ⎒⛐ⷓ䓇ᷳ攻ⓙ␴炻侴 䎦⛐⇯⚈㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎䘬㨇䶋炻㚱㚜⣂Ṣᶨ崟⎰倚炻嬄↢䃉㔠㔁ⷓ⋼⎴⎰ἄ䘬㦪䪈ˤ J4 ὅ⽒㔁⬠䎦⟜⬠䓇䘬⍵ㅱ炻姽Ộ⚳ᷕ䓇婆㔯⬠佺䘬暨㯪炻冯㔁㌰ˣ⎴⤥ℙ⎴妶婾ˣ䞼䨞炻 ⍫冯Ḯ⣂㛔ἄ㔯㔁⬠䘬叿ἄ㑘⮓ˤ昌ḮᾳṢ婆㔯ᾖ梲䘬⯽䎦炻怬映映临临ⷞ柀⣍Ờ侩ⷓˣ ⎴柀➇㔁ⷓㆾ㔁ⷓ⮰㤕⬠佺䣦佌ㆸ⒉炻忚埴⎬枭埴≽䞼䨞␴∝㕘㔁⬠㳣≽炻䌚䋶䃉㔠ˤ S1 㥖䌚 12 ⯮䷦⃒⮶ⷓ炻⍫冯㔁做悐ᷣ彎ˬ㔁⬠⋻崲˭㥖䌚ˬ慹岒䋶˭炻㑼ả㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ炻 ∝㕘䞼䘤㔠⬠䥹㕘䇰墄⃭㔁㛸炻㍐≽㔠⬠屯⃒➡妻妰䔓炻⋼彎ˬ劙晬㥄˭㔠⬠䪞岥炻㊯ ⮶⬠䓇䌚⼿⚳晃⤏㜿⋡Ṇ屯妲㭼岥戨䇴䋶ˤ晾㛒ℤả埴㓧借⊁炻⌣㊩临ⷞ柀㔁ⷓ⛀昲䶈 忈↢姙⣂Ἓ䷦ˤ S2 ẍ㝼庇䘬⦧ン炻⣂⃫䘬㕡㱽炻層役ⷓ䓇䘬⽫炻ↅ倂↢崭㡺䘬㔁ⷓ⛀昲炻▿娎⮯婚㛔ᶲ䘬 䞍嬀炻廱⊾ㆸ䁢⣂⃫ˣ㳣㻹䘬∝シ㔁⬠炻㛇⼭嬻曺㗍⬠⫸Ᾱ⛐⾓㦪䘬ね⠫ᷕ炻橼㚫⬠佺 䘬㦪嵋ˤ S3 㑼ả婆㔯䎕㔁ⷓ⍲⎔普Ṣ炻ℤả冢⊿ⶪ⚳㔯䥹庼⮶䵚㔁ⷓ炻Ṏ䁢㔁做悐⚳婆㍐埴⥼⒉㚫厗 婆䳬⥼⒉ˣ㔁做悐⚳㔯⬠䥹ᷕ⽫⎔普Ṣˣ䧖⫸㔁ⷓ➡妻㔁ⷓˤ⮵㕤⚳㔯㔁⬠㔁㛸㔁㱽ˣ教嬨 㔁⬠ˣ⮓ἄ㔁⬠ˣ婚䦳姕妰悥㚱㶙ℍ䘬䞼䨞炻ᶵ㕟冒ㆹ䱦忚炻᷎㦪㕤冯㟉ℏ⢾⎴ṩ⁛㈧ ⍲↮ṓˤ S4 ⛐℞㚵⊁⬠㟉彎䎮㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ姕伖㕡㟰ˣ㔁ⷓ䓇␥ㆸ攟ⶍἄ⛲⍲嬨㚠㚫炻㍐≽㔁⬠㨼 㟰墥ἄ␴㔁ⷓ埴≽䞼䨞炻庼⮶⮎佺㔁ⷓ炻斄㆟㕘ả㔁ⷓ炻ẍ┬⺽┬炻嬻㟉⚺㚜≈㹓楐␴ 媏ˤ

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Πȃंـώڎᇄၥਟ೎౩!

䞼䨞ⶍ℟⃰ὅ㔯䌣㍊妶⍲䞼䨞䚖䘬䶐↿姒婯⣏䵙⇅䧧炻ℵ䴻Ḵ㫉⮰㟰㚫嬘妶婾 ⼴⭂䧧炻⊭⏓㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䘬䘤㍀ˣ➡妻冯䘤⯽ˣ⮎⊁忳ἄ炻ẍ⍲㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬ㆸ㓰冯 ⚘⠫ˣ⼙枧㔁ⷓ柀⮶忳ἄ䘬⚈䳈䫱Ḽ⣏⓷柴炷⤪旬抬炸ˤ 屯㕁嗽䎮↮䁢ℑ㬍樇烉椾⃰㩊㟠屯㕁ᷳᾉˣ㓰⹎炻ℵ忚埴屯㕁↮㜸ˤ姒婯⒉ᶨ 㕡朊忳䓐抬枛䫮姀抬姒婯ℏ⭡炻廱嬗ㆸ徸⫿䧧炻᷎婳⍿姒侭䡢娵屯㕁ᷳ㬋䡢⿏烊⎎ ᶨ㕡朊㕤⮰㟰㚫嬘ᷕ⟙⏲姒婯忶䦳炻䓙䞼䨞⛀昲ℙ⎴妶婾炻䘤䎦屯㕁ᶵ嵛㗪炻婳⍿ 姒侭ℵ㍸ὃỸ嫱㔯ẞ屯㕁炻⤪烉⮰㤕⬠佺䣦佌㚫嬘屯㕁ˣ⍫冯䪞岥䓛婳妰䔓㚠ˣ㟉 ⢾↮ṓ㺼嫃屯㕁䫱炻᷎忚ᶨ㬍姒婯⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ炻㍉䓐ᶱ奺㟉㬋炷triangulation炸≈ẍ㭼 ⮵炻ẍṌ⍱墯㟠屯㕁ᷳ㸾䡢⿏ˤ ġ ġ 屯㕁↮㜸㳩䦳䁢烉∫⭂↮㜸╖ỵˣ䘤⯽↮㜸栆䚖ˣ➟埴屯㕁䶐䡤ˣ嗽䎮↮栆屯 㕁ˣ㬠䲵冯忚埴䳸婾䡢娵ˤ℞ᷕ䶐䡤ℙ↮ᶱ昶㭝烉攳㓦⺷䶐䡤ˣ庠⽫⺷䶐䡤ˣ怠㑯 ⺷䶐䡤炷昛⎹㖶炻2002炸ˤ椾⃰炻憅⮵屯㕁忚埴⽖奨↮㜸炻忚埴攳㓦⺷䶐䡤ˤ㍍叿忚 埴庠⽫⺷䶐䡤炻⌛憅⮵攳㓦⺷䶐䡤㇨㔜䎮↢ᷳ㤪⾝忚埴斄倗䳬⎰炻⮯䚠⎴⿏岒ᷳ㤪 ⾝㬠䲵ㆸᶨᾳ㚜檀Ⰼ䳂ᷳ㤪⾝ˤ㚨⼴炻忳䓐庠⽫⺷䶐䡤㇨䘤⯽䘬㤪⾝ ᶨ㬠䲵炻⬴ ㆸ怠㑯⺷䶐䡤炻ἧ䎦尉⼿ẍ㚱シ佑䘬傰䴉⊾炻ἳ⤪烉⛐攳㓦⺷䶐䡤昶㭝↉㗗冯㔁ⷓ 柀⮶侭ⳃ崟㚱斄ᷳ姒婯屯㕁⃰㓦⛐ᶨ崟炻ℵ㟡㒂屯㕁⏰䎦䘬㤪⾝忚埴斄倗䳬⎰炻忚 侴䓊䓇㔁ⷓ柀⮶⇞⹎㍐≽ˣ䈡刚ˣ怜怠ˣ怜怠㡅ẞˣ⍿␥⍇⚈⍲㆟㉙䎮゛䫱庠⽫䶐 䡤ˤ㚨⼴㬠䲵⬴ㆸᷕ⮷⬠㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ側㘗䑘⠫ˣ㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䓊䓇ᷳ䦳⸷⍲㡅ẞˣ 㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭⍿␥ᷳ⚈冯㛇䚤䫱ᶱ枭怠㑯⺷䶐䡤ˤ

έȃंـগ౩!

䞼䨞侭昌≃㯪⭊奨↮㜸⟙⮶䞼䨞䳸㝄⢾炻Ṏ㲐慵䞼䨞ΐ䎮炻 䁢䞼䨞侭␴䞼䨞 ⮵尉䘬Ḻ≽㸾⇯ˤ㛔䞼䨞⍫侫昛⎹㖶炷2002炸⍲㜿⣑䣸炷2004炸ᷳᷣ⻝炻㕤䞼䨞忶 䦳ᷕ䥱㊩ẍᶳ⍇⇯炻ẍ䵕嬟䞼䨞⮵尉ᷳ㪲䙲烉 炷ᶨ炸冒栀⍇⇯烉䞼䨞侭㕤䞼䨞攳⥳⇵冯䞼䨞⮵尉䯥⭂姒婯⎴シ㚠ˣ⍿姒侭㪲⇑冯 佑⊁婒㖶㚠⍲叿ἄ㪲㬠Ⱄ⎴シ㚠ˤ 炷Ḵ炸⮲慵⍇⇯烉姒婯忶䦳ᷕ⤪⍿姒侭天㯪ᶵ天姜媠㔯⫿炻⛯⮲慵䔞ḳṢシ夳ˤ 炷ᶱ炸㬋䡢⍇⇯烉姒婯徸⫿䧧⬴ㆸ⼴炻⛯婳⍿姒侭ℵ㫉䡢娵㔯䧧ᷳ㬋䡢⿏炻᷎婳≈ ẍᾖ㬋ˤ

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炷⚃炸䤷䣱⍇⇯烉㛔䞼䨞Ὢ䁢寸⭴⚳ℏ㔁ⷓ柀⮶⮎⊁冯⬠埻ᷳ₡ῤ炻䳽朆䁢䞼䨞侴 䞼䨞ˤ

ဓȃ๖ݎᇄଆ፣!

ㆹ⚳ᷕ⮷⬠ね⠫晾㚱ᶵ⎴炻Ữ↮㜸姒婯㔯㛔⼴䘤䎦炻ᶵ婾㗗⛐㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ 側㘗䑘⠫炻ㆾ㗗㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䓊䓇ᷳ䦳⸷⍲㡅ẞˣ⍿␥ᷳ⍇⚈冯㛇䚤ˣ➡妻㕡⺷炻ㆾ 㗗㔁ⷓ柀⮶⛐⮎⊁ᶲᷳ㍐≽⍲℞ㆸ㓰䫱㕡朊炻ⶖ䔘⿏ᶵ⣏炻ᶼ⍿旸㕤䭯ⷭ䃉㱽↮⇍ 昛徘炻㓭ᶨἝ妶婾ˤ 䳸㝄妶婾Ὢẍ䞼䨞ᷣ柴㔁ⷓ柀⮶⮎晃忳ἄ㬟䦳炷⊭㊔㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䓊䓇ᷳ䦳⸷⍲ 㡅ẞˣ㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭ᷳ➡妻ˣ㔁ⷓ柀⮶⛐⮎⊁ᶲ㍐≽ᷳㆸ㓰炸ˣ⼙枧⚈䳈ˣẍ⍲㍐≽㔁 ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ⚘⠫⍲℞妋㰢ᷳ忻䁢ᷣ庠ˤ⎎≈庠⽫⺷䶐䡤⍲怠㑯⺷䶐䡤⼴ᷳℑ枭慵天䘤 䎦炷ᷕ⮷⬠㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ側㘗䑘⠫ˣ㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭⍿␥ᷳ⍇⚈冯㛇䚤炸忚埴妶婾炻 椾⃰㍸↢⎬枭䳸婾᷎㕤䳸婾⼴ẍ㊔嘇栗䣢㍸↢㬌䚳㱽ᷳ⍿姒侭炻ℵ㕤㫉㭝⏰䎦姒婯 徸⫿䧧≈ẍỸ嫱ˤ

ΙȃϛωᏰ௰ଢ଼ఀৱሴᏲϞधශᕗც!

炷ᶨ炸⋼≑㕘忚㔁ⷓ怑ㅱ䑘⠫ ⬠㟉朊冐徨ẹ㼖炻姙⣂㕘忚㔁ⷓ忚ℍ⬠㟉炻㟉㕡䁢⋼≑㕘忚㔁ⷓ怑ㅱ䑘⠫ˣ㓡 ┬㔁⬠⍲䎕䳂䴻䆇炻㓭㍐≽㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎炷E2ˣE4ˣE5ˣJ1ˣJ2ˣJ4 ⍲ S1炸ˤ Ԗ΋ݢଏҶዊǴ຾ٰ೚ӭཥ຾ԴৣǴӢࣁךॺ೭ঁ୔ୱКၨ੝ձǴ൩ࢂ১ ༈ৎ৥КၨӭǴৎ৥фૈόᄆޑ౜ຝКၨܴᡉǶԖ٤ཥ຾Դৣёૈόዕ஼ךॺ ೭ঁ୔ୱޑЎϯǴ຾Εډ೭ঁᕉნϐࡕჹܭ࠸ηޑ΋٤ރݩ܈੤ભ࿶ᔼ཮Ԗ΋ ٤֚ᘋǴ܌аགྷᙖҗ೭ኬޑ΋ঁڋࡋޑ௢୏Ǵ࣮ૈόૈڐշКၨԃᇸǵၗభޑǴ ܈ࢂᇥཥ຾ԴৣǴૈ୼Ԑ΋ᗺ຾Ε೭ঁᕉნǶȐE51000119ȑ 炷Ḵ炸㓡嬲⬠㟉䳬䷼㔯⊾㛅⮰㤕Ḻ≑㧉⺷䘤⯽ 㟉攟㚱⽫㓡朑忶㕤⬱忠ㆾᶵἛ䘬䳬䷼㔯⊾炻怑忊ᶨ㈡⽿⎴忻⎰䘬㔁ⷓ栀シẀ ↢炻㑼ả䧖⫸㔁ⷓ炻㚵⊁㕘忚⎴ṩ炷E2 ⍲ J2炸ˤ

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ཥ຾ԴৣډΑࢌঁᒤϦ࠻ǴόࢂᏢਠޑЎϯӧቹៜдǴԶࢂᒤϦ࠻ޑЎϯ ӧቹៜдǴךॺ࣮ӧ౳္ࡐᜤၸǴ൩ࢂдόૈࡐϦ҅Ӧѐय़ჹ٣௃ǴԶ೿௦ڗ КၨୃᐟޑБԄǾǾȐਠБȑ׆ఈᒤϦ࠻ޑЎϯόाεၸ΋ঁᏢਠᔈԖޑ҅य़ ܄ЎϯǴখӳ೭ঁਔং௲ᇶი໗ޑ൳Տ௲ৣ߿ܭઠрٰǴவനӃ຾ٰޑΓѐޔ ௗቹៜǴ൩ࢂᡣдॺૈ୼ࢂӧ΋ঁЍ࡭ǵϦ໒ฅࡕϕշޑኳԄϐΠԋߏǴᄌᄌ ޑעᏢਠޑЎϯ໒ۈ଺΋٤ᙯᡂǶȐJ21000124ȑ 炷ᶱ炸㍸⋯㔁⬠⑩岒 㗪ẋ嬲怟彭忇炻⬠䓇ᶵℵ⎒枰天側婎姀ㅞ䘬傥≃炻㔁ⷓ枰ẍ㕘䘬㔁⬠ℏ⭡⍲㕡 㱽炻➡梲⬠䓇ᷣ⮶⍲怑ㅱ⾓忇嬲怟䘬䣦㚫炷E7 ⍲ S3炸ˤ ך᝺ளԴৣॺჹܭ΋٤ཥޑܿՋ܈ࢂׯᡂǴځჴ೿཮্܂ǴӢࣁ௲ਜ㯍Φ Αдനεޑ੝Յ൩ࢂ࿶ᡍࡐᙦ൤ǴдޕၰᏢғ཮วғϙሶୢᚒǶёࢂך᝺ளԴ ৣޑӸӧόࢂѝԖޕၰୢᚒǵှ،ୢᚒǴԶЪୢᚒό΋ۓࢂд΋ঁΓှ،Ǵࢂ дၟᏢғ΋ଆٰ૸ፕ೭ঁୢᚒǴฅࡕ΋ଆགྷှ،БݤǾǾӢࣁ೭ঁਔж੿ޑᡂ ϼזΑǴԖਔংךॺคݤႣޕΜԃࡕШࣚ཮ᡂԋϙሶኬηǶȐS31000113ȑ 炷⚃炸性⃵⬠㟉怕㶀㰘 ⍿⇘⮹⫸⊾䘬⼙枧炻⬠㟉䎕䳂㔠扛㷃炻䓊䓇⌙㨇シ嬀ˤ惵⎰㔁做㓧䫾⎗ẍ䓛婳 䴻屣炻彎䎮䞼佺炻㍸⋯⬠㟉䪞䇕≃炻ẍ性⃵⬠㟉怕㶀㰘炷E3 ⍲ J3炸ˤ 70 ൳ԃǵ80 ԃٗਔং෧੤Ǵךॺ΋ࡋ෧ډഭΠ 9 ঁ੤Ƕฅࡕ೭ኬηޑ΋ঁ ௃ݩϐࡕǴࡐӭၗుԴৣдॺ൩Ԗ΋ঁᡏᇡǴ൩ࢂᇥךॺाᡣ೭ঁᏢਠӳଆٰǶ ȐB21000128ȑ

ΠȃఀৱሴᏲޱ౰ҡϞแוЅనӇ!

炷ᶨ炸ὅ㱽⭂䦳⸷彎䎮㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭ᷳ怜怠 ⎬㟉䘬䦳⸷⣏⎴⮷䔘炻椾⃰䓙㟉攟ㆾ㔁⊁ᷣả⃰⽝娊䫎⎰㡅ẞ䘬㔁ⷓシ栀炻ℵ ㍐啎军㚫嬘妶婾炻㚨⼴復㔁姽㚫忂忶炷E3ˣE6ˣE7ˣE8ˣJ1ˣJ4ˣS1ˣS2 ⍲ S4炸ˤ

(15)

΋ۓाᅈΖԃǴӆٰ൩ࢂǴдԖ୍ܺޑ዗וǴдԾρҁي൩ࢂ΋ঁ஑཰ԋ ߏޑኳጄғǴᜫཀٰᏼҺሦᓐԲǴ஥ሦځдΓ߻຾Ƕךॺ཮Ӄѐቻ၌ჹБޑཀ ـǴёаΑǴךॺӆ௢ᙚǴฅࡕӆҗ௲஑௢୏λಔޑԋ঩Ǵ΋ଆٰ૸ፕǹ૸ፕ ֹΑǴӆଌ๏௲ຑ཮ǶȐE61000104ȑ 炷Ḵ炸䡢娵㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭⃒岒ᷳ怜怠㡅ẞ 㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭昌Ḯ㔁⬠䴻槿寸⭴ˣ⮰㤕⬠䥹⼰⻟ᷳ⢾炻怬⽭枰⼊尉⤥ˣ⎋䠹Ἓ炷E1ˣ S1炸炻⃭↮䁢ṾṢ㇨ᾉả炷E8ˣS2炸炻㦪㕤↮ṓ⍲斄㆟炷E2ˣE7ˣJ1ˣJ2ˣS1ˣS3炸炻 㑭攟㹅忂⋼婧炷E2ˣJ1ˣS2炸炻⮵㔁做⃭㺧䅙婈炷S1炸炻℟㚱䉏䈚⣱䌣䘬䱦䤆炷S1ˣ S4炸炻᷎ẍ㦪奨ˣ侸⽫⍲㹓㝼䘬ン⹎㊩临➭㊩⇘⸽炷S2ˣS3炸ˤ ǾǾԴৣޑ௲Ꮲԃၗ୼Ǵ௲Ꮲ࿶ᡍΨόᒱǴќѦ΋ঁ൩ࢂᇥǴдѳதޑԴ ৣ׎ຝ൩ࡐӳǴৎߏǵӕᏢǵᏢғϐ໔ޑα࿞೿ࡐόᒱޑǴᔈ၀ࢂԖ೭Бय़ޑ Եໆ୚ǶǾǾך᝺ளಃ΋ঁǴ΋ۓाჹ௲Ꮲкᅈ዗וǾǾಃΒঁ൩ࢂ೭ঁԴৣ ኷ܭϩ٦Ǵдᜫཀעдޑ࿶ᡍ֋ນΓৎǴ൩ࢂᇥȨךा໺܍ΠѐȩǴฅࡕԖ឴࣊ ں᝘ޑᆒઓǶȐS11000103ȑ

έȃఀৱሴᏲޱڧڼϞনӰᇄ෈ࣾ!

炷ᶨ炸栀シ䇚⚆⟙ˣ⚻⣊⍲≑Ṣ侴≯㕤ảḳ 㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭㗗ᾳ⎫≃ᶵ妶⤥䘬奺刚炻栀シ㑼ả䘬⍇⚈ᷣ天㚱烉烀.㚦䴻㍍⍿⇍Ṣ 䘬⸓≑炻ẍ⚆⟙䘬⽫ン⁛㈧䴻槿炷E6ˣJ2ˣJ4ˣS1炸烊烁.䪁⛐⭞攟䘬奺⹎炻ⶴ㛃㇨㚱 䘬⬠䓇悥傥忯⇘⃒岒䘬㔁ⷓ炷E2ˣE3炸烊烂.⬌幵⤖㇘≃慷⣒╖唬炻ⶴ㛃嶇⎴ḳᶨ崟 ⚻冒ㆹㆸ攟䘬伶⣊炷S1ˣS3ˣS4炸烊烃.㉙叿≑Ṣ䁢⾓㦪ᷳ㛔䘬⽫ン炻⮵暨天䘬㔁ⷓ Ỡ↢㎜ㇳ炷E7ˣE8ˣJ3炸ˤ ךѝόၸࢂע߻य़ޑԴৣ๏ךޑǴך๏ࡕय़ޑԴৣǴךѝࢂӢࣁڙၸΓৎ ޑᔅշǴѸ໪ाԖٗঁૈໆѐᔅշձΓǶȐJ21000124ȑ ӢࣁךΨࢂৎߏǾǾ൩᝺ளᇥךޑ࠸η׆ఈ๏ϙሶኬޑԴৣ௲೭ኬǴךத த೭ሶགྷओǼȐE21000110ȑ

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炷Ḵ炸㆟㉙㓡┬⬠㟉䘬䎮゛ 㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䘬⚆䫼悥朆ⷠ嫁嘃炻ỮṾᾹ㇨㆟㉙叿䘬⮷䎮゛炻⌣傥䁢⬠㟉ⷞἮ㶙 怈䘬⼙枧ˤ媠⤪烉⋼≑㔁ⷓ怑ㅱ⬠㟉䑘⠫ˣ妋㰢⓷柴ˣ䱦忚㔁⬠ˣ㓡┬䎕䳂䴻䆇炷E2ˣ E6ˣE7ˣS2ˣS3ˣS4炸烊㓡嬲⬠㟉䳬䷼㔯⊾炷J2ˣS1炸烊㍸⋯㔁ⷓ冒ㆹ⮲㥖デ炷S1炸烊 嬻㭷ỵ⬠䓇悥傥忯⇘⤥侩ⷓ炻㍸⋯⬠佺ㆸ㓰炷J1炸ˤ ךޑ౛ۺᔈ၀ࢂගϲᏢਠλܻ϶дॺޑኧᏢޑૈΚǾǾǴӵ݀ᇥ௲ᏢᏤৣ ޑ၉Ǵך྽ฅࢂ׆ఈ؂ঁԴৣӧ੤ભ࿶ᔼ΢य़ǵ௲Ꮲ΢य़೿ࢂ׳ᆒ຾ǴؒԖރ ݩวғǶȐE21000110ȑ ךޑ౛གྷࢂ׆ఈᡣ؂΋ঁيࣁԴৣޑΓǴ೿ᇡࣁ྽Դৣࢂ΋፸ηߚதᄪᚲ ޑ٣௃ǴόՠࢂᄪᝬǴԶЪࢂుڙᚲངޑ٣௃ǶǾǾฅࡕӆٰሸЈӕᜫӦǴឫ Ћࣁ௲ػǵࣁ࠸ηޑ௲ػԶոΚǶȐS11000103ȑ

ѲȃఀৱሴᏲޱϞஉଋ!

炷ᶨ炸⁁⍿偗⭂ᷳ㬋⺷➡妻䭉忻 忁ṃ幓䁢㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ䘬㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭忂ⷠ悥䧵㤝⍫≈⎬䧖➡妻炻ẍ㍸⋯冒⶙䘬 ⮰㤕傥≃ˤ㬋⺷䘬➡妻⊭㊔烉㔁⬠⮶ⷓ➡妻炷ℐ悐 16 ỵ⍿姒侭炸ˣ柀➇⎔普Ṣ➡妻 炷E4炸ˣᷣả⃚妻炷J1炸ˣ㔁ⷓ㚫㚫攟➡妻炷J2炸ˣ䣦佌⎔普Ṣ➡妻炷J2炸ˣ㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤 ⯽姽揹䞼佺炷J2ˣS3炸ˣ䘤⯽⿏㔁⬠庼⮶䲣䴙➡妻炷E2炸ˣ䣦⛀⎔普Ṣ➡妻炷E4炸ˣ埴 ≽䞼䨞➡妻炷J4炸䫱ˤ⣂㔠⍿姒侭䈡⇍⮵㔁⬠⮶ⷓ䘬➡妻㍉偗⭂ン⹎炻⤪ J1 ⍿姒侭 ㍸⍲⬠佺⇘婚⭌䘬奨⮇㈨ⶏˣ㔁⬠㨼㟰ˣẍ⍲⍿⇘⎴⬠䅙ね䘬⼙枧侴䅫崟櫍⽿烉 ךԾρӑຝനుޑࢂፐ࠻ᢀჸޑמѯǴᡣך᝺ள௲ਜࢂ΋ঁКၨԖࣽᏢ ϯǵ஑཰܄ޑག᝺ǾǾǶќѦ΋ঁࢂ௲ᏢᔞਢǶך᝺ளӧٗঁ୻૽ၸำǴ׳ᢌ ޑ΋ᗺǴ൩ࢂၟ΋ဂࡐᢌޑԴৣǴך᝺ளٗঁݗൎ཮ᡣΓԖ዗௃Ƕӧ΢ξٗΟ ঁᘶࡨǴךག᝺εৎ೿ᗋ᡿ԖରדޑǶȐJ11000110ȑ E6 ⍿姒侭ḇ㍸⇘⍫≈䞼佺婚䦳⼴傥㚜㶭㤂䞍忻⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ⮎晃䘬⚘暋⎗傥㗗Ṩ 湤烎㚫暨天Ṩ湤⸓⾁烎埴㓧⎗ẍ㍸ὃṨ湤⸓≑烉

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ٗٿঁᘶࡨǴך᝺ளךࡐᇡ੿ǵࡐ׫ΕǴฅࡕΨ΋Πη൩ΜϺΑǶၟ๱ό ӕޑԴৣٰᏢಞǴᢀۺ׳уᙶమǶٗ΋೽ϩޑᙶమǴࢂᡣךޕၰǴ΋ঁ௲Ꮲᇶ Ꮴ௲ৣǴӧჴሞ୍ܺޑਔংǴдёૈ཮ব٤֚ᜤǻдёૈሡाՉࡹব٤୍ܺǻ ΋ঁუՔ௲ৣǴдёૈǴд཮ሡाךᔅԆϙሶǻӧ೭΋ԛޑࣴಞ္य़ǴନΑঁ ΓޑԋߏǴӧՉࡹ೭΋೽ϩǴᡣךޕၰǴךᗋёа଺ϙሶǻ೭΋೽ϩԋߏКၨ ӭǶȐE61000104ȑ 㬌⢾炻E1 ⍿姒侭娵䁢柀➇⎔普Ṣ⍿妻⼴炻㚜㶭㤂⤪ỽ⮯䵄⎰柀➇婚䵙冯㟉㛔婚 䦳䚠䳸⎰烉 ୻૽ֹϐࡕǴךჹܭᇥǴᆕӝሦୱޑፐᆜǴၟךॺਠҁፐำǴ࡛ሶኬ่ӝ ך཮ࡐమཱǶȐE11000103ȑ 炷Ḵ炸䧵㤝ᷣ≽ᷳ冒ㆹ忚ᾖ㕡⺷ 㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭忂ⷠḇ㗗䳪幓⬠佺侭炻栀シ㈽ℍ㗪攻⍲慹拊炻徥㯪⮰㤕傥≃䘬䱦忚ˤ ㍉⍾䘬ἄ㱽烉冒屣⇘⣏⬠ᾖ嬨⬠ỵㆾ䞼ᾖ婚䦳炷E4ˣJ1ˣS2ˣS3炸ˣ⣏慷教嬨㚠䯵炷E3ˣ E4ˣJ1炸ˣ⎹㧁䪧⬠㟉䘬䱦劙⬠佺ẍ䌚⍾⮞屜䴻槿炷E6ˣS2炸ˤ ךঁΓ౜ӧࢂӧঅಞಃΒ஑ߏǴғڮ௲ػޑଯύ௲ৣಃΒ஑ߏǴځჴѬჹ ࡐӭԴৣٰᖱǴࢂᆉᚐѦӭрٰޑǴӢࣁѸ໪Ծ຤ǴѸ໪ೱុٿԃޑᘶࡨϤѐ ΢ፐǴӧᆵεǶךࣁϙሶ཮ѐୖу೭ঁ୻૽ǴࢂӢࣁך᝺ள௲ᏢӣᘜډѬޑਥ ҁǴך᝺ளٗࢂғڮޑҬࢬǶȐS21000102ȑ ך᠐ࡐӭᇟЎ௲ᏢޑਜǴόᆅࢂᆵ᡼܈ύ୯εഌ܈ऍ୯ޑǶȐE31000214ȑ

ϤȃఀৱሴᏲӵᄂ୛ΰ௰ଢ଼Ϟԙਝ!

炷ᶨ炸冒ㆹㆸ攟⼴ⷞἮ㚜⣂䘬⾓㦪 㔁ⷓ柀⮶㚫䓊䓇㔁ⷓ攻㔁⬠䚠攟䘬䎦尉炻⍿姒侭堐䣢䁢Ḯ天ẍ幓ἄ⇯炻㚫䜋Ὣ 冒⶙㚜≈≒≃炷E2ˣE5ˣE7ˣJ2ˣJ3ˣJ4炸ˣ忚埴㚜⣂䘬㔁⬠䚩⿅炷J2ˣJ3ˣS1炸ˣグ 傥ẍ⎴䎮⽫⍣䚳⼭㚱⚘⠫䘬侩ⷓ炷J2炸ˣ㍸⋯冒⶙䘬傥≃冯冒ᾉ炷E4ˣE5ˣE6ˣS1ˣ S3炸ˣ䳸Ṍ姙⣂⤥㚳⍳炷E2ˣS1炸ˣ⛐ⶍἄ⟜➇ᷕ㚜≈⾓㦪炷J4ˣS1ˣS2炸ˤ

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ך᝺ள௲Ꮲ࣬ߏǴǾǾ࣮ډԾρ௲Ꮲ΢ޑޓᗺǶȐJ21000124ȑ ᙖҗፐ߻ޑࣴ૸཮᝼ǴᗋԖ΋ঁΕ੤ᢀჸǴךΨ΋ٳӧ଺΋٤ϸࡘǴךӧ ᢀჸუՔ௲ৣځჴךΨ཮གྷགྷԾρǴ೭ࢂ΋ঁ൞ϟǴᙖҗ೭ঁ൞ϟך଺Α΋٤ ϸࡘޑ୏բǶȐS11000103ȑ 炷Ḵ炸⋼≑⎴ḳ妋㰢⚘⠫ ⋼≑㔁ⷓ㗗⣂㔠⬠㟉㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬⇅堟炻⛐㬌㕡朊ḇ䚳⇘Ḯ劍⸚䘬ㆸ㓰炻⁷ 㗗烉㷃⮹㕘忚㔁ⷓ䎕䳂䴻䆇㐠䳊䘬㗪攻炷J1ˣJ4炸ˣ性⃵婌巑㟉⚺Ṣ晃斄Ὢ䘬⛘暟炷J4炸ˣ 妋㰢㔁ⷓ㔁⬠ᶲ䘬⓷柴炷E8炸ˣ⡆≈㔁ⷓ攻䘬⮰㤕⮵娙炷E7炸ˣ冺妋㔁ⷓ䘬⡻≃冯ね 䵺炷E7炸ˣ㍸⋯㔁ⷓ⮵㕘䞍䘬㷜㛃炷E5ˣE6炸ˣ㓡嬲㔁ⷓ傥ẍ⣂⃫⊾䘬奺⹎䚳⼭⬠䓇 炷J1炸ˤ дᇥவ੤ભ࿶ᔼၟᏢғୢᚒޑೀ౛БԄǴд᝺ள࿶தӦ૸ፕၟҬࢬǴёа όҔԾρѐᄗ઩ǶǾǾᗋԖ൩ࢂਠ༜ΓሞރݩޑΑှၟගᒬǴԖਔংдॺ཮ᇤ ፰ӦႜǶȐJ41000104ȑ 炷ᶱ炸Ὣ忚⬠㟉ㆸ≇嬲朑 ㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶炻⮵⬠㟉⛐㔁做䘤⯽␴朑㕘ᶲ䡢⮎㚱㇨⸓≑炻ἳ⤪烉㷃⮹㔁ⷓ䃉 シ佑䘬攺俲忚侴㓡嬲⬠㟉䳬䷼㯋㯃炷E4炸⍲㔁ⷓ㔯⊾炷E6ˣJ1ˣS2炸ˣ㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭ㆸ 䁢埴㓧冯㔁ⷓ㹅忂䘬⨺ṳ㚜㖻ↅ倂⬠㟉ℙ嬀炷E1ˣE7ˣJ2ˣS4炸ˣῇ≃ἧ≃㚜傥㍐≽ 㔁ⷓ⮰㤕ㆸ攟㕡㟰炷E2ˣE4ˣE6ˣE8ˣS1炸ˣ⎬枭䌚䋶攻㍍㍸⋯Ḯ⬠㟉倚㛃炷E5炸ˤ ך᝺ளךॺࢂ׎ԋ΋ިమࢬୟǼ׆ఈᡂԋ΋ঁ஑཰ගϲޑი໗ǴԶόࢂ஥ ሦԴৣѐၟՉࡹჹלޑٗᅿᜪࠠǶǾǾȜว৖ი໗ޑȝ஑཰ԋߏǴӕਔΨࢂՉ ࡹޑշΚǶȐE11000103ȑ 炷⚃炸㚱㓰㍐⺋㔁ⷓ柀⮶䎮⾝ 䔞㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬⬠㟉ᶵ㕟䌚䋶ᷳ⼴炻⛐㔁做䓴冒䃞㚫ㇻ枧冒⶙䘬⎵嘇炻㚱⽫ ⬠佺䘬⬠㟉冰崟⍾䴻䘬゛㱽ˤ⚈㬌炻⮵㟉⢾㚨⣏䘬ㆸ㓰⯙㗗㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭ᾳṢㆾ⛀昲 ⇘⢾㟉ˣ䞼妶㚫ㆾ➡妻婚䦳↮ṓ彎䎮ㆸ≇䘬䴻槿炻ᶵỮ㗗⚳ℏ炷E1ˣE3ˣE5ˣE6ˣ S1ˣS2ˣS3ˣS4炸炻㚜怈⍲⣏映炷E4炸烊⎎⢾炻ḇ㚱ẍ⛀昲䘬⮰攟⍫冯⣏⬠䞼䨞㇨䘤 ⯽ᷳ㔁㟰ㆾ柴⹓炷E4炸ˣ⋼≑㉵㓅㔁⬠⼙䇯炷E4炸ˣẍ⍲⇘㈀⃺㇨忚埴⸤㈀㔜⎰㚵⊁ 炷E2炸䫱ˤ

(19)

ѐԃВᇑიډܼԀǴךॺж߄୯λಔѐൔ֋ϺЎǶᗋԖ߻΋ତη○○Դৣפ ךܡ௲Ꮲޑ஥ηǶȐE41000103ȑ

ϲȃఀৱሴᏲϞኇ៪Ӱશ!

炷ᶨ炸㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭ẍ㝼庇䘬幓㭝デ≽塓柀⮶㔁ⷓ 㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䘬柀⮶㕡⺷⼙枧㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬ㆸ㓿炻⣂㔠⍿姒侭㍉⍾⁽Ṣ柀⮶炷E1ˣ E4ˣE6ˣJ1炸炻Ṏ⌛幓⃰⢓⋺ˣẍ幓ἄ⇯ˣ䃉䥩⣱䌣炻䓐䅙⾙␴ッἮデ≽℞Ṿ䘬㔁ⷓ烉ġ ךКၨႽࢂႼΓԄޑሦᏤǴࣁձΓ୍ܺǴࣁձΓں᝘ǴӢࣁך੿ޑؒԖϙ ሶՉࡹޑ៾ΚǴΨό᝺ளךКӕ٣ॺଯǴӢࣁεৎ೿ࢂӕ٣჊ǼգᏧϙሶΓৎ ा᠋գޑǻך୤΋଺ޑ൩ࢂᇥǴҔ୍ܺޑБԄǴ଺ӳࡐӭޑѳѠǴ଺ӳࡐӭޑ ྗഢǴգॺѝाٰ൩ӳΑǶȐE11000103ȑ ⎎⢾炻㟡㒂塓柀⮶㔁ⷓ䘬Ṣ㟤䈡岒炻㍉⍾㪲嬲柀⮶ḇ㗗⍿姒侭忳䓐䘬㕡⺷ᷳᶨ 炷E7ˣJ2炸烉 ଛӝдޑΓ਱੝፦ǵдޑᙍ୍аϷдޑ஑ߏǴҔόӕޑБݤၟдϕ୏Ƕ ȐJ21000124ȑ 炷Ḵ炸埴㓧⃭↮㌰㪲㔁ⷓ⛀昲 ⽆忁ṃㆸ≇⬠㟉䘬ᾳ㟰ᷕ炻⎗ẍ䘤䎦埴㓧㗗䪁⛐⺽⮶侴朆ᷣ⮶䘬奺刚炷16 ỵ⍿ 姒侭炸炻⃭↮㌰㪲⮲慵㔁ⷓ⛀昲䘬夷∫炷J4ˣS2ˣS3炸炻ᶵ䴎ảỽ⡻≃炷J1ˣS3ˣS4炸ˤ ⎗夳㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬⮎㕥炻⎗媪䳸⎰Ḯˬ䓙ᶳ侴ᶲ˭⍲ˬ䓙ᶲ侴ᶳ˭䘬㕡⺷炻䓙ᶲ䘤崟炻 䓙ᶳ⬴ㆸˤ ך᝺ளٰԾܭߏ۔ޑ೽ϩǴ൩ࢂךޑਠߏ୚Ǽд๏ךࡐεޑޜ໔ѐวචǴ дჹךԖкϩޑ௤៾ǶȐS21000102ȑ ਠߏࢂࡐԐа߻Ǵவך྽௲୍ЬҺޑਔংǴд൩ၟךᇥǺȨգᄌᄌ଺൩ӳΑǴ όҔϼ࡚ចǶȩȐJ11000110ȑ

(20)

炷ᶱ炸埴㓧䪕䚉㇨傥䴎Ḱ䱦䤆⍲䴻屣ᶲ䘬㓗㊩ 㚱斄埴㓧䘬㓗㊩炻忂ⷠ㗗䪕䚉㇨傥⛘⋼≑炻⊭㊔䱦䤆㓗㊩烉烀.䥩ᶳ≱⊝炷E2ˣ E4ˣE6ˣJ2ˣS4炸ˣ⍫冯㚫嬘炷J4炸ˣ⍿㋓㗪䘬⬱ㄘ炷E5ˣS2炸烊烁.䴻屣㓗㊩烉䞼佺 䴻屣炷E2炸ˣ㳣≽䴻屣炷J4ˣS1炸ˣ㷃㌰揀溆屣烊烂.䨢攻㓗㊩烉䞼妶㔁⭌炷J4ˣS1ˣ S3炸烊ẍ⍲烃.㗪攻㓗㊩烉夷∫ℙ⎴䞼妶㗪攻炷E6ˣJ4炸䫱ˤ ךॺᏢਠޑՉࡹǴЀځࢂ௲୍ೀӄΚЍ࡭ǴႽᏢਠፐ୍ޑӼ௨ǴӅӕޑޜ ୸ਔ໔ǶԜѦǴ൩ࢂ཮ڐշךॺޕၰԖব٤࿶຤ёаၮҔǴᗋԖ൑ӦޑॷҔǶ ȐJ41000104ȑ 炷⚃炸埴㓧惵⎰㔁ⷓ柀⮶㳣≽⻰⿏嗽䎮⍇㚱夷⭂ 䁢䘤⯽㔁ⷓ柀⮶炻⬠㟉⎗ẍ㚱ṃ㪲堉䘬ἄ㱽炻ἳ⤪忙ᶱ䞼佺㍉暁年⇞忚埴炷E6炸烉 ຼΟȐࣴಞȑ൩௦ᚈॉڋǴ൩ࢂୖу௲஑ǵ௲ᏢᇶᏤ௲ৣޗဂޑԴৣǴд ॺԖឦܭдॺޑࢲ୏ǴόҔќ௨ᘶࡨϖǴϼಕΑǴځдΓ൩ќѦԖࢲ୏Ǵёૈ җ૽Ꮴǵᕴ୍ǵᇶᏤЬҺٰڐշǶȐE61000104ȑ 㬌⢾炻㹅忂䭉忻⽭枰㙊忂炷J2ˣJ3ˣS2炸炻埴㓧㕡朊㚨⤥ᷣ≽䧵㤝炻ᶨἮ⎗ẍ楔 ᶲ妋㰢⓷柴炻ḴἮ⎗ẍ㷃⮹堅䨩烉 ךॺྎ೯ࡐޔௗǴѳதԖϙሶୢᚒ೿཮ޔௗᖱǶך᝺ளࡐόᒱޑ൩ࢂךॺ ޑ௲୍ЬҺǴдว౜ҺՖୢᚒ೿཮ҥջٰၟךॺྎ೯Ǵך᝺ள೭ঁҥջྎ೯ࢂ ࡐख़ाޑǴ྽ฅךॺԴৣԖਔং൩཮ऑऑ๠਻ǴӭϿ೿཮Ǵд೿཮΋ঁ΋ঁٰ ӼኟǴ൩ࢂᅈᑈཱུЬ୏ޑǶȐJ31000128ȑ 炷Ḽ炸㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽䘬䳬䷼㔯⊾⇢㽨㕘忚㔁ⷓㆸ攟 ⬠㟉⮰㤕䘤⯽䘬䳬䷼㔯⊾炻㚫⼙枧⮹㔠㕘忚㔁ⷓᷣ≽徥㯪ㆸ攟炻朆ⷠ㚱⇑㕤㔁 ⷓ柀⮶䘬㍐≽炷J1炸ˤ ǾǾႽ௲ৣ஑཰ว৖ຑ᠘ǴךॺϞԃԖΟঁཥ຾ԴৣǴӢࣁᙑޑԴৣ൳Я ೿ୖᆶǴдॺ൩Ծρາٰୢך೭ঁୢᚒǴдॺа߻ӧձޑᏢਠКၨόޕၰǴך ᇥǴ೭ӧךॺᏢਠǴգॺᡂϿኧǴךॺӭኧΓς࿶೿৾ډȐຑ᠘Γ঩߃໘୻૽ ᛾ਜȑǴฅࡕдॺ൩ᇥǺȨࠖୟǴ੿ޑ༏ǻȩϞԃдॺΟঁ൩ൔӜѐୖуൣଷޑ ୻૽ǶȐJ11000110ȑ

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Μȃ௰ଢ଼ఀৱሴᏲϞ֨ცЅڏ၌ؚϞၾ!

炷ᶨ炸⎴ṩ㈿㉺㕘⡆ⶍἄ炻ẍ侸⽫忚埴㝼⿏⊠⮶ ㍐≽㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽㗪炻暋⃵㚫⡆≈⎴ṩ䘬ⶍἄ炻ἳ⤪烉㑘⮓㔁⬠䚩⿅ˣℍ䎕奨 ⮇䫱炻㬌㗪㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭⽭枰ᶵ⍕℞䄑侸叿⿏⫸炻㊯⮶⎴ṩ炷E2ˣE6炸烉 ע࣪ࡘቪрٰǴԴৣ೭ঁ೽ϩёૈ཮КၨלܔǶՠࢂךॺ൩ࢂ໽ୟǼ໽ޑ ਔং๏д΋ᗺБӛǼ๏д΋ᗺࡌ᝼Ǽ೭ኬ଺ዴჴςΟԃډѤԃΑǴς࿶׎ԋ΋ ঁڋࡋǴ൩໩๱೭΋చၡ΋؁΋؁وΠѐǶȐE21000110ȑ ΋໒ۈԖ֚ᜤǴՠࢂך᝺ளόा࡚Ǵ྽дؒԖ଺ӳྗഢਔǴόा࡚Ƕ ȐE61000104ȑ 炷Ḵ炸怕忯㋓㉀炻ẍ䅙ね␴ἧ␥デ婧㔜⽫ン ⛐䎦Ṳ㔁ⷓ⾁䠴䘬ⶍἄᷕ炻㍐≽㕘㕡㟰ᶵ㗗⡆≈㕘ⶍἄ⯙㗗㓡嬲⍇⃰䘬ἄ㱽炻 暋⃵怕⇘⍵⻰炻㬌㗪⽭枰ẍ⽆ḳ㔁做ⶍἄ䘬䅙ね␴ἧ␥デ炻屓⽡⇘⸽炷E4ˣE6ˣS2ˣ S4炸烉 Ψ཮Ԗ਋שǴ཮᝺ளԖ΋٤คΚǴёࢂךததගᒬԾρόב߃૱ǴԾρ྽ ߃࡛ሶวЈाٰ଺೭ঁՉ཰Ǵ൩ाᇡ੿ѐ଺ǶȐS41000103ȑ 炷ᶱ炸朊⮵婌妋炻ẍ嫁⋹ン⹎⍲㚵⊁䱦䤆⊾妋₝⯨ 㚱㗪㚫㚱悐↮㔁ⷓ㆟䔹⍿姒侭㑼ả㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭≽㨇炻⛐ン⹎㍉⍾㴰㤝㉝⇞炻ㆾ ⛐妨婆ᶲᶵ䓂⍳┬炻㬌⇣天ẍỶ⦧ン⍲≈᾵䘬㚵⊁Ἦ⊾妋₝⯨炷E4ˣE7ˣS2ˣS4炸烉 ǾǾाᡣԾρவ਋שคΚوрٰǴԖ΋ᗺࡐख़ाǴ൩ࢂाעԾρ࠮ᄊܫΠ ٰǴԖޑਔংࡐӭ਋שคΚࢂӢࣁךޑՏηόჹǴفࡋόჹǶǾǾ࠮ᄊܫΠٰ ޑਔংǴ൩Кၨૈ౛ှჹБࣁϙሶϸჹޑচӢǴ೭ኬηޑ၉ԾρΨૈ୼଺΋ᗺ ؇ᐘǴόा؂ԛ೿ࢂ΋ޔӧ੃઻Ǵкႝࡐख़ाǴ࠮ᄊܫΠٰࡐख़ाǴฅࡕӆѐ פΓৎಠಠϺǴפᏢғಠಠϺǴפԴৣॺಠಠϺǴٗঁག᝺ΞӣٰΑǴך᝺ள ೭ࢂךӧ೭ঁπբ΢ډҞ߻ࣁЗᗋёаയҺޑচӢǶȐS21000102ȑ ࢂӢࣁգག୏ΑךǴдᇥǴдவٰό᝺ளШࣚ΢཮ԖΓᜫཀѐᔅշΓৎǴ ฅࡕό؃ൔၿǶȐE41000103ȑ

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炷⚃炸ᶵ⎴柀➇ᷳ惵⮵炻ẍ⛀橼庼⮶墄℞ᶵ嵛 悐↮⬠㟉㍐≽㔁⬠⮶ⷓ⇞⹎㗪㍉ᶨ⮵ᶨ㕡⺷炻䴻ⷠ䓊䓇⚈柀➇ᶵ⎴⮶农䃉㱽㶙 ℍ庼⮶䘬䉨㱩炻㻠㻠ẍ⣂⮵ᶨㆾ⣂⮵⣂䘬㕡⺷≈ẍ㓡┬炷E6ˣJ1ˣS1ˣS2炸烉 дࢂमЎࣽǴך᝺ளϕ୏ޑᒃஏࡋؒԖႽךಃ΋ԛ஥ޑٗঁԴৣǴӢࣁך ॺࢂӕ΋ࣽǴ୯ЎࣽǴΞ೿ࢂᏤৣޑفՅǴԖࡐӭӅӕϩ٦ǶǾǾȐࡕٰȑך ॺ൩ΟঁΓ΋ঁი໗Ǵόा΋ჹ΋ᇶᏤǶȐJ11000110ȑ 炷Ḽ炸䞼妶㗪攻ᶵ嵛炻┬䓐⋰梸⍲ẹ〗㗪攻 晾婒⬠㟉㚫⃀慷⬱㌺ℙ⎴䨢➪炻Ữ⮎晃ᶲ妶婾㗪攻ⷠⷠ㗗ᶵ嵛䘬炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭 ⽭枰㚱㘢ㄏ䘬┬䓐ẹ〗㗪攻炷E1炸烉 Кӵᇥךॺाࣴ૸Ǵՠࢂਔ໔ό୼Ǵ൩வӞ໭ਔ໔໒ۈǴ൩ࢂ΋ᜐӞߡ྽ ΋ ᜐ ૸ ፕ Ƕ Ǿ Ǿ ӵ ݀ ᇥ ੿ ޑ ࢂ ࡐ ࡚ ॐ ޑ ၉ Ǵ ࣗ Կ ך ॺ ཮ Ҕ ᚐ Ѧ ޑ ਔ ໔ Ƕ ȐE11000103ȑ

Τȃᆣӫଆ፣!

炷ᶨ炸㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ側㘗䑘⠫↮㜸 ⚳ℏ⢾㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶炻ᶵ⢾㗗Ὣ忚㔁ⷓ⮰㤕ㆸ攟炻忚侴㍸⋯㔁⬠㓰傥ˤ⛐冢⊿ ⶪ䁢怑忊徨ẹ㼖炻㚱枰天庼⮶ᷳ㕘忚㔁ⷓ忚ℍ⬠㟉炻ℵ≈ᶲ⮹⫸⊾⮶农⬠㟉⽭枰㍸ 檀彎⬠⑩岒ẍ性⃵怕㶀㰘烊⛐伶⚳⇯㗗⚈↢䓇䌯䘬⡆≈ˣṢ⎋䘬䦣ℍˣ㔁ⷓ徨ẹ⍲ ⣏慷暊借炻⮶农⤥侩ⷓὃᶵㅱ㯪炻ℵ≈ᶲ㧁㸾⊾䘬ㆸ⯙㷔槿㛒傥㚱㓰㍸⋯㔁做⑩岒炻 㕤㗗㔁ⷓ柀⮶ㆸ䁢㓡┬彎⬠䘬⎎ᶨ㡅↢嶗炷Lieberman & Miller, 2004炸ˤ

炷Ḵ炸㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭ᷳ䘤㍀ˣ➡妻冯䘤⯽

⚳ℏ⢾㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭ᷳ䓊䓇炻忂ⷠ悥㚫㟡㒂㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭㇨暨䘬Ṣ㟤䈡岒⍲傥≃妪 ⭂怜怠㡅ẞ炻ℵ䴻ᶨ⭂䘬怜怠䦳⸷䓊䓇炻Ṏ㚫⬱㌺➡妻婚䦳炷Ault, 2009炸炻⤥䘬㔁ⷓ 柀⮶侭忂ⷠḇ㗗䳪幓⬠佺侭炷Krisko, 2001炸ˤ

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炷ᶱ炸㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳㆸ㓰↮㜸 䚠庫㕤⢷㜿㶭㕤 1999 ⸜⍲哉忚晬㕤 2007 ⸜ᶵ⇑㕤㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ䞼䨞䘤䎦炻㛔㔯 ㇨姒婯ᷳ冢⊿ⶪ 16 ỵ㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭炻⌣夳嫱Ḯ Barth炷1988炸ˣKatzenmeyer 冯 Moller 炷2009炸㇨㍸↢⬠㟉㗗柀⮶侭䣦佌炷community of leaders炸䘬⇵䝣㤪⾝ˤ忁䧖ᷣ⻝㇨ 㚱䘬㔁ⷓ悥㗗㚱柀⮶傥≃䘬㤪⾝炻ᶵỮ䫎ㅱ㔁ⷓ⼘㪲䙲傥䘬㤪⾝炻ḇ⣏⣏妋㓦Ḯ⬠ 㟉柀⮶䘬傥慷炻㚱⇑㕤⬠㟉䘬㓡朑␴㔁ⷓ䘬⢓㯋ˤ 炷⚃炸㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ⼙枧⚈䳈↮㜸 㛔㔯䘤䎦⼙枧冢⊿ⶪ㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ⚈䳈炻冯㔯䌣㍊妶䘬䳸㝄䚠Ụ炻⊭㊔烉㔁ⷓ柀 ⮶侭㛔幓䘬Ṣ㟤䈡岒炷Ault, 2009炸⍲柀⮶㕡⺷炷Lambert, 2003炸ˣ埴㓧䘬ン⹎冯㓗㊩ 䦳⹎炷⻝⽟扛炻2010炸ˣ⬠㟉䘬䳬䷼㔯⊾炷Fullan, 1995炸冯䳬䷼䳸㥳炷Lieberman & Miller, 2004炸ˤ

炷Ḽ炸㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ⚘⠫冯妋㰢↮㜸

䓙㕤㛔㔯ᷳ姒婯⮵尉䁢ㆸ≇ᾳ㟰炻⚈㬌⛐⚘⠫㕡朊᷎㛒䘤䎦㚱㟉攟㗗ẍ㪲⦩䌐 㕟䘬㕡⺷忚埴柀⮶炻Ữ㗗冯㖊㚱䞼䨞䘤䎦䚠⎴䘬㗗⛐㗪攻炷LeBlanc & Shelton, 1997炸ˣⶍἄ屈㑼⍲䴻屣ᶲ䘬䡢㚫怕忯⇘⚘暋炻ḇ㚫㚱悐↮⎴ṩ㈿㉺炷Hart, 1994炸ˤ 妋㰢䘬㕡⺷炻昌Ḯ㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭㛔幓ẍ䅙ねˣἧ␥デ␴㘢ㄏ➭㊩⇘⸽ᷳ⢾炻埴㓧䘬㓗 ㊩冯惵⎰Ṏ䘤㎖㤝⣏䘬≇㓰ˤ

ӂȃ๖፣ᇄ࡚ដ!

Ιȃ๖፣!

炷ᶨ炸冢⊿ⶪ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ㇨㈧㑼䘬㔁ⷓ柀⮶Ὢ⛐⋼≑㕘忚㔁ⷓ怑ㅱ䑘⠫ˣ㓡 嬲⬠㟉㔯⊾ˣ㍸⋯㔁⬠⑩岒⍲性⃵⬠㟉怕⇘㶀㰘䫱側㘗ᶳ䘤䓇 冢⊿ⶪ㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⇞⹎䘬厴剥炻ᶨ㕡朊㗗⚈怑忊徨ẹ㼖⣏慷㕘忚㔁ⷓ忚ℍ⬠ 㟉炻䁢⋼≑ṾᾹ⾓忇怑ㅱ⬠㟉䑘⠫⍲妋㰢㔁⬠䴻槿ᶵ嵛⓷柴炻䡢⮎暨天屯㶙⃒列㔁 ⷓ䘬⋼≑冯ⷞ柀烊⎎ᶨ㕡朊⛐⮹⫸⊾⍲⭞攟㔁做怠㑯㪲㖍䙲⋯檀䘬䎦㱩ᶳ炻䁢⃵⬠ 㟉怕⇘㶀㰘炻⊊⽭㍸⋯彎⬠⑩岒炻侴㔁ⷓ柀⮶㬋㗗㓡嬲㔁ⷓ㔯⊾ˣ㍸⋯㔁⬠⑩岒䘬 㚱㓰徼⼹ᷳᶨˤ

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炷Ḵ炸傥⣈ㆸ≇㈖㺼㔁ⷓ柀⮶奺刚侭炻忂ⷠ㗗↢㕤冒栀㚵⊁ 㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭昌枰㔁⬠䴻槿寸⭴ˣ⮰㤕⬠䥹⼰⻟ˣ℟⁁㦪㕤↮ṓᷳṢ㟤䈡岒⢾炻 怬⽭枰㛔幓天㚱⻟䁰シ栀炻ㇵ傥㊩临⃳㚵㑼ả㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭怕忯ᷳ㋓㉀冯⚘暋ˤ㟉㕡 ⤪⎒ὅ怜怠䦳⸷⌣ᶵ栏㔁ⷓᷳシ栀炻塓㊯⭂侭忯⇘㋓㉀㗪⿸⾽暋ẍ㓗㊩ᶳ⍣ˤ 炷ᶱ炸㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭ᷳ➡妻炻昌㬋⺷橼⇞⢾炻㔁ⷓ㛔幓冒䘤⿏䘬⬠佺ḇ⼰慵天 㬋⺷䘬➡妻晾㚱㔁⬠⮶ⷓˣ柀➇⎔普Ṣˣᷣả⃚妻ˣ㔁ⷓ㚫㚫攟ˣ䣦佌⎔普Ṣˣ 㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽姽揹䞼佺ˣ䘤⯽⿏㔁⬠庼⮶ˣ䣦⛀⎔普Ṣ⍲埴≽䞼䨞䫱㜿㜿䷥䷥炻⃒ 䥨䘬㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭㛔幓⯙㗗ᶨỵ䳪幓⬠佺侭炻㚫冒䘤⿏⛘⣏慷教嬨ˣ㕩倥婚䦳ㆾ㧁䪧 ⬠佺炻Ἦ㍸⋯冒⶙䘬傥≃ˤ 炷⚃炸㔁ⷓ柀⮶⛐冢⊿ⶪ⶚徸㻠⛐䘤⯽ᷕ炻᷎⮵㔁⭌ˣ⎴ḳˣ⬠㟉ˣ㟉⢾⍲冒 ⶙䓊䓇㬋⎹䘬㓰䙲 㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭ᶵỮ傥Ὣ忚冒⶙⍲⎴ḳ䘬⮰㤕ㆸ攟炻㚜傥㍸檀⬠䓇䘬⬠佺ㆸ㓰ˤℵ 侭炻㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬⬠㟉ᶵ㕟䌚⼿䋶枭炻昌傥㍸⋯㔁ⷓ䘬⢓㯋ˣ㓡嬲䳬䷼㔯⊾ᷳ⢾炻 㚜傥⮯℞䴻槿㍐⺋军℞Ṿ⬠㟉炻忁⮵ㆹ⚳㔁做⑩岒䘬㍸⋯㚱㤝⣏䘬≑䙲ˤ 炷Ḽ炸ㆸ≇䘬㔁ⷓ柀⮶炻㚱岜埴㓧㬋䡢䘬ン⹎冯ℐ≃䘬㓗㊩ˣ㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭怑↯ 䘬柀⮶㕡⺷ˣẍ⍲栀シ惵⎰ᷳ塓柀⮶㔁ⷓᶱ㕡ᷳℙ⎴⎰ἄ 晾䃞㔁ⷓ柀⮶㛔岒ᶲ㗗ˬ䓙ᶳ侴ᶲ˭䘬㔁做㓡朑炻Ữ㗗⤪㝄⬠㟉㰺㚱埴㓧ˬ䓙 ᶲ侴ᶳ˭䘬䘤≽炻ẍ㔁ⷓ䘮⎴ḳ⛘ỵ⸛䫱䘬奺⹎Ἦ䚳炻⼰暋枮⇑䓊↢ˤỮ埴㓧䘬ン ⹎朆ⷠ慵天炻⽭枰ᶵ㯪䩳䪧夳⼙ˣℐ≃惵⎰炻ℵ≈ᶲ℞Ṿ㔁ⷓ忂≃⎰ἄ炻㔁ⷓ柀⮶ ㇵ傥䓇㟡䘤⯽ˤ 炷ℕ炸㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬⚘⠫⛐㕤冯⣍Ờ㔁ⷓ惵⮵ᶵ䔞ˣ⎴ṩ㈿㉺㕘⡆ⶍἄˣⶍἄ屈 㑼≈慵⍲㗪攻ᶵ嵛䫱 㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭⮵㕤ᶵ⎴柀➇ᷳ惵⮵炻㚫ẍ⛀橼庼⮶墄℞ᶵ嵛烊朊⮵⎴ṩ㈿㉺㕘⡆ ⶍἄ炻㚫ẍ侸⽫忚埴㝼⿏⊠⮶烊怕忯㋓㉀炻ẍ䅙ね␴ἧ␥デ婧㔜⽫ン烊朊⮵婌妋炻 ẍ嫁⋹ン⹎⍲㚵⊁䱦䤆⊾妋₝⯨烊䞼妶㗪攻ᶵ嵛炻⇯┬䓐⋰梸⍲ẹ〗㗪攻ˤ

Πȃ࡚ដ!

炷ᶨ炸㔁做埴㓧㨇斄䧵㤝妪⭂㚱⇑㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬㓧䫾炻ℐ≃⋼≑⎬㟉㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀

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⮶⮎⊁ 㑼ả㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭㗗枭⎫≃ᶵ妶⤥䘬ⶍἄ炻⤪㫚㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶ẍὫ忚⬠㟉嬲朑炻 㔁做埴㓧Ṣ⒉ㅱ䧵㤝妪⭂㚱⇑㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬㓧䫾炻ἳ⤪烉妪⭂䷦⃒㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䋶⊝彎 㱽炻ẍ⏠⺽㚜⣂㔁ⷓ㈽ℍ㔁ⷓ柀⮶埴↿烊ㆾ㗗㋡㲐⃭嵛䘬䴻屣枸䬿炻ẍ⫽做㔁ⷓ柀 ⮶ㆸ攟䘬䑘⠫烊ㆾ㗗⮯㔁ⷓ柀⮶冯㔁ⷓ䓇㵗㗱⋯⇞⹎䳸⎰炻ẍ⺽⮶⃒䥨㔁ⷓ栀シ㍍ ⍿柀⮶䘬㊹㇘ˤ 炷Ḵ炸忳䓐⣏⬠冯ᷕ⮷⬠⣍Ờ⋼ἄ䘬㕡⺷炻⋼≑⬠㟉妋㰢⓷柴忚侴㶙ℍḮ妋㔁 ⷓ柀⮶➡妻婚䦳ᷳ暨㯪ẍ⺢㥳䲣䴙⊾䘬➡妻婚䦳 ⷓ屯➡做㨇㥳冯ᷕ⮷⬠㔁ⷓ⎰ἄ炻憅⮵㔁ⷓ柀⮶㍐≽⓷柴炻忚埴埴≽䞼䨞炻ᶵ Ữ⎗⋼≑⬠㟉妋㰢⓷柴᷎⮯䞼䨞䘤䎦㍸ὃ⬠埻䓴⍲⮎⊁䓴⍫侫炻Ṏ⎗䘤㍀㔁ⷓ柀⮶ 侭⽭枰℟⁁䘬䞍傥炻ℵ㒂㬌攳姕㔁ⷓ柀⮶䲣䴙⊾婚䦳ẍ忚埴➡妻ˤ 炷ᶱ炸㟉攟冯⎬嗽⭌ᷣảṎㅱ⍫冯㔁ⷓ柀⮶䚠斄➡妻炻ẍ➡梲㬋䡢䘬㍐≽冯⎰ ἄン⹎ 䚖⇵⍫≈㔁ⷓ柀⮶䚠斄䞼佺侭⸦᷶㗗枸⁁㑼ả㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭炻Ữ㔁ⷓ柀⮶㚱岜埴 㓧䘬㓗㊩冯⎰ἄㇵ㚱ㆸ≇ᷳ㨇㚫炻⚈㬌㟉攟⍲⎬嗽⭌ᷣảṎㅱ㍍⍿➡妻ẍ⮵㔁ⷓ柀 ⮶㚱䚠䔞䘬娵嬀冯㤪⾝炻ㇵ傥㌴㎉㍐≽䘬始䩭冯惵⎰䘬䱦橻ˤ 炷⚃炸憅⮵㔁ⷓ柀⮶忚埴ᾳ㟰䞼䨞炻ẍ㊾㍀㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭嗽䎮⚘⠫䘬⽫ね婧怑⍲ 㚱㓰ᷳ℟橼ἄ㱽 ⍿姒侭ᶵ媙妨⛐㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶㗪䘬䡢㚫怕忯劍⸚䘬㋓㉀⍲⓷柴炻⤪ỽ≯㔊朊 ⮵ˣ䨩䟜⚘⠫ˣ➭㊩⇘⸽ˣ攳剙䳸㝄炻㬋㗗⎬㟉㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶ṇ暨ᷳṾⰙᷳ䞛ˤ㛒 Ἦ⤪傥憅⮵䨩䟜⚘⠫䘬㬟䦳忚埴ᾳ㟰䞼䨞炻⮯㚱≑㕤Ṿ㟉㍐≽㔁ⷓ柀⮶妋㰢⓷柴ᷳ 慵天⍫侫ˤ 炷Ḽ炸ẍ⁽Ṣ柀⮶䘬䱦䤆⊾妋㔁ⷓ柀⮶冯埴㓧柀⮶⎗傥䓊䓇䘬奺刚堅䨩 㔁ⷓ柀⮶冯埴㓧柀⮶⛐⎴ᶨ㇨⬠㟉暁年忚埴炻暁㕡䘬奺刚ˣ㪲屔⽭枰㶭㤂慸㶭 ᷎〘⤪℞↮炻⏎⇯⛐⮎⊁ᶲ⭡㖻䓊䓇↮ⶍᶵ㶭冯忦崲㪲旸䘬䎦尉ˤᶵ婾㗗㔁ⷓ柀⮶ 侭ㆾ㗗埴㓧柀⮶侭炻㚜慵天䘬㗗⽭枰℟⁁⁽Ṣ柀⮶䃉䥩⣱䌣ˣㆸ⯙ṾṢ䘬㚵⊁䱦䤆炻 ⤪㬌ㇵ傥枮⇑⊾妋堅䨩ˣ妋㰢⓷柴ˤ

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୤ՃМᝦ!

ᶩᶨ栏ˣ⻝⽟扛炷2009炸ˤ冢⊿ⶪ㔁⬠⮶ⷓˣ㔁ⷓ柀⮶冯⮰㤕⬠佺䣦佌斄Ὢᷳ䞼䨞ˤ 冢⊿ⶪ㓧⹄㔁做⯨⥼妿ᷳ⮰柴䞼䨞ㆸ㝄⟙⏲ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉冢⊿ⶪ䩳㔁做⣏⬠㔁做 埴㓧冯姽揹䞼䨞㇨ˤ 㜿⣑䣸炷2004炸ˤ㔁做䞼䨞ΐ䎮㸾⇯ˤ㔁做䞼䨞㚰↲炻132炻70-86ˤ 㜿㫋₨炷2009炸ˤ冢ᷕⶪ⚳㮹⮷⬠㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ䞼䨞炷㛒↢䇰ᷳ䡑⢓婾㔯炸ˤ⚳灅冢ᷕ 㔁做⣏⬠炻冢ᷕⶪˤ ⢷㜿㶭炷1999炸ˤ⇞⹎嬲朑ᷕ㔁做⮎槿䘬䨢攻烉ᶨᾳ埴≽䞼䨞䘬⮎ἳ冯㤪⾝ˤㅱ䓐⽫ 䎮䞼䨞炻1炻33-68ˤ ⻝⽟扛炷2010炸ˤ╂愺㰰䜉䘬ⶐṢȹȹ婾㔁ⷓ柀⮶⛐ㆹ⚳ᷕ⮷⬠䘬䘤⯽ˤ冢⊿ⶪ䩳㔁 做⣏⬠⬠⟙炻41炷2炸炻81-110ˤ ⻝⽟扛ˣ⻝䳈”炷2010炸ˤ㟉攟廱✳柀⮶ˣ㔁ⷓ柀⮶冯㔁⬠㓰傥ᷳ䚠斄䞼䨞ˤ冢⊿ⶪ 㓧⹄㔁做⯨⥼妿ᷳ⮰柴䞼䨞ㆸ㝄⟙⏲ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉冢⊿ⶪ䩳㔁做⣏⬠㔁做埴㓧冯 姽揹䞼䨞㇨ˤ 匲⊅⇑炷2005炸ˤㆹ⚳ᷕ⮷⬠㟉柀⮶䘬㕘⿅䵕ȹȹ㔁ⷓ柀⮶ˤ⬠㟉埴㓧暁㚰↲炻40炻 17-29ˤ 悕様⯽炷2007炸ˤ⬠㟉柀⮶䘬㕘℠䭬ȹȹ㔁ⷓ柀⮶ˤ⬠㟉埴㓧暁㚰↲炻49炻150-175ˤ 昛⎹㖶炷2002炸ˤ䣦㚫䥹⬠岒䘬䞼䨞ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉Ḽ⋿ˤ 昛ἑ劙炷2008炸ˤ㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ冰崟冯䘤⯽ˤ㔁做䞼䨞㚰↲炻171炻41-57ˤ 昛㵹⏃炷2010炸ˤ冢⊿ⶪ⚳㮹ᷕ⬠⬠佺柀➇⎔普Ṣ㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᷳ䞼䨞炷㛒↢䇰ᷳ䡑⢓婾 㔯炸ˤ⚳䩳冢䀋ⷓ䭬⣏⬠炻冢⊿ⶪˤ 哉忚晬炷2004炸ˤ婾㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬嵐⊊冯䘤⯽ˤ㔁做屯㕁冯䞼䨞炻59炻92-98ˤ 哉忚晬炷2007炸ˤ⚳㮹ᷕ⬠㔁ⷓ㔁⬠柀⮶ᷳ⺢㥳冯䘤⯽ȹȹẍ⬠佺柀➇⎔普Ṣ䁢ἳ炻 ⬠㟉埴㓧暁㚰↲炻52炻20-43ˤ

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㔁ⷓ柀⮶Ὢ㊯ˬ㔁ⷓὅ㬋⺷借ỵㆾ侭ẍ朆㬋⺷䘬㕡⺷炻⼙枧ˣ柀⮶㔁ⷓ⎴₽炻 ᶨ⎴㓡忚㔁做⮎⊁炻忚侴㍸⋯⬠䓇⬠佺䘬㬟䦳ˤ˭ㆹᾹ䚠ᾉ䎦⛐ㆾ㚦䴻幓䁢㔁ⷓ柀 ⮶侭ᷳᶨ䘬㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ炻⎗ẍ⮵⎴ḳˣ⮵⬠㟉ˣ䓂军⮵㟉⢾䘬㔁⬠⮰㤕忁ᶱᾳ朊 ⎹炻䘤㎖㬋⎹ˣ列⿏䘬⼙枧≃ˤẍᶳㆹᾹ⮯⽆㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䘬䘤㍀ˣ➡妻冯䘤⯽ˣ⮎ ⊁忳ἄˣㆸ㓰冯⚘⠫ˣ⼙枧⚈䳈䫱⸦ᾳ奺⹎炻婳㔁ぐ䎦⛐ㆾ㚦䴻 䁢ᶨỵ㔁⬠庼⮶ 㔁ⷓ⮎晃⍫冯㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬ね㱩ˤ ᶨˣ㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䘬䘤㍀ l 䔞⇅⬠㟉䁢ỽ㚫彎䎮㔁⬠⮶ⷓ⇞⹎烎⛐⬠㟉彎䎮䘬忶䦳ᷕぐ奢⼿㚱⒒ṃ䈡 刚烎 l ⬠㟉㗗⤪ỽ怜怠ぐ㑼ả㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ烎ぐ奢⼿ぐ℟㚱恋ṃṢ㟤䈡岒ㆾ傥≃䴻 槿ɃɃ䫱㡅ẞ烎 l ぐ䁢Ṩ湤栀シ㑼ả㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ烎ぐ䘬䎮゛㗗Ṩ湤烎 Ḵˣ㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䘬➡妻冯䘤⯽ l 䁢Ḯ 䁢ᶨỵ㚱㓰䘬㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭炻ぐ㍍⍿忶⒒ṃ借⇵➡妻炷⤪㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ ⃚妻ˣ柀➇⎔普Ṣ➡妻ˣ䣦佌⎔普Ṣ➡妻ˣᷣả⃚妻䫱炸烎ぐ奢⼿℞ℏ⭡␴ ㆸ㓰⤪ỽ烎 l ⛐ぐ⮎晃⽆ḳ㔁ⷓ柀⮶⼴炻ぐ㗗⤪ỽ㊩临䘤⯽柀⮶䘬傥≃烎⬠㟉㍸ὃ⒒ṃ⮎ 岒䘬⋼≑烎 ᶱˣ㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䘬⮎⊁忳ἄ l 婳ぐ↮⇍⽆烉炷1炸⮵⎴ḳ炷⤪ⷞ柀㕘忚㔁ⷓˣ⮰㤕⬠佺䣦佌炸ˣ炷2炸⮵⬠㟉炷⤪ ⍫冯婚䦳䘤⯽⥼⒉㚫ˣ㑼ả㔁⬠庼⮶㔁ⷓ⎔普Ṣ炸ˣ炷3炸⮵㟉⢾䘬㔁⬠⮰㤕炷⤪ 㑼ả⚳㔁庼⮶⛀⛀⒉ˣ⍫冯⛘㕡⿏⍲ℐ⚳⿏㔁㛸㔁㱽䞼䘤ⶍἄ炸忁ᶱᾳ奺⹎炻 ↮⇍婒㖶ぐ㚦䴻㑼ả忶䘬奺刚␴⮎晃ⶍἄ䘬ℏ⭡烎 l ぐ䎦⛐ᷣ天䘬柀⮶ả⊁ˣ㳣≽ℏ⭡㗗Ṩ湤烎ぐ㗗⤪ỽ忚埴䘬烎⎗⏎娛䳘㍷徘 ᶨᶳˤ l 幓䁢㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭䘬ぐ炻ぐ䘬柀⮶䎮⾝㗗Ṩ湤烎ぐ䘬柀⮶㕡⺷⍰㗗⤪ỽ烎 l ⮵㕤㛒Ἦ炻ぐ⮵ぐ䘬㔁ⷓ柀⮶ⶍἄ㚱ỽ㥳゛冯㛇⼭烎

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⚃ˣ㔁ⷓ柀⮶䘬ㆸ㓰冯⚘⠫ l  䁢ᶨỵ㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭炻ぐ奢⼿⮵冒⶙䘬㔁⬠㚱⒒ṃ⸓≑烎䁢Ṩ湤烎 l ぐ㑼ả㔁ⷓ柀⮶ⶍἄ炻ぐ奢⼿⮵⎴ḳ㚱⒒ṃ⸓≑烎傥ᶵ傥冱↢℟橼䘬⮎ἳ烎 l ぐ㑼ả㔁ⷓ柀⮶侭炻ぐ奢⼿⮵㚵⊁⬠㟉䘬㔁做䘤⯽␴朑㕘㚱⒒ṃ⸓≑烎傥ᶵ 傥冱↢℟橼䘬⮎ἳ烎 l ぐ㑼ả㔁ⷓ柀⮶ⶍἄ炻ぐ奢⼿⮵㟉⢾䘬㔁⬠⮰㤕㚱⒒ṃ⸓≑烎傥ᶵ傥冱↢℟ 橼䘬⮎ἳ烎 l ぐ㑼ả㔁ⷓ柀⮶ⶍἄ炻忯⇘⒒ṃ⚘暋烎忁ṃ⚘暋㚫ᶵ㚫ⷞ䴎ぐ䃉≃デㆾ㋓㉀ デ烎 Ḽˣ⼙枧㔁ⷓ柀⮶忳ἄ䘬⚈䳈 l ぐ娵䁢ぐ㇨⽆ḳ䘬㔁ⷓ柀⮶ⶍἄ㚫ᶵ㚫⍿⇘㟉攟柀⮶䘬⼙枧烎㚫ᶵ㚫⍿⇘埴 㓧㓗㊩䲣䴙䘬⼙枧烎傥ᶵ傥↮⇍冱↢ᶨṃ⮎ἳ烎 l ぐ娵䁢ぐ㇨⽆ḳ䘬㔁ⷓ柀⮶ⶍἄ⍿⇘⒒ṃ⬠㟉䳬䷼䳸㥳⚈䳈炷⤪⬠㟉⭀₂橼 ⇞ˣ㹅忂䵚嶗ᶵ列炸䘬⼙枧烎ぐ㗗⤪ỽ朊⮵冯妋㰢䘬烎 l ぐ娵䁢ぐ㇨⽆ḳ䘬㔁ⷓ柀⮶ⶍἄ㚫ᶵ㚫⍿⇘㔁ⷓ㔯⊾⚈䳈炷⤪ᾳṢᷣ佑Ḻᶵ ⸚㴱䘬㔯⊾ˣ⎴₽⸛䫱䘬奨⾝炸䘬⼙枧烎ぐ㗗⤪ỽ朊⮵冯妋㰢䘬烎 l ⤪㝄䓐ᶨ⎍娙Ἦ䷥䳸ぐ⛐㔁ⷓ柀⮶ᶲ䘬≒≃␴届䌣炻ぐ㚫婒ɃɃ

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