A Study on the Human Resource Development Competencies of Human Resource Managers in Burkina Faso

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(1)A Study on the Human Resource Development Competencies of Human Resource Managers in Burkina Faso. by Helene Lydia Marguerite Tenin Konkobo. A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Major: International Human Resource Development. Advisor: Chih-Chien Steven Lai, Ph. D.. National Taiwan Normal University Taipei, Taiwan June, 2015.

(2) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Foremost, my gratitude goes to God Almighty for all the graces I received since I have been in Taiwan and particularly during the last two years. My Lord, words are not enough to express the feelings in my heart, but I am glad because you know my heart better than anyone else. My heartfelt gratitude goes to my advisor Dr. Chih-Chien Lai, for his kindness, guidance and patience with me through this quest. My gratitude also goes to my committee members, Dr. Wei-Wen Chang and Dr. Chun-Wei Yeh, for their advice and guidance. I have learned a lot from all of you. I would also like to thank TaiwanICDF for the opportunity they have given me to further my education in Taiwan. Also, a big thank you to Kate, Tracy and Jessica for their help whenever I reached to them. To my classmates, I would like to say thank you guys, thank you for making this journey full of joy and laughter. A special thank you to Lisa, Awa, Jeanine and Carlos for always having my back and encouraging me to push harder. A big thank you to my family members, my dad Alain Konkobo, my mom Cecile Konkobo, my siblings Michelle, Wilfried and Hermann for their unconditional love and support. I hope I can continue to make you proud. Daddy and Mommy may God continue to keep you healthy so that you can reap what you sow. Last but not least, I would like to express my gratitude to all the HR managers and people in Burkina Faso that contributed in making this thesis a reality. May the Lord protect and reward all of you. As my last word to all of you I would like to cite Meister Eckhart, who said: “If the only prayer you said was thank you, that would be enough.” Therefore, from the deepest of my heart, THANK YOU!.

(3) ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to identify the development needs of HR professionals in Burkina Faso by determining the expertise level and the importance of the HRD competencies as it relates to their functions. The study used a mixed mode approach in order to minimalize the limitations of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. This study aimed at contributing to knowledge on HRD in providing a base line that can be used to develop the practice of HRD in Burkina Faso. The target population of this research was the HR managers in the country. The survey questionnaire was adapted from the original 2004 ASTD Competency Study Mapping the Future and then translated into French. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the survey questionnaire and content analysis was used analyze the interviews. The results showed that HR managers in Burkina Faso perceive their expertise level in HRD competencies, at the exception of learning technologies. The study also, established that the perception of HRD competencies level, differ among demographic groups. Keywords: HRD competencies, Burkina Faso, competency model, training and development need assessment.. I.

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(5) TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................. I TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................................................................... III LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................... V LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................. VI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................1 Background of the Study ............................................................................................................. 1 Statement of the Problem ............................................................................................................ 3 Objectives of the Study ............................................................................................................... 4 Research Questions ..................................................................................................................... 4 Significance of the Study ............................................................................................................ 5 Definition of Terms ..................................................................................................................... 5. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW ..............................................................7 Definition of HRD....................................................................................................................... 7 Theories and Importance of HRD ............................................................................................. 10 Competency Models for HRD Managers .................................................................................. 14. CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN ................................................................31 Research Framework ................................................................................................................. 31 Research Methods ..................................................................................................................... 32 Data Collection .......................................................................................................................... 33 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument................................................................................. 37 Data Analysis............................................................................................................................. 39 Research Procedure ................................................................................................................... 40. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ...............................................43 Results ....................................................................................................................................... 43 Discussions ................................................................................................................................ 61. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................63 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................... 63 Implications ............................................................................................................................... 65 III.

(6) Recommendations ..................................................................................................................... 69 Limitations ................................................................................................................................ 70 Future Research Suggestions .................................................................................................... 71. REFERENCES .......................................................................................................72 APPENDIX A: COVER LETTER ENGLISH VERSION.................................78 APPENDIX B: COVER LETTER FRENCH VERSION ..................................79 APPENDIX C: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ENGLISH VERSION .............80 APPENDIX D: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE FRENCH VERSION ..............85 APPENDIX E: INTERVIEW FILE ENGLISH VERSION ..............................91 APPENDIX F: INTERVIEW FILE FRENCH VERSION ................................93 APPENDIX G: QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS BY AOEs .....................................96 APPENDIX H: SAMPLE OF INTERVIEW CODING .....................................98. IV.

(7) LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1 Some Definitions of HRD through the Years………….……………..………..……….9 Table 2.2 Area of Expertise as Identified by the ASTD (2013)…………………..….….…....…20 Table 2.3 SHRM Competency Model Competencies and Sub-competencies....…..……………24 Table 2.4 The 2012 Competency Model of the RBL Group Description..…….…..……..……..26 Table 3.1 Expertise Level scale and Description..……………………….......………………….35 Table 3.2 Scale for Perceived Importance…………………………………….………................35 Table 3.3 Interview Questions Development...…………………….………………………..…..36 Table 3.4 Reliability Analysis………………………………….........…………………………..38 Table 4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Survey Respondents….……………………..…..44 Table 4.2 Demographic characteristics of the survey interviewees……….………....….……….44 Table 4.3 Mean Score and Standard Deviation of HRD Competencies…….…………………...45 Table 4.4 Perceived Importance of HRD Competencies Ranking…………………….…….…..45 Table 4.5 Perceived Expertise Level of HRD Competencies Ranking……………………….....46 Table 4.6 One Way ANOVA of gender on HRD Competencies………………………………..49 Table 4.7 Years of Work Experience Groups Scores on HRD Competencies…………………..50 Table 4.8 One Way ANOVA of Work Experience Groups on HRD Competencies…………....51 Table 4.9 Discipline Area Groups Scores on HRD Competencies………………………….…...54 Table 4.10 One Way ANOVA of Discipline Area Groups on HRD Competencies………….....55 Table 4.11 Education Level Groups Scores on HRD Competencies………………………..…...56 Table 4.12 One Way ANOVA of Educational Level Groups on HRD Competencies………….57. V.

(8) LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 The theoretical foundation of HRD.………………………………………………….12 Figure 2.2 The iceberg model.…………………………………………………………………...15 Figure 2.3 The 2004 ASTD competency model.………………………………………………...18 Figure 2.4 The new ASTD competency model.…………………………………………………19 Figure 2.5 The SHRM competency model.……………………………………………………...24 Figure 3.1 The research framework.……………………………………………………………..31 Figure 3.2 Sample of the questionnaire.…………………………………………………………34 Figure 3.3 Research procedure.………………………………………………………………….41 Figure 4.1 Importance and expertise level of HRD competencies.……………………………...47 Figure 4.2 Prioritizing HRD competencies development needs.…………………………...…....48. VI.

(9) CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter provides an insight of the study background, the problem statement, the objectives of the study, the research questions, and the significance of the study. Finally, the key terms were defined and thereafter the delimitation of the study was stated in order to provide a comprehensive focus for this study.. Background of the Study In recent years, the economies and the populations of Africa highly educated workforce have been increasing with a rise in trade and investment in most part of the continent. Citing Okonjo – Iweala (2007) finance minister of Nigeria posited that: “There is an Africa that you do not hear often about ... this is the Africa that is changing, the land of opportunity, and the continent where people want to take charge of their own destinies.” (www.Ted.com). Moreover, the 21st century has also been called by some futurists, the rising era. This description seems to be an accurate picture of all the remarkable changes that is taking place. According to the African Development Bank (AfDB), Africa’s middle class has tripled over the past three decades to 355 million or more than 34% of the continent’s population. Recently, there is an advance in technology and socioeconomic development creating a change in organizational environments (Tseng & McLean, 2008). However, all these changes point out the necessity of establishing a strong and vibrant human resource development system to ensure sustainable development of the continent. Additionally, human capital represents a potential source change as economies shifted from natural resources to intellectual assets in order to reach countries economic development aspiration. Fredriksen and Kagia (2013) posited that, ‘‘for countries’ ability to manage change processes, in ways that allow them to seize the opportunities while minimizing risks, will increasingly depend on the quality of their human capital” (p.3). Furthermore, Benhabib and Spiegel (1993) demonstrated the strong relationship between human capital and economic growth. Also, McLagan (1997) emphasized that the economic development of a nation depends on the level of people’s knowledge and skills. . In organization, human resource professionals are responsible for needs assessments of the organization's current workforce in order to determine the type of skills training and employee development activities necessary for improving knowledge and skills. Thus, it is imperative to assess the ability of the HR professionals in order to verify if they have the necessary expertise to 1.

(10) develop the KSAO (Knowledge, Skills, Ability and Other characteristics) of employees in various organizations in Burkina Faso. Additionally, Africa has been urged by international organizations, such as The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB), to increase private sector and to move from government own organizations to private owned organizations; as this will increase the level of investment and economy growth in the continent. These changes will imply that all efforts should be made to increase the efficiency of the private sector in African countries. One way to improve the private sector is to ensure HR managers working for these companies have the necessary competencies to be strategic partners that will drive economic growth by providing appropriate training to the employees. Albeit, since a major part of the continent work force still belongs to the public sector, the HR managers in the public sector should also develop their strategic abilities in order to help the public institutions smooth transition from government owned institutions to privately owned institutions, and Burkina Faso is not an exception. This call for the need to help Burkina Faso in developing their human capital potentials, by first trying to develop those who are in charge of developing human resource in organization. Moreover, many institutions and researchers attempted to identify what could be the knowledge and skills necessary for human resource professionals and human resource development practitioners are responsible for developing organization workforce to be successful. Those institution such as the American Society of Training and Development (ASTD; now ATD), The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) mapped those skills and knowledge into competency models (Rothwell, et al. 1999; Tseng & McLean, 2008). The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) is one of the organization which developed competency models for human resource practitioners. The ASTD has for many decades developed literature and competencies, which were almost exclusively related to the function of human resource development. The ASTD competency is highly relevant as more and more studies related human resource development are using as reference competencies, established by the ASTD. (Konan, 2010; Chen, 2003; Yoo, 1999). However, some African countries, such as Burkina Faso, have placed little attention on developing human resource development skills for the human resource practitioners. In fact, up to date, no higher education institution offers a program purely related to human resource. 2.

(11) development. Moreover, almost no study has been conducted to determine competencies needed by human resource professionals.. Outlook of HRD in Burkina Faso Burkina Faso is a country located in West Africa with a population of 16.93 million people (2013) and an economic growth of 6.5% in 2013 (www.worldbank.org). The country has, in the recent years, witnessed a steady economic and workforce growth. In response to the changes the government of Burkina Faso has developed a national policy on vocational and technical education and training (PN/TVET). It is a framework shaping the activities related to technical and vocational education and training. This policy is applicable on government departments, the public and private actors involved in the training. The aim is to equip Burkina Faso with sufficient expertise in order to promote more national development. The PN/TEVT covers all training practices (formal, non-formal and informal). It also aims at enabling young people and adults attending school, not attending school, school leavers to acquire professional skills. Thus, this call for the need for competent and qualified HR professionals to manage the flow of new businesses, the supply of qualified workers and sustain the growth of the economy. The essential of HRD practices in the country focus on training. Understanding the need for Human resource of the country, the HR professional in Burkina Faso established associations in order to promote excellence in the HR field. The associations has for names “Association Burkinabe des Gestionnaires des Ressources Humaines” (ABGRH) and “Association professionnelle des gestionnaires des ressources humaines” (GRH/AP) The ABGRH was created in 2001, and GRH/AP was created in 2014. The main objective of these associations is to serve as platform of experience exchange between HR professionals and also promote HR in Burkina Faso. The associations organize every year a national day for promoting the HR function. During the national day for HR, conferences and training are offered to enhance HR managers and also the general public knowledge on HR practices and impact on organizations. Yet, those associations struggle to attract the interest of HR managers. Statement of the Problem According to African Management Institution (AMI, 2012), Burkina Faso, as many other French speaking countries in Africa does not have a renowned Management or Business school. In addition, the “Conseil Africain et Malgache pour l’Enseignement Supérieur” (CAMES), the pan 3.

(12) African institution in charge of recognizing and validating diplomas from French speaking African countries only recognize three HR program diplomas. Although some programs might offer classes related to training there is no degree purely focus on human resource development in Burkina Faso. In this context, it appears really important to assess the human resource development (HRD) competencies of the HR managers of Burkina Faso to ascertain that they are ready for the changes that are occurring and if developmental needs arise from this assessment, provide adequate recommendations to bridge the gap of competencies needs. Furthermore, there is need for more research on human resource development in Burkina Faso due to lack of literature about African HR managers especially from the francophone part of Africa. This makes it prudent for professionals in the Education fields and corporate trainers to know in details what are the adequate development plan for the HR managers Burkina Faso. Objectives of the Study The main focus of this study is to explore and describe the human resource development (HRD) competencies of HR managers in Burkina Faso. This research aims at: 1. Determine which competencies the HR managers perceive as important. 2. Determine the perceived expertise level of HR managers in each competency. 3. Investigate the development needs of HR managers from the self-assessment. 4. Determine whether demographics groups perceive their Level of expertise differently 5. Determine the best development channels from the expert’s point of view.. Research Questions Based on the research background and the objectives the following research questions are proposed: Objective 1 1. Which of the HRD competency domains do the HR managers perceive as important to their organization? Objective 2 2. What is the perceived level of expertise of HR managers in the HRD competency domains?. 4.

(13) Objective 3 3. What is from the self-assessment the development needs of HR managers? Objective 4 4. Is there any difference in the perception of demographics groups towards HRD competency expertise level? Objective 5 5. What are the best development channels for the HR managers?. Significance of the Study The study might be useful for providing HR professionals in the Burkina Faso with their development needs and, also, competencies they need to possess or further develop in order to have a strategic role in the their organizations. This study adds much needed information and literature on Burkina Faso HR managers, especially those from a French-speaking. According to literature, it has been asked from the human development field to try in their research to conciliate theory and practice (Starkey & Madan, 2001); therefore contributions to literature and research should bring knowledge that can have implications for improving critical problems of practice. Kaufman (2012) noted that the results from HRD competencies development should be applicable and relevant to organizations. According to Bartlett and Kang (2004), Human resource development researchers have the potential to make significant contributions to understand the nature of the work environment and the variables that influences it. As such, this study attempted to contribute to both research and practice.. Definition of Terms In this section, the researcher defined the variables that were used in this study. Competency: Refers to an individual demonstrated knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and other attributes that underlie effective job performance (McLagan, 1997). In this study competency represent the knowledge, skills and abilities of HR managers in human resource development. Importance of HRD competency: The perceived level of importance of HRD competency indicates the level of relevance HR professionals place on the HRD competency as it relates to their function (Bernthal, et al. 2004). In this study, it is measured in 5 levels. Level 1 not important,. 5.

(14) level 2 slightly important, level 3 important, level 4 is for very important and level 5 extremely important or critical. Expertise in HRD competencies: The level of expertise in HRD competencies means the level of mastery the HR professionals has of the HRD competencies (Bernthal et al. 2004). The scale for level of Expertise is developed following the model of skill acquisition by Dreyfus (1981). Level 1 for novice, level 2for beginner, level 3 for competent, level 4 for proficient, and level 5 for. expert. Training and development: “Training focuses on identifying, assuring, and helping develop though planned learning, the key competencies that enable individuals to perform their current job” (McLagan, 1989, p. 9). Development refers to education, the experience at job and assessments of personality and abilities that can help employees prepare for their future responsibilities (Noe, 2002). Competency gap: It is the discrepancy between the current competency level and the required competency level. In this study, the competency gap was measured by the self-assessment. The competency gap was represented by the difference between the mean value of the competency and the “expert” mean value which is according to the scale 5.0 for this study. Development channels: Refers in this study to the means or ways to develop the HR managers in this study HRD competencies The introduction provided the background setting for study, in the following section will be discussed the relevant literature first, and based on the literature review a research methodology was developed.. 6.

(15) CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter gives an overview of relevant literature on HRD and HRD competencies. The first section discusses the definition of HRD; the second section discusses the theories of HRD. The third section presented the HRD competencies for HR managers. Lastly, this chapter provides an overview of some relevant studies on HR managers’ HRD competencies.. Definition of HRD Evolution of HRD The concept of human resource management (HRM) started its evolution from the 1960s along with the concept of HRD. These two concepts share the similar roots, because they both refer to the human capital of the organization (Haslinda, 2009; Tseng & McLean, 2008). HRD, which is seen as a young academic field, is still struggling to find its rightful place besides HRM. For Ruona and Lynham (2004), in practice, HRD and HRM are not separate functions therefore shouldn’t be separated. In reality, the field of HRD is considered by many authors such as McGoldrick, Stewart and Watson (2001), and, Ruona and Lynham, (2004), as a replica of HRM, even in countries where HRD field seems to be mature and widely spread such as the United States, it is still difficult to find a major line to distinguish the two fields from one another (Rowold, 2008; Stavrou-Costea, 2005). Despite the co-existence of the two disciplines, yet there exist historical differences. Historically, HRD, according to Gilley and Eggland (1989), and, DeSimone and Harris (1998), can trace its origin to the early apprenticeship and vocational education programs in early factory schools; although during this period, the workplace was not considered a learning place (Gilley & Eggland, 1989). Since then, HRD has been growing gradually and has now proven to be a discipline of its own. This has not been without the support of researcher communities such as: the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) and the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) (Swanson & Holton, 2001). Despite these similarities the HRD field through the years is proving to be a field that has a place of its own next to the HRM field. The major communities of researchers, which has contributed and favored the emergence and the growth of the HRD field to these days, are the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) and the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) (Swanson & Holton, 2001).. 7.

(16) Definition of HRD The concept of human resource development (HRD) has been defined by many authors. One of the most famous definitions of HRD is the one of McLean and McLean (2001), who defines HRD as the processes and activities which aim in the short or long run to developing the aptitudes of adults and potential in work related knowledge, expertise, satisfaction and productivity. On the other hands, Nadler (1983, p. 1) described the HRD field as “an organized learning experience which could enhance the individual’s work performance and also enables the individual to grow within the organization”. In addition McLagan (1989, p. 7) defines this growing field as “the integrative use of training and development, career development, and organization development to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness”. The table 2.1, in page 9, gives a brief summary of different definitions of HRD as a discipline in different years. Based on scholarly points, it is inferable that the concept of HRD is highly related to work performance enhancement as it improves the competencies of employees. Meaning HRD activities are mainly focused on training the employees for enhanced performance. This concept is further buttressed by theories of different theorist.. 8.

(17) Table 2.1. Some Definitions of HRD Author Harbison Myers. Year Definition and (1964) HRD is the process of improving the knowledge, skills, and capacity order to benefit organization innovation and modernization Nadler (1970) HRD is a succession of organized activities within a specific time and designed to enhance behavioral change. Gilley and Eggland (1989) HRD is an organized learning activities within an organization in order to enhance performance and personal growth. Bergenhenegouwen (1990) HRD is the activities related to training members of an organization in order to provide them with the knowledge and skills needed according to the objectives of the organization. Meggison et al. (1993) HRD is an integrated and holistic approach to changing workrelated behavior using a range of learning techniques Gourlay (2000) HRD integrates theory and practice related to training, development and learning within organizations, for both individuals and competence formation. Swanson (2001) HRD is a process of improving performance through activities such as organization development, personnel training and development. Nyhan (2002) HRD refers to educational training and development activities related to working life. Desimone (2003) HRD is a set of dynamic programs which respond to changes in the organization. Slotte et al. (2004) HRD includes functions related to training, career development, organizational development and research and development in addition to other organizational HR functions where these are intended to foster learning capacity at all levels of the organization, to integrate learning culture into its overall business strategy and to promote the organization’s efforts to achieve high quality performance. Note. Adapted from “Foundations of human resource development” by R.A. Swanson and E.F. Holton, 2001, p.11.San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. After defining the concept of HRD, the next section discusses the theories and importance of HRD for organizations.. 9.

(18) Theories and Importance of HRD Theories of HRD As a theory is meant to explain what a phenomenon is and how it works (Torraco, 1997), HRD is a discipline way broader than any single theory. HRD is a discipline believed to be supported and explained by three main theories: the psychological theory, the economic theory, and the systems theory. The psychological theory. HRD takes place in organizations that are psychologically framed because organizations, therefore it is obvious that psychology is core for HRD (Argyris, 1993; Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993). Most of the books on HRD practices such as training, need assessment, are almost reliant on the behaviorist school of psychology. The principles of this school revolve around everything concerning mental processes of humans and the patterns of human behavior. The psychological theory has three sub-theories which all have an impact on HRD. . Gestalt psychology: HRD for this sub-theory has the purpose of clarifying the goals of each party in the organization.. . Behavioral psychology: for this sub-theory, HRD has the main purpose of developing the knowledge and expertise of all parties in the organization.. . Cognitive psychology (purposive behaviorism): for this sub-theory, HRD has the main purpose of harmonizing the goals and behaviors among all parties in the organization goals and behaviors among all parties in the organization.. The psychological theory, therefore, focuses on the core aspect of developing human resources as well as the socio-technical interactions of humans and systems in the organization. However, due to the reliance of HRD on psychological aspect of the organization rather than the economic agenda via a systematic analysis of the organization and its goals, the field is pushed to the back of the line of priorities of organizations (Swanson, 2001). To strategically place HRD on line of priorities, the Economic theory has been introduced. The economic theory. This theory captures the core issues of the efficient and effective utilization of resources to meet productive goals in a competitive environment. The main idea of this theory revolves around the fact that HRD should be concerned with managing scarce resources and the production of. 10.

(19) wealth by increasing performance in the organization. This theory follows the pattern of the main economic theories. . The scarce resource theory: this theory emphasizes that HRD must provide a justification of its use of scarce resources of the organization.. . The sustainable resource theory: the sustainable resource theory tasks HRD to create added value to sustainable long-term economic performance.. . The human capital theory: this theory emphasizes that HRD must add short term and long term value to the organization. It further stresses the need for HRD to add value to investments in the development of knowledge and expertise of every party in the organization.. It could be recalled that economist Marshall (1949) argued that the most valuable investment for every organization is the one invested in humans. As such, organizations should consider HRD as first line priority. As Drucker (1964) stated management related fields should be viewed as useful derivatives of economic theory of HRD. The systems theory. The main idea of this theory revolves around uniting many sciences in the practices of HRD. This theory is presented by Jacobs (1989) as a theory unifying the different theories in HRD. The theory is set to capture the complex and dynamic nature of the interactions within and without the organizations. The systems theory is constituted by the following sub-theories: . The general system theory: the main focus of this sub theory is that, HRD must understand how it relates with other subsystem in order to find any possible connection or disconnection.. . The chaos theory: this sub theory advocates for HRD to help its host organization to maintain its purpose and effectiveness in the event of chaos.. . The futures theory: as the name implies, this theory emphasizes HRD intervention to help its host organization to prepare for the future.. Buckley (1968) and Gradous (1989) concluded that as HRD takes place in organizations that are involved in a dynamic environment, the system theory can, therefore, find its rightful place as a core theory. The three component HRD theories (the psychological theory, the economic theory, and the system theory) are portrayed as a 3-legged stool, see figure 2.1. This represents the three different 11.

(20) theories and the stool platform represents integration of the three theories into a unique theory of HRD. The organization is represented by the stool which means HRD mostly is done in and for an organization, while ethical rug implies that HRD should cultivate ethics (Swanson, 2001).. Organization, Process, Team & individuals Performance. HRD Theory. Psychological. Systems. Economic. Ethics. Figure 2.1. The theoretical foundation of Human Resource Development. Adapted from “Foundations of human resource development” by R.A. Swanson and E.F. Holton, 2001, p.93. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. Copyright 2008 by Richard A. Swanson. If HRD field is to be relevant to its host organization, it should successfully integrate. After reviewing the main core theories for HRD, the next section establishes the importance of HRD.. Importance of HRD for the Organizations For Swanson (2001), HRD practices such as employees training and development improve the performance of employees, which undoubtedly impacts on organization development (OD). Furthermore, Smith (2004) also argues that the main purpose of HRD in any organization is to enhance work-related knowledge, skills, and attitude (competencies) in all the levels of the organizations. Therefore, HRD seems to have a strong bond with the workplace learning thus improving the productivity of employees From this line of ideas, it becomes more visible that HRD plays major role in bridging the gaps of organization development needs of both individual. 12.

(21) employees and their employers rather than just focusing on the management of employees like HRM. The significance of HRD cannot be over emphasized because all meaningful organizations are very much particular about change and stress management, and training and development which focus on developing the competencies of individuals through planned learning experiences, a concept that represents the core values of HRD (Lynham, 2001; Valkeavaara, 1998). In the past, formal classroom training programs comprised the majority of human resource development activities, and the terms “training” and “development” were seen as similar, but nowadays HRD activities involve developing human potential by various workplace learning and performance activities (Salleh, 2012). In recent years, a new trend in the HRD field has been growing and it discusses the contribution HRD can make to the community and by extension to the nation as a whole (McLean, 2004). In making HRD interventions more meaningful beyond organizational boundaries by linking HRD and the development needs employees for improved performance and career growth, a set of competency models have been developed that match different functions in the organizations. And according to Heffernan and Flood (2000), these competency models could be used to link the main HR process of an organization such as recruitment, training and development, performance management and compensation with the overall business strategy of the organization. Additionally, these competency models can help HR professionals and HRD practitioners to identify the required KSAOs to perform efficiently in a function. It enables them to establish development plan to match the competencies of the employees and what it takes for them to function efficiently and effectively within the organization and beyond. As matter of fact, McClelland (1973) suggested that to test the aptitudes of peoples it is better to rely on competencies rather than intelligence. Based on the literature previously reviewed it could be understood that the HR professional and HRD practitioners play an important roles for the organization. They enable the organization to grow through employee development which makes it important to develop first, the HR professionals in charge of the HRD in the organization especially if they are not HRD practitioners in order to make sure that they possess the adequate competencies to establish development plans for others (Konan, 2010). In doing so, the need to assess HRD competence of the HR professionals in order to establish their development needs is a necessity.. 13.

(22) Competency Models for HRD Managers Competency, which may be understood as combination of knowledge, skills, ability and others required for the performance of a specific job effectively and efficiently (Wynne & Stringer, 1997) has different models. These various models are of paramount importance to HR managers.. Competency and Competency Model Definition of competency. Various authors in the literature offered definitions for competency but none has gotten universal accepted (Whiddett & Hollyforde, 2003). According to Lucia and Lespinger (1999) competency is “A descriptive tool that identifies the skills, knowledge, personal characteristics, and behaviors needed to effectively perform a role in the organization and help the business meet its strategic objectives” (p.5). HR professionals on their part argue that competency represents an important set of tools which offer a platform based on various assessments tools such as the readiness of employees for a job and also the development needs of employees (Verma, Broers, Paterson, & Schroder, 2009). The term can also be defined as identifying a set of highly desirable attributes that can positively influence performance outcomes desired by an organizational Spencer and Spencer (1993, p.11) on the other hand defined competency as “an underlying characteristic of an individual that is causally related to criterion-referenced effective and/or superior in performance in a job or situation”. By using the term “underlying characteristics”, Spencer and Spencer meant to point out the fact that competency is a fairly deep and enduring part of the personality, and that it can predict behavior in job tasks. The terms being causally related, Spencer and Spencer argued that competence can predict behavior and performance. However, researchers and practitioners seek to establish competencies and competency models for the different functions in the organizations as they are used to influence hiring, retention, training practices, and also improve the quality of the organizational workforce. To achieve improved quality work force, definition of competency has widen to include some measurable aspects related to technical, interpersonal, and problem-solving skills, a common definition adopted by many organizations such as the American Society of Training and Development (Bernthal et al., 2004), and the Project Management Institute (PMI, 2002).. 14.

(23) Skills. Visible. Knowledge. Self-concept. Hidden. Trait Motive. Figure 2.2. The iceberg model. Adapted from “Competence at work: Models for superior performance,” by L.Spencer & M.Spencer, 1993, p.11. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright 1993 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. As shown in figure 2.2, the visible competencies are competencies that can be easily assessed, it comprises of the skills and knowledge. Knowledge is the ensemble of information a person owns or knows in a specific area. Skills refer to the ability of an individual to accomplish a given physical and/or mental task. The hidden competencies refer to the competencies that cannot easily be seen or assessed and even developed. The hidden competencies comprise of self-concept, trait and motive. Those competencies are the ones that relate most to the personality of the individual. Selfconcept refers to the attitude and value of an individual and it can be improved by activities such as training, psychotherapy and so on (Spencer & Spencer, 1993). Trait refers to the physical aptitudes of the individual and it is constituted by the individual’s response to a particular situation and information. Finally, motive represents the desire, the emotional needs that drive the individual behavior towards goals and actions. Competency modeling or establishing competency models is the activity of determining the specific competencies that are characteristic of high performers and success in a given job. In a study in 1980, McLagan noted that competency models are important decision tools that offer description of the key capabilities necessary to perform a job. For McLagan (1980), selection,. 15.

(24) development, assessment and planning should always be competency based. This, therefore, shows the importance of competency models. Importance of competency models. The first major benefit of competency models in the HR fields is the fact that competency models are a basis for creating job profiles and deriving some set of tasks and duties for each job. From the job profiles, appropriate candidates for a job are assessed and selected in the talent acquisition. Also job profiles derived from competency models form the basis for performance management system, training and development, and organization development strategies, (Teodorescu, 2006). Noe (2002) added that establishing a set of competencies necessary for a job can help HR practitioners to establish a development plan for employees according to the external environment changes in order to offer a competitive advantage to the company. The HRD field greatly benefits from the mapping of competency because of many reasons: first, competency models are perfect tools to help HRD practitioners to determine the current and future development needs of their organizations and be able to provide solutions. Second, competency models serve as reference for what type of the knowledge and skills employees have to possess at different stages of their careers; and from the assessment of competencies development, solution can be proposed to each employee according to his or her needs. In other words competency models favor the rise of learning in the organization as it makes it easier to know what employees need to learn. Also, competency models help HR professionals to determine their own development needs. Since this study focuses on developing HR professionals on HRD competencies for the HR practitioners in Burkina Faso, it, therefore, becomes imperative to review the different competency models proposed for HR practitioners by the main bodies of research communities.. HRD Competency Models A competency model is a written description of the competencies required for an employee to perform successfully (Dubois & Rothwell, 2004). Competency models for HR professionals and HRD practitioners are numerous, but the most important contribution in this area comes from American Society for Training and Development (ASTD), the society of Human resource management (SHRM) and Ulrich’s RBL group. Mainly, competency models for HR managers and. 16.

(25) practitioner are based on practical experience (Swanson, 1994; Rummler & Brache, 1995; Weisbord, 1987). The models of the ASTD. In 1989 Mclagan under the cover of the ASTD mapped out the domain of competencies which was linked to the HRD field. As a result, this study established that HRD function involved the following areas: Training and Development (T&D), Organization Development (OD) and Career Development (CD). A decade ago, under the sponsorship of the ASTD, Bernthal et al. (2004) established competencies that HRD professionals and people involved in HRD activities ought to possess in other to be efficient. They mapped those competencies in a model called the “New Learning and Performance Wheel”. This wheel is based on the area of expertise of HRD previously established by McLagan (1989), also included in the wheel is a central part which represents the basis of all HR activities, then business strategy followed by the technology. The wheel also includes the competencies necessary for the traditional HR role which is HRM (Dsimone & Werner, 2012). From all those studies, the ASTD established in 2004 a competency model, which displays the competencies HRD professionals have to possess and was called “the 2004 ASTD competency model”. The model below, see figure 2.3 in page 18, denotes the competencies to be possessed by HRD professionals in 2004.. 17.

(26) Business partner Project manager Professional specialist. Learning strategist. Workplace learning/ Performance role Designing Learning Improving Human Performance Delivering Training Measuring and Evaluating Facilitating Organizational Change Managing Learning Function Coaching Managing Organizational Knowledge Career Planning and Talent Management Areas of expertise: Supported by technology. Interpersonal  Building trust  Communicating effectively  Influencing stakeholders  Leveraging diversity  Networking and partnering competencies. competencies. Business/Management. Personal.  Analyzing needs and  Demonstrating adaptability proposing solutions  Modelling  Applying business Personal acumen  Planning and Development implementing assignments  Thinking strategically competencies. competencies. Figure 2.3. The 2004 ASTD competency model. Adapted from “New roles and New competencies for the professionals”, by P.Davis, P.Naughton, &W.Rothwell, 2004, T+D, 58(4), P.29. Copyright 2004 by American Society for Training and Development After the 2004 competency model, a recently and a newly competency model has been developed in 2013 by the ASTD and called “The ASTD competencies for Training and development Profession”, a name that has been recently reframed as “The ATD Competency Model” representing the change of name of ASTD, which now bears the name of “Association for Talent Development (ATD)”. The main objective of this new model is to determine the recent competencies necessary for training and development practitioners, provides a roadmap for the 18.

(27) professionals and to define the latest competencies needed for success across the entire training and development industry.. Figure 2.4. The new ASTD competency model. Adapted from http://www.astd.org/Certification/Competency-Model. Copyright 2013 by American Society for Training and Development The 2004 and 2013 competency models present some similarities because they all establish two types of competencies which are the foundational competencies and the other part shows the areas of expertise for HRD practitioner, nevertheless the two models are a bit different in many aspects. The 2004 and 2013 competency models present some similarities because they all establish two types of competencies, which are the foundational, but the 2013 ASTD competency model has additional three foundational skills which are global mindset, technology literacy and industry knowledge. As for the training and development of the Areas of Expertise (AOEs), apart for coaching, all the other area of expertise bears different names. It is also to be noted that the 2013 ASTD competency model does not display the workplace learning and performance role for the practitioners.. 19.

(28) All the AOEs from the 2004 ASTD competency model are present in the 2013 ASTD competency model. The 2013 ASTD competency model presents a new AOEs which is learning technologies. Table 2.2 provides a list of description of the training and development areas of expertise adapted from Association of Talent Development (2014). Table 2.2. Areas of Expertise as Identified by the ASTD (2013) and ATD (2014) AOE Performance Improvement. Instructional Design. Description Apply a systematic process for analyzing human performance gaps and for closing them. Be able to:  Identify the customer.  Conduct performance analysis.  Conduct cause analysis.  Analyze systems.  Gather data.  Incorporate customer and stakeholder needs.  Select solutions.  Manage and implement projects.  Build and sustain relationships.  Evaluate results against organizational goals.  Monitor change. Design and develop informal and formal learning solutions using a variety of methods. Be able to:  Conduct a needs assessment.  Identify appropriate learning approach.  Apply learning theory.  Collaborate with others.  Design a curriculum, program, or learning solution.  Design instructional material.  Analyze and select technologies.  Integrate technology options.  Develop instructional materials.  Evaluate learning design. (continued). 20.

(29) Table 2.2. (continued) AOE Training Delivery. Description Deliver informal and formal learning solutions in a manner that is both engaging and effective. Be able to:  Manage the learning environment.  Prepare for training delivery.  Convey objectives.  Align learning solutions with course objectives and learner needs.  Establish credibility as an instructor.  Create a positive learning climate.  Deliver various learning methodologies.  Facilitate learning.  Encourage participation and build learner motivation.  Deliver constructive feedback.  Ensure learning outcomes.  Evaluate solutions. Learning Apply a variety of learning technologies to address specific learning Technologies needs. Be able to:  Use technology effectively across the different areas of expertise.  Identify when and how to use technology as a training and development solution. Evaluating Learning Use learning metrics and analytics to measure the impact of learning Impact solutions. Be able to:  Identify customer expectations.  Select appropriate strategies, research design, and measures.  Communicate and gain support for the evaluation plan.  Manage data collections.  Analyze and interpret data.  Apply learning analytics.  Make recommendations to aid decision-making. (continued). 21.

(30) Table 2.2. (continued) AOE Managing Programs. Description Learning Provide leadership to execute the organization’s people strategy; implements training projects and activities. Be able to:  Establish a vision.  Establish strategies.  Implement action plans.  Develop and monitor the budget.  Manage staff.  Model leadership in developing people.  Manage others.  Manage and implement projects.  Manage external resources.  Ensure compliance with legal, ethical, and regulatory requirements. Integrated Talent Build an organization’s culture, capability, capacity, and Management engagement through people development strategies. Be able to :  Align talent management to organizational objectives.  Use talent management systems.  Equip managers to develop their people.  Organize delivery of developmental resources.  Promote high-performance workplaces.  Coordinate workforce and succession planning.  Facilitate the career development planning process.  Facilitate career transitions.  Support engagement and retention efforts.  Implement individual and organizational assessments.  Use talent management analytics to show results and impact. Coaching Apply a systematic process to improve others’ ability to set goals, take action, and maximize strengths. Be able to:  Establish coaching agreement.  Establish trust and intimacy with the client.  Display coaching presence.  Demonstrate active listening.  Ask powerful questions.  Use direct communication.  Create awareness.  Design learning opportunities.  Manage progress and accountability.  Meet ethical guidelines and professional standards. (continued) 22.

(31) Table 2.2. (continued). AOE Knowledge Management. Change Management. Description Capture, distribute, and archive intellectual capital to encourage knowledge-sharing and collaboration. Be able to:  Advocate knowledge management.  Benchmark knowledge management best practices and lessons learned.  Encourage collaboration.  Facilitate social learning.  Establish a knowledge culture.  Support the development of a knowledge management infrastructure.  Leverage technology.  Manage information life cycle.  Design and implement knowledge management. Apply a systematic process to shift individuals, teams, and organizations from current state to desired state. Be able to:  Establish sponsorship and ownership for change.  Build involvement.  Create a contract for change.  Conduct diagnostic assessments.  Provide feedback.  Facilitate strategic planning for change.  Support the change intervention.  Encourage integration of change into organizational culture.  Manage consequences.  Evaluate change results.. Note. Adapted from http://www.astd.org/Certification/Competency-Model. American Society for Training and Development. Copyright 2013 by American Society for Training and Development.. The SHRM model. The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) is a human resource professional association in the United States. The SHRM is considered as one of the largest association in the HR field. This association aims to promote the role of HR as a profession. It was replaced in 1989 by the American Society for Personnel Administration (ASPA), which was founded in 1948. The SHRM started the development of its competency model in 2011; in 2012, the association called for Competency Validation Survey by 32,000 HR Professionals from all over the globe. The model presents itself as follows (refer to figure 2.5).. 23.

(32) COLUMN2 CONSULTATION COMMUNICATION. LEADERSHIP & NAVIGATION. RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT. GLOBAL & CULTURAL EFFECTIVENESS. ETHICAL PRACTICE. HR EXPERTISE. CRITICAL EVALUATION BUSINESS ACUMEN. Figure 2.5. The SHRM competency model. Adapted from http://www.shrm.org/hrcompetencies/pages/model.aspx. Copyright 2012 by Society for Human Resource Management. Table 2.3. SHRM Competency Model Competencies and Sub-competencies Description Competency HR Expertise. Definition of the competency It refers to the knowledge of effective HR practices and HR function..   . Business Acumen. It refers to the ability of the HR managers to understand and apply business knowledge in the organization.        . 24. Sub-competencies Strategic Management and HRD Workforce Planning and Employment Total Rewards and Risk Management HR Technology Knowledge Employee & Labor Relations Corporate Social Responsibility Business and economics knowledge Systems thinking Effective administration Finance and Marketing knowledge Operations knowledge (continued).

(33) Table 2.3. (continued) Competency Critical Evaluation. Definition of the competency It refers to the ability of analyzing data of large quantity and also assessing your work and organization’s value.. Global & Cultural It refers to the ability of Effectiveness managing human resource from diverse cultural background, both within and across the borders of the organization. Leadership & It refers to ability to lead Navigation effectively and efficiently initiatives and processes in organization. Consultation. Communication. It refers to the ability of HR managers to provide guidance and advices to stakeholders in all situation. It refers to the he ability to communicate effectively with others in the organization.                        . Relationship Management. Sub-competencies Measurement and Assessment Skills Objectivity and Critical Thinking Curiosity and Intuitiveness Empathy Openness and Tolerance for ambiguity Embracing diversity & Inclusiveness Results orientation goal-setting Resource management Product and project management Mission fostering Political savvy Creativity Coaching and Consulting Analytic and Problem-solving skills Multi-tasking Persuasiveness Verbal and written communication skills Active listening Honesty and objectivity Networking People management Advocacy Negotiation and conflict Management. It refers to the ability developing and managing interactions in organization in order for all parties involved to be able to work effectively. Ethical Practice It refers to the ability of HR  Trust building managers to integrate  Personal, professional, and integrity and accountability behavioral integrity in the organization culture  Professionalism and value. Note. Adapted from http://www.shrm.org/hrcompetencies/pages/model.aspx. Society for Human Resource Management. Copyright 2012 by Society for Human Resource Management.. 25.

(34) The 2012 human resource competency. The Competencies have been established by the Ulrich’s RBL Group and the Michigan Ross School of Business after a survey conducted on 20,000 human resource professionals. This survey was called “the largest global study ever on human resource professionals” and identifies the following domains of competencies that HR manager should possess to be able to play a more strategic role in the organization. The competencies derived from this study have been grouped into six main competency roles that HR managers should possess in the organization: strategic positioners, credible activists, capability builders, change champions, HR innovators and integrators, and lastly, technology proponents. These competencies are further elaborated on table 2.4. Table 2.4. The 2012 Competency Model of the RBL Group Description Competency Strategic Positioners. Credible Activists. Change Champions. HR Innovators and Integrators. Description HR managers should be able to consider internal and external environment in decision making. In this sense they should be able to:  Interpret global business context  Decode customer expectations  Co-craft a strategic agenda HR managers should be able to inspire trust from the stakeholders. In this sense they should be able to :  Earn trust through results  Influence and relate to others  Improve through self-awareness  Shape the HR profession HR managers should be able to help the organization through its changes by ensuring the readiness of the employees. In this sense they should be able to :  Initiate Change  Sustain Change HR managers should be aware of new HR related researches and apply these researches in their organization. In this sense they should be to: (continued). 26.

(35) Table 2.4. (continued) Competency. Description . HR managers should be aware of new HR related researches and apply these researches in their organization. In this sense they should be to:  Optimize human capital through workforce planning and analytics  Develop Talent  Shape organization and communication practices  Drive performance  Build leadership brand HR Innovators and Integrators HR managers should be aware of new HR related researches and apply these researches in their organization. In this sense they should be to:  Optimize human capital through workforce planning and analytics  Develop Talent  Shape organization and communication practices  Drive performance Build leadership brand Technology Proponents HR managers should be aware of technology changes and they should use technology in HR practices. In this sense they should be able to :  Improve utility of HR operations  Connect people through technology Leverage social media tools Capability Builders HR professional should be able to merge individual abilities into an effective and strong organization. In other words they should be able to: Helping define and build organizational capabilities. Note. Adapted from http://hrcs.rbl.net/hrcs/index/history. RBL Group. Copyright 2012 by The RBL group. From all those three competency models, it appears that only the competency model mapped by the ASTD shows competencies specific to HRD, therefore this study selects the competencies offered by the ASTD/ATD competency model as reference competencies to determine the HR managers HRD competencies development needs. In fact professionally, the competencies studies on HRD practitioners have been based on the ASTD 2004 model although, but very few used the recent 2013 competency model.. 27.

(36) Relevant Studies on HRD Competencies Many researchers have used ASTD competency models to study roles and competencies of HRD professionals in different countries of the world including Taiwan, Korea, China, and Egypt (Chen, 2003; Peerapornvitoon, 1999; Yoo, 1999). Some of these international studies are reviewed below. The reviews of these studies were organized into: (a) research problems, (b) study methodology, (c) sampling selection techniques, (d) results, and (f) areas for further investigation. In 1999, Yoo conducted a replicated study in South Korea of 1999 WLP Model. The study was titled: “Korean Human Resource Development (HRD) Practitioners Perceptions of Expertise Levels and Importance of Workplace Learning and Performance (WLP) Competencies”. The purpose of it was to identify the perceptions of the necessary competencies at the present time and the next five years by Korean HRD practitioners. For the instrumentation, the study used a modified version of the original ASTD WLP model. A translation was made, and the instrument went through a validation process. The questionnaires were then mailed to 400 participants; 218 of which were returned and analyzed. The participants were drawn by stratified random sampling. The study of Yoo (1999) brought results that interpersonal and leadership are perceived as the most important competency and the role of intervention implementer was the highest rated role. Also, among the most important competencies with the highest rate were technological competency and visioning competency. Competency in technology was identified as the most needed in developing competency. The results also indicated that practitioners did not possess high levels of expertise in their current role and that they played a limited role in training and development. Yoo suggested for future researchers to further investigate the relationship between perceived importance of competency and performance, it also suggested doing replication of the study in other countries. Chen (2003) conducted a replicated study of the ASTD WLP model in Taiwan. The study of Chen was titled: “Perceptions of Taiwan Practitioners on Expertise Level and Importance of Workplace Learning and Performance (WLP) Competencies”. The purpose of this study was to identify Taiwanese WLP practitioners’ perceived importance of WLP competencies at present and in the next five years. Chen in this study also used a modified survey instrument from the original ASTD Models for Workplace Learning and Performance questionnaire and also followed Yoo (1999) study design. The original questionnaire was translated into Chinese, after which it went 28.

(37) through a validation process and a pilot test was done. The questionnaire was distributed to 1,100 WLP practitioners in Taiwan. To increase the response rate, Chen (2003) randomly selected 10% of the participant to make phone calls. However only 266 questionnaires were returned, and only 254 of these questionnaires were found valid and analyzed. The statistical analyses done were oneway ANOVA, paired t-tests, Pearson’s correlation, and linear regression. Chen (2003) found that the competencies perceived as important both for the present and the next five years by Taiwanese WLP are communication, interpersonal related, and the role of intervention implementer. An extensive knowledge in electronic performance support systems and in technology are perceived as most needed competencies for the future by the WLP practitioners in Taiwan. Also, the study found out that WLP practitioners possess a higher expertise in the interpersonal interaction as well as in communication and in the role of intervention implementer. Chen (2003) proposed as areas for future studies, a qualitative study to complement the quantitative study done, and also suggested that replica of the study could be done in other countries to gather a global perspective. In 2010, Konan made a study on HRD professionals HRD competencies following the 2004 ASTD model. The study was titled: “The HRD competencies as perceived by the human resource development professionals in banks in Cote D’Ivoire”. Cote D’Ivoire is a country located in West Africa which has as neighboring countries: Burkina Faso, Mali, Ghana, Liberia and Guinea. A survey questionnaire was adapted from the original 2004 ASTD Competency Study Mapping the Future. The questionnaire was revised, modified, and went through translation in French and validation process. The questionnaire was then distributed to 132 participants randomly selected from a target population of 200 HRD professionals. The researcher identified the target population by contacting the association of bankers in Cote d’Ivoire. 102 questionnaires were returned but only 94 were valid and analyzed. The result of this study are as follow: the competence that HRD professional possess are designing learning and improving human performance but for the other seven competencies their level of expertise is below the competent level. However, demographics levels showed different levels of expertise. All the competencies were perceived as important but the top four competencies were: designing learning, delivering training, career planning and talent management, and lastly, evaluating learning impact. The rankings of the most important competencies also showed some differences across different demography. Finally, the findings of this study revealed that all of the nine competencies perceived importance was more than the perceived expertise levels. The most needed competencies among the nine HRD competencies 29.

(38) were: measuring and evaluating, designing learning and delivering training, but competencies such as coaching, managing the learning function and improving human performance were ranked as least-needed competencies. The researcher suggested that future researchers investigate the reasons why there is a difference between demographics units and further suggested that the research be replicated in other industries in Cote d’Ivoire in order to favor generalization of the competencies of HRD professionals. The researcher also suggested that more studies in the HRM/HRD field in African countries by replicating the same study as replication studies expand to examine any variables that may have an effect on the differences of perceptions. From the review of these three studies it appears that the ASTD competency models are adequate tools to measure the HRD competencies of HR managers’ HRD competencies successfully. A replication of similar studies in other settings has been suggested by various researchers, and a follow up study or a qualitative approach to complement the survey questionnaire. This study will, therefore, will adopt a mix approach based on the 2013 ASTD competency model (refer to page 19) to assess the HRD competencies of the HR managers in Burkina Faso. In summary, the literature review section provided the HRD competencies that HR managers in Burkina Faso can be assessed against in order to find development channels if development needs arise. The literature review, also, provided the researcher with example of studies on HRD competencies on which this research can base it research design.. 30.

(39) CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN This chapter discusses the methodology used in this study. The chapter shows how a mixed mode study can be used as an approach to do the studies. The chapter comprises the research framework, the description of the research methods, the description of the population and sampling method, the data collection methods, which include the discussions on the instruments. Also is discussed the data analysis method, as well as the error management, the validity of this study and, finally, the research procedures were discussed.. Research Framework A research framework has been developed, see figure 3.1, in accordance with the research study and the literature review. The research framework offers a visual structure of the study. First, a survey questionnaire provided the perception of managers in Burkina Faso on the importance and their expertise level, from which were derived the development needs of HR managers. After finding out the development needs of the HR managers in Burkina Faso from the survey questionnaire, an interview was executed to some experts in Burkina Faso in the HR field in order to gain deeper knowledge about the development needs and to find possible development paths for the HR managers that participated in the study.. Method. Survey. Interview. Result. Development Gap. Development Channels. Figure 3.1. The research framework.. 31.

(40) Research Methods Two types of direct-data survey were included in this study; a questionnaire survey and interviews. Within the quantitative approach, the survey method focused on obtaining numerical findings about how HR managers taking part in this study perceived their expertise level in the 10 HRD AOEs. On the other hand, within the qualitative approach, the interview focused on the insight of personal and individual perception, accounts, observations, and description of the respondents about what and how to further enhance the abilities of HR managers in HRD. In consequence, this study used the combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches to overcome the limitations of both approaches.. Quantitative Approach A descriptive research describes present conditions (Creswell, 2003); therefore a descriptive study is adequate for this study, as the aim of this study is to explore and describe the HRD expertise of the HR professionals. A survey questionnaire is an appropriate tool for this research because it enables generalizations. Consequently, at the end of the study the researcher was able to generalize the findings to the studied population. The data obtained from the questionnaire was analysed using descriptive statistics, such as means, percentages and standard deviations.. Qualitative Approach The qualitative approach consists on interviews of HR experts in Burkina Faso. Interviews were scheduled with the purpose of collecting the opinions of experts in the HR field from Burkina Faso. From these interviews, the researcher gained an in depth knowledge of the HRD competency gap of HR managers. The interviews, also, gave a further insight about the results of the survey. In addition, the interviews of the experts helped the researcher finding the best development channels for the HR Managers that participated within the study. The results of the survey were presented to the chosen experts; after they were asked their opinions about the gaps found, and then the experts were ask to provide possible solution channels for the HR managers in Burkina Faso.. 32.

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