高介電常數介電質金氧金電容應用於動態記憶體與射頻元件之研究

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機械工程學系

高介電常數介電質金氧金電容應用於動態記憶體與

射頻元件之研究

The Research on Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitor Using

High-κ Dielectrics for DRAM/RF Application

研 究 生:鄭淳護

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高介電常數介電質金氧金電容應用於動態記憶體與射頻元件之研究

The Research on Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitor Using

High-κ Dielectrics for DRAM/RF Application

研 究 生:鄭淳護 Student:Chun-Hu Cheng

指導教授:周長彬、荊鳳德 Advisor:Chang-Pin Chou, Albert Chin

國 立 交 通 大 學

機械工程學系

博 士 論 文

A Dissertation

Submitted to Department of Mechanical Engineering College of Engineering

National Chiao Tung University In partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

in

Mechanical Engineering

June 2008

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高介電常數介電質金氧金電容應用於動態記憶體與射頻元件之研究

研究生:鄭淳護 指導教授:周長彬 教授

荊鳳德 教授

國立交通大學

機械工程學系

摘要

隨著超大型積體電路技術的日新月異、元件尺寸的不斷縮微,為配合現今類 比、射頻通訊和記憶體元件的發展,金氧金電容(MIM)的研發是刻不容緩的。在 各種不同的被動元件中,金氧金電容經常被廣泛的應用在射頻電路裡的阻抗匹配 與直流濾波器中﹔而且它們通常佔據了很大比例的電路面積。因此,為了有效降 低晶片的面積與成本,提高單位面積的電容值是極為需要的。為了符合未來記憶 體元件的高電容密度需求,高介電系數材料的開發似乎是唯一的選擇,但增加介 電常數和減少元件厚度所伴隨而來的高漏電,更是目前研究的主要議題之一。而 目前已開發和尚在研究的高介電常數材料包含氧化鋁(Al2O3)、氧化鉭(Ta2O5)、 氧化鋯(ZrO2)和鈦酸鍶(SrTiO3)等。 雖然,鈦酸鍶介電質(SrTiO3)具有高介電常數(κ ~50-200),但小的導帶不連

續(conduction band discontinuity)和能帶寬度(bandgap),將易造成較大的漏電。 除 此 之 外 , 鈦 酸 鍶 介 電 質 必 須 要 有 結 晶 相 產 生 才 能 有 較 高 的 介 電 常 數

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度(>450o C)。 因此,我們針對以上鈦酸鍶介電質所產生的問題,開發出一系列和二氧化鈦 相關(TiO2-based)的材料,其中包括了鉿化鈦氧化物(TiHfO)、鑭化鈦氧化物(TiLaO) 和鋯化鈦氧化物(TiZrO)。除了之外,我們也成功的發展出一種雙電漿處理(Dual plasma treatment)下電極的方法,我們藉由這個方法搭配這些高介電質材料,成 功的開發出高性能的金氧金電容,不但在漏電上有大幅的改善,更改良了電壓電 容 係 數 (Voltage coefficient of capacitance) 和 的 溫 度 電 容 係 數 (Temperature coefficient of capacitance)。最後,我們針對鈦酸鍶介電質進行定電壓應力測試

(constant voltage stress test),去觀察其電性和類比特性上的變化,進而推估元件 的可靠度。此一電容可靠度測試的方法將可用來作為未來金氧金電容在動態記憶 體及高頻應用上的評估。

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The Research of Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitor Using High-

κ as

Dielectrics for DRAM/RF Application

Student: Chun-Hu Cheng Advisor: Chang-Pin Chou

Albert Chin

Institute & Department of Mechanical Engineering

National Chiao Tung University

Abstract

According to International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the continuous increasing capacitance density (ε0κ/tκ) is required to scale down the device size of Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors that are widely used for Analog, RF and DRAM functions. To meet these requirements, the using higher κ dielectric is the only choice since the decreasing dielectric thickness (tκ) increases the

unwanted leakage current exponentially. To achieve this goal the only choice is to increase the κ value of the dielectrics, which have evolved from Al2O3, Ta2O5 (κ ~25), ZrO2 (κ ~30), to SrTiO3 (κ~50-200).

Although SrTiO3 has a large dielectric (κ ~50-200), the small conduction band

offset (-0.1eV) and bandgap to lead larger leakage current is an important issue. And

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We have developed successfully a dual plasma treatment on bottom surface to reduce the growth of interracial layer and then adopted high-κ TiO2 (κ~50-80) to mix medium-κ dielectric with large conduction band offset as a dielectric to improve the electrical and analog characteristic of MIM capacitors. These TiO2-based dielectrics (κ ~40-50) such as TiHfO, TiLaO and TiZrO exhibit good performance and thermal stability. On the other hand, stress degradation is especially a concern in

low-breakdown field and small-bandgap STO materials, which also leads to high

leakage currents because of the small conduction band discontinuity (ΔΕC) with

respect to Si. Here we describe the stress behavior on electrical and analog characteristics of hi-κ MIM capacitors from low frequencies (100 kHz~1 MHz) to high frequencies (1 GHz~20 GHz). This method will be beneficial to the reliability

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謝誌

這本論文能夠完成,首先要感謝的是我的指導教授 周長彬博士,老師的諄 諄教誨及做人處事的無形身教,總讓我受益良多;由衷感謝共同指導教授 荊鳳 德博士,在論文研究上,給予我耐心指導並提供我良好的研究設備及環境,老師 對於治學研究的嚴謹以及認真的態度,亦是我一生的典範。 感謝台灣積體電路製造股份有限公司(TSMC),和日本東京威力科創有限公 司(TEL),在計畫合作過程提供寶貴的建議及研究資源,讓我能順利完成此一論 文研究。在此,誠摯的感謝精密儀器中心副研究員 潘漢昌博士,總是在排除萬 難的情況下,在元件製備和材料分析上給予我最大的協助和幫忙。 感謝實驗室同儕 鄭存甫、楊學人同學,在論文研究期間,給予實驗上的建 議及協助;感謝學弟妹 黃靖謙、林士豪、蘇迺超、徐曉萱、陳維邦、周坤憶、 劉思麟。有了你們的陪伴,漫漫的博士攻讀之路不再顯得孤單,更感謝鄧志剛 同 學,在論文研究上的共同討論與分享,讓我能時時獲得新知。 最後,感謝我最親愛的父母親 鄭高洲先生與 謝金時女士,謝謝他們長久 以來的支持,在我遭遇困難與低潮,給我無盡的關懷與支持,我才能堅持至今, 完成此一博士學位. 謹以此論文獻給我最親愛的家人,謝謝你們~ 淳護 戊子年於交通大學

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Contents

Abstract (in Chinese)……….……….……….………i

Abstract (in English) ………..……….……….………….…iii

Acknowledgement……….……….……….………v

Contents……….……….………….……vi

Figure Captions……….……….……….…ix

Table Captions……….……….……….……xvi

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1

Motivation to study High-κ Dielectrics……….1

1.2

The Background of High-κ Dielectrics used for DRAM and RF Application….3

1.3

The Background of Metal Electrodes……….……….8

1.4

The Deposition method of High-κ Dielectrics……….……….10

1.5

The Measurement and Analysis of the MIM Capacitors……….13

Chapter 2

Performance Improvement of TiHfO MIM Capacitors by Using a Dual Plasma Treatment of the Lower Electrode

2.1

Introduction………..…….………17

2.2

Experimental procedure………..………...…………18

2.3

Results and discussion…………..……….…………19

2.4

Conclusion………..……….…..……21

Chapter 3

Low Temperature Crystallized TiO2 Dielectrics for DRAM Application

3.1

Introduction………….………..………..…28

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4.4

Conclusion………...………..…32

Chapter 4

Improved High-Temperature Leakage in High Density MIM Capacitors by Using a TiLaO Dielectric and an Ir Electrode

4.1

Introduction………..………...………..……38

4.2

Experimental procedure……….…………..………..………39

4.3

Results and discussion………..………39

4.4

Conclusion………...………..…42

Chapter 5

MIM Capacitors Using a High-κ TiZrO Dielectric for Analog and RF application

5.1

Introduction………..………...………..……48

5.2

Experimental……….…………..………..………49

5.3

Results and discussion………..………50

5.4

Conclusion……….……….………..…55

Chapter 6

Study on Stress Behavior of MIM Capacitors by Constant Voltage Stress

7.1

Introduction………..………...………..……62

7.2

Experimental procedure……….…………..………..………63

7.3

Results and discussion………..………64

7.4

Conclusion……….……….………..…67

Chapter 7

Using High Work Function Ni Metal to Improve the Stress

Reliability of RF SrTiO3 MIM Capacitors

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7.7

Results and discussion………..………75

7.8

Conclusion……….……….………..…77

Chapter 8

Conclusion……….………83

References……….………85

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Figure Caption

Chapter 1 Introduction

Fig. 1-1

The International Technology Roadmap of SIA for Semiconductor 2006...14

Fig. 1-2

Comparison of the calculated conduction band offset and experimental values for various gate oxides, by various authors……….14

Fig. 1-3

Static dielectric constant versus band gap for candidate gate oxides, after Robertson………..….15

Fig. 1-4

Static dielectric constant versus band gap for candidate gate oxides, after Robertson………...……15

Fig. 1-5

The 2007 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors for DRAM (a) stacked capacitors and (b) trench capacitors…………..….…16

Fig. 1-6

Bond enthalpy for M-O, M-N and M-C in the Periodic Table………..…17

Chapter 2 Performance Improvement of TiHfO MIM Capacitors by

Using a Dual Plasma Treatment on Lower Electrode

Fig. 2-1

(a) C-V and (b) J-V characteristics for TaN/TiHfO/TaN MIM capacitors measured after the indicated plasma treatments………23

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Fig. 3-1

Fig. 3-2

Fig. 3-3

Fig. 3-4

various plasma treatments……….………24

Fig. 2-3

Cross-sectional TEM images of the TiHfO structure (a) with only a nitrogen plasma treatment and (b) with both a nitrogen and a second oxygen plasma treatment………25

Fig. 2-4

The surface roughness of bottom electrode (a) with or (b) without O2 plasma treatment by AFM spectroscopy………26

Fig. 2-5

SIMS analysis for TiHfO/TaN with or without O2 plasma treatment on bottom TaN……….27

Chapter 3 Low Temperature Crystallized TiO

2

Dielectrics for

DRAM Application

(a) C-V and (b) J-V (measured at 25 oC and 125oC) characteristics for

Ir/TiO2/TaN capacitors……….………….34

XPS depth profile for TiO2/TaN with or without O2 treatment on bottom TaN………35 A cross-sectional TEM image of a TiO2 sample, after 300oC processing………..36 The thermal stability behavior of a 300oC –formed Ir/TiO2/TaN capacitor

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Chapter 4 Improved High-Temperature Leakage in High Density

MIM Capacitors by Using a TiLaO Dielectric and an Ir

Electrode

Fig. 4-1

(a) C-V, (b) J-V and (c) thermal stability characteristics of TaN/TiLaO/TaN and TaN/Ir/TiLaO/TaN MIM capacitors measured at various frequencies, at 25oC and 125oC. The thermal stability test was performed at 400oC for

20 min at N2 ambient………..45

Fig. 4-2

Measured and simulated J-E1/2 of an Ir/TiLaO/TaN capacitor. A

TaN/TiLaO/TaN device is shown, for comparison, in the insert…………46

Fig. 4-3

Τhe J/T1/2

-E1/2 plots of TaN/TiLaO/TaN and TaN/Ir/TiLaO/TaN MIM

capacitors………47

Chapter 5 MIM Capacitors Using a High-

κ TiZrO Dielectric for

Analog and RF Applications

Fig. 5-1

(a) C-V, (b) J-V and (c) ΔC/C-V characteristics of Al/TiZro/TaN and Ni/TiZrO/TaN MIM capacitors……….56

Fig. 5-2

(a) C-V, (b) J-V and (c) ΔC/C-V characteristics of Ni/TiZrO/TaN MIM capacitors with a 47 or 56 nm TiZrO dielectric thicknesses……….58

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Fig. 5-3

Temperature-dependence of capacitance (TCC) characteristics of Ni/TiZrO/TaN MIM capacitors with 47 nm or 56 nm TiZrO dielectric thicknesses……….59

Fig. 5-4

ΔC/C-1/C plot for various MIM capacitors………60

Fig. 5-5

Thermal stability behavior of (a) C-V and (b) J-V characteristics for

Ni/TiZrO/TaN capacitors after a 350oC N

2 anneal for 20 min…………...61

Chapter 6 Study on Stress Behavior of MIM Capacitors by

Constant Voltage Stress

Fig. 6-1

(a) C-V and (b) J-V characteristics of the 30 nm TiHfO/TaN MIM capacitors with Ni or TaN top electrode……….68

Fig. 6-2

(a) The temperature-dependent normalized capacitance and (b) ΔC/C-V

characteristics of TiHfO MIM capacitors with Ni or TaN top electrodes………69

Fig. 6-3

The effect of constant-voltage stress on (a) VCC-α (b) J-V and (c) TCC of [Ni or TaN]/TiHfO/TaN capacitors………71

Fig. 6-4

(a) ΔC/C as a function of stress time and (b) extrapolated ΔC/C for a 10

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Chapter 7 Using High Work Function Ni Metal to Improve the

Stress Reliability of RF SrTiO

3

MIM Capacitors

Fig. 7-1

Band diagrams before contact for (a) TaN or (b) Ni /SrTiO3/TaN MIM capacitors………..………..78

Fig. 7-2

C-V characteristics of (a) [Ni or TaN]/STO/TaN at 25ºC or 125ºC and (b) J-V characteristics of [Ni or TaN]/STO/TaN under CVS test at 25ºC or

125ºC………..79

Fig. 7-3

(a) Measured and simulated two-port S-parameters for SrTiO3 MIM capacitors (b) The equivalent circuit for capacitor value extraction from measured S-parameters……….…………..80

Fig. 7-4

The ΔC/C of [Ni or TaN]/STO/TaN capacitors which measured (a) at 25ºC

and 125ºC, (b) fresh and stressed devices and (c) stressed devices at 25ºC and

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Table 3-1

Table Caption

Chapter 2 Performance Improvement of TiHfO MIM Capacitors by

Using a Dual Plasma Treatment on Lower Electrode

Table 2-1

Comparison of MIM capacitors having various dielectrics and metal electrodes………..…………22

Chapter 3 Low Temperature Crystallized TiO

2

Dielectrics for

DRAM Application

Comparison of MIM capacitors which have various dielectrics and metal electrodes………33

Chapter 4 Improved High-Temperature Leakage in High Density

MIM Capacitors by Using a TiLaO Dielectric and an Ir

Electrode

Table 4-1

Comparison of MIM capacitors with various dielectrics and metal electrodes………..43

Chapter 5 MIM Capacitors Using a High-

κ TiZrO Dielectric for

Analog and RF Applications

Table 5-1

Comparison of MIM capacitors with various dielectrics and metal electrodes………54

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Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 Motivation to Study High-

κ Dielectrics

In the scaling of CMOS devices, reducing the thickness of gate stack with lower

leakage current plays an important role. Although the leakage current of the devices

with the same gate dielectric reduces with the scaling gate length and width, that

leakage current density increases with the scaling of gate dielectrics exponentially.

Therefore, the gate leakage current increases as the device size decreases. The larger

leakage current will not only cause the higher power consumption but also degrade

the reliability of the devices.

Using the material with high dielectric constant (high-κ), the physical thickness of the dielectric in the devices can be increased without sacrificing capacitance

density. According to the ITRS (International Technology Roadmap for

Semiconductor) [1-1] of SIA as shown in Figure 1-1, the thickness of gate oxide have

to be below 1nm after 2009. Moreover, the gate length and bias voltage reduces by 11

% every year while the driving current has to be maintained. Therefore, the continual scaling of gate dielectric is a trend in CMOS technology. Even some high-κ

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those at RF region could possibly degrade. Therefore, it is necessary to find out the high-κ dielectrics that can exhibit good analog characteristics for RF application.

After years of research, some high-κ dielectrics (HfO2, ZrO2 and TiO2) have been widely studied and related characteristics and issues of these materials have also

been reported. In addition, high-k gate dielectrics and metal gate electrodes has been

introduced in 45nm and achieved good performance for both NMOS and PMOS

transistors. To build next-generation transistor, it is important to find out the most suitable high-κ dielectrics for the use of CMOS devices built upon conventional Si substrate or non-silicon high-mobility materials, such as Ge or III-V substrates.

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1.2 The Background of High-

κ Dielectrics used for DRAM and RF

Application

The first of the above requirements is that the oxide’s κ value should be over 12, preferably 25-30. There is a trade off with the band offset condition, which requires a reasonably large band gap. Figure 1-2 and Figure 1-3 show that the κ of candidate oxides tends to vary inversely with the band gap, so we must accept a relatively low κ value. There are numerous oxides with extremely large dielectric constant, such as SrTiO3 (κ ~50-200) or BaSrTiO3 (κ ~250-350), which are candidates in DRAM

capacitors, but these materials have a small conduction band offset and band gap.

According to International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the continuous increasing capacitance density (ε0κ/tκ) is required to scale down the device size of Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors that are widely used for Analog, RF and DRAM functions. To meet these requirements, the using higher κ dielectric is the only choice since the decreasing dielectric thickness (tκ) increases the

unwanted leakage current exponentially. To achieve this goal the only choice is to increase the κ value of the dielectrics, which have evolved from TiO2 (κ~50-80) [1-13], TiHfO (κ~40-50) [1-6], TiTaO (κ~40-50) [1-7]-[1-9] to SrTiO3 (STO; κ~50-200) [1-10]-[1-12].

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that is the good thermal stability when it was integrated with TiN electrode. It allows

TiO2 shows dielectric characteristics after high temperature process for silicide

formation. Besides, the heat conduction rate for TiO2 is higher than that for SiO2.

With the scaling of integrated circuits, the issue of power dissipation should also be

taken into account. Although TiO2 exhibits the above merits, there are still some other

issues that should be considered and overcome such as the higher leakage current than

that of other dielectrics with the same effective oxide thickness, lower breakdown

voltage and interface oxide layer formation after post implant RTA. However, it has

been reported that thickness of the interface oxide layer can be reduced by using NH3

plasma treatment, but the effect of N+ plasma for bottom interface is limited beyond

1nm of EOT.

SrTiO3 (STO) has been widely studied as a substrate for high TC oxide

superconductors. Its alloy BaSrTiO3 has been widely studied as a high dielectric

constant dielectric for DRAM capacitors. SrTiO3 (STO) well-known perovskite-type

structure is a potential candidate to increase the κ value beyond a value of 45. To

achieve the high κ value, the STO requires a heat treatment at 450~500oC under an

oxygen ambient for crystallization. Therefore, it also requires a Pt or RuO2 lower

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The continuous scaling of design rules for DRAM leaves us some difficulties to

overcome. From the requirement of stacked capacitor showed in Fig. 1-5 (a) and

trench capacitors showed in Fig. 1-5 (b) in ITRS roadmap, the major obstacle in

scaling of the DRAM capacitor is scaling of teq for capacitor dielectrics. According to

2007 ITRS roadmap [1-1], one of the difficult challenges is scaling of the physical

dielectric thickness, Tphy (physical thickness) while maintaining dielectric constant and leakage current of dielectrics. In general, as the physical thickness of high-κ materials such as SrTiO3 decreases, the dielectric constant decreases and the leakage

current increases. This means higher Tphy while decreasing Teq.. In the G-bit DRAM

generation, the memory cell density is so high that the cell space can only allow

dielectrics no thicker than 20nm. This requirement of thickness for dielectrics makes

it impossible to use quaternary metal oxide such as SrTiO3 or BaSrTiO3 as the

dielectric layers. Because of the difficulty of conformal CVD for these quaternary

oxide, the high aspect ratio of the trench for DRAM seems to be the other challenge to

integrate these dielectrics into G-bit DRAM generation.

Owing to the high dielectric constant, good step coverage and minimum

thickness limit, simple metal oxide such as Ta2O5, Al2O3, ZrO2, HfO2,La2O3 and

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discontinuity (ΔEc ~1.4-2.3 eV), dielectric constant (κ ~25-30) and bond enthalpy

(Figure 1-6) to prevent from higher leakage current and degradation after high

temperature process. Similar to high-k/Si CMOSFET, the larger conduction band

offsets is the better choice for MIM capacitor.

Due to their moderate permittivity, it is difficult to achieve dielectric structures

with an EOT well below 1.0 nm. One approach to increase permittivity is combining it with very high-κ material, such as TiO2 with a permittivity value of 50-80 due to a contribution from soft phonons. Chiang et al. reported that permittivity of

approximately 50 have been obtained from physical-vapor deposited TiHfO thin film.

Therefore, TiO2-based material which combined high-κ and large conduction band offset materials will be a good solution for logic devices (metal-gate/high-κ) beyond 32nm node or DRAM technology beyond 60nm node.

To fabricate monolithic microwave integrated circuits successfully, both active

and passive components with reliable, repeatable and predictable performance are

required. Among them, the capacitor used in filtering, decoupling and network

matching plays a significant role in front end or mixed signal circuits. The

requirement for capacitors includes high capacitance density, low voltage coefficients,

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occupied by capacitors, is utilizing thin dielectrics with high dielectric constant.

Recently, some kinds of dielectrics and approaches have been proposed to achieve the

goal of high capacitance and the other good performance. Instead of SiO2 with low

dielectric constant, Si3N4 deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

(PECVD) has been studied in the past years. Although Si3N4 shows good linearity and

reliability, the capacitance density still needs to be increased. However, Si3N4

fabricated by PECVD has the minimum thickness limit and the defect density of nitride is higher than that of other high-κ dielectrics. Therefore, high-κ dielectrics with good linearity and quality can be a choice to develop the innovative and useful

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1.3 The Background of Metal Electrodes

MIM structure (metal-insulator-metal) can reduce contact resistance and raise

storage charge comparing to MIS structure. MIM capacitors are integrated in the

backend process. The maximum temperature of deposition is restricted by the thermal

budget of back end processes.

As DRAM density increasing, devices shrinkage and higher charge storage is

inevitable. It is difficult for conventional MIS structure to meet the requirements due

to high-temperature-process limitation, so MIM structure is expected to apply in

trench DRAM process. On the other hand, since high-k material interacts with bottom

electrodes during dielectric activation, an interfacial layer will be formed between

high-k material and metal electrode. The bottom interface will degrade the property of

the dielectrics, such as interface roughness, interface stress, electron barrier height and

thermal stability, etc.

Metal electrodes have been applied for CMOS devices as a gate material in

45nm process and for DRAM devices as electrodes in 90nm process. A full MIM

structure with high-k dielectric may be required for the DRAM technology of 2009.

The use for electrodes of MIM capacitors, such as TiN, TaN, Ru, Ir, Ni and Pt,

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1.4 The Deposition method of High-

κ Dielectrics

Some methods to deposit ultra thin high-κ dielectrics on substrates have been proposed in recent years and various methods exhibit the merits as well as some other

issues that have to be solved.

Among the proposed high-κ dielectrics, HfO2, La2O3 and ZrO2 show the promising properties and are thought the candidate of the next generation. It has been

reported that many process technologies can be used to deposit high quality HfO2.

Atomic layer chemical vapor deposition has attracted much attention due to its

self-limit and mono-layer deposition properties. Atomic layer chemical vapor

deposition (ALCVD) is the method using MCl4 (M: Hf, Ti, Zr…) and H2O as sources

to deposit HfO2 as well as high-κ dielectrics. The precursors are introduced into the

heated chamber and substrates. The reaction only happens on the substrate surface

instead of the deposited layer and one layer is deposited at a time. Thus, the thickness

of dielectrics can be controlled precisely and is dependent on the process cycles

linearly. Although the excellent uniformity and initiation of deposition can be

achieved on SiO2 and Si3N4, the deposition directly on H-terminated Si substrate can

lead to rough surface. However, H-terminated Si substrate is inevitable after HF

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extensively used in VLSI fabrication. The deposition of dielectrics has been carried

out using metal organic precursor vapor. The precursors are introduced into

low-pressure chamber and the substrate is heated to some suitable process

temperature. The uniform and conformal deposition of dielectrics can be obtained.

That is the reason why MOCVD process is integrated into fabrication process flow

extensively. Although MOCVD suggests many merits, it still exists some issues such

as the carbon contamination and the impact of precursors to the environment, health

and safety.

Depositing the metal or metal oxide directly on the substrate using PVD method

followed by thermal oxidation and annealing is the other method to deposit high

quality dielectrics. In the past, many studies on the dielectrics by PVD have been

reported and the related process flow was described as the following. The pre-clean Si

substrate is loaded into high vacuum chamber immediately to prevent from the

formation of native oxide. Then, the bottom electrode was deposited using reactive dc

magnetron sputtering with a mixed gas of oxygen and argon. The deposited dielectrics

was then followed a full oxygen ambient under 400oC furnace-annealing to finish the

dielectric activation. Although the flow is already the standard DRAM process, the

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dielectrics with a stable thermal property, both of the issues mentioned above can be

minimized.

In this study, we used the PVD method to fabricate the high-κ dielectrics. Instead of plasma treatment, we utilized NH3 plasma treatment to prevent from the

formation of interface oxide. The pre-cleaned wafer was loaded in E-beam evaporator

under high vacuum condition and then oxidized at 400 oC in O2 ambient followed by

annealing. The devices using TiHfO, TiLaO, TiZrO and SrTiO3 are fabricated and

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1.5 The Measurement and Analysis of the MIM Capacitors

To investigate the electrical characteristics of our devices, we measured the

leakage current, stress induced leakage current using HP 4156A semiconductor

parameter analyzer. Besides, HP4284A precision LCR meter was used to evaluate the

capacitance and the conductance ranging from 100 kHz to 1 MHz. Furthermore, to

investigate the characteristics of our devices at the frequency above 1 MHz, we

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Fig. 1-1 The International Technology Roadmap of SIA for

Semiconductor 2007 [1-1]

Fig. 1-2 Comparison of the calculated conduction band offset and

experimental values for various gate oxides, by various authors

[1-13]

(31)

Fig. 1-3 Static dielectric constant versus band gap for candidate gate

oxides, after Robertson [1-13]

Fig. 1-4 Static dielectric constant versus band gap for candidate gate

oxides, after Robertson [1-13]

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(a)

(b)

Fig. 1-5 The 2007 International Technology Roadmap for

Semiconductors for DRAM (a) stacked capacitors and (b) trench

capacitors.

(33)

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Si

Fig. 1-6 Bond enthalpy for M-O, M-N and M-C in the Periodic Table

Metal-Oxide Metal-Nitride Metal-Carbide Bond Enthalpy (K J /mol) Atomic Number Ti Ta Hf La Zr Tb Yb Ir

(34)

Chapter 2

Performance Improvement of TiHfO MIM Capacitors

by Using a Dual Plasma Treatment of the Lower

Electrode

2.1 Introduction

The technology roadmap for Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors [2-1]-[2-16],

which are used for analog, RF and DRAM functions in Integrated Circuits, specifies a continuing increase of the capacitance density (ε0κ/tκ) and lower leakage currents. To achieve this goal, higher κ TiO-based dielectrics - such as TiTaO, TiLaO, TiHfO [2-11]-[2-13] and SrTiO3 (STO) [2-14]-[2-16] – are need for the MIM devices.

Unfortunately, there is an interfacial reaction, during device processing, at the lower high-κ dielectric/metal interface [2-14]. This reduces the capacitance density and increases the leakage current, and this reaction increases in importance as the capacitance

equivalent thickness (CET) decreases to 1 nm. To inhibit the reaction a nitrogen plasma

treatment can be applied to the TaN or TiN bottom electrodes [2-14]-[2-16]. Here we

report an improved surface treatment for TaN electrodes. Following a conventional

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nitrogen plasma treatment also improved the leakage current by 2 orders of magnitude.

Such an improvement occurs because the interfacial reaction is reduced during device

processing. This was seen in cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We measured a leakage current of 4.8×10-6

A/cm2 in our 28 fF/μm2 density TaN/TiHfO/TaN MIM capacitors. This data compares well with other high-κ MIM capacitors [2-1]-[2-16], even when higher work-function Ir [2-11]-[2-15] or Ni [2-16]

electrodes are used.

2.2 Experimental procedure

The high-κ TiHfO MIM capacitors were fabricated on standard Si wafers. For VLSI backend integration, a 2-μm-thick SiO2 isolation layer was deposited on the Si substrates. Then a TaN/Ta (50-nm/200-nm) bi-layer was deposited and used as the bottom capacitor

electrode. The nitrogen plasma was applied to the TaN surface [2-13]-[2--15]. This was

followed by an O2 plasma treatment to increase the oxidation resistance, before the high-κ dielectric deposition and post-deposition annealing (PDA). A ~12 nm thick TixHf1-xO (x~0.67) film was deposited by PVD, followed by a 400oC PDA in an oxygen

ambient, to reduce the defects and the leakage current [2-3]. Finally, 50 nm layer of TaN

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A large capacitor size of 150-μm×150-μm was used to ensure that any dimensional variations were unimportant. The fabricated MIM devices were characterized by C-V and

J-V measurements.

2.3 Results and discussion

In Figures 2-1 (a) and (b) we show the C-V and J-V characteristics of TiHfO

capacitors with and without the second oxygen plasma treatment. The capacitance density increased from 22 to 28 fF/μm2

, as the lower TaN electrode was exposed to the oxygen

plasma for longer times. Correspondingly, the leakage current at -1 V decreased from 2.5×10-4 to 4.8×10-6

A/cm2 with increasing oxygen exposure. Therefore, the increasing

exposure time to oxygen plasma improves both capacitance density and leakage current.

The comparison of our data with those for other MIM capacitors appears in Table 1. The

performance of our TaN/TiHfO/TaN capacitors is comparable with the best reported MIM devices, such as Ir/TiTaO/TaN (23 fF/μm2

density) [2-11]-[2-12] or Ni/STO/TaN (25 fF/μm2

density) capacitors [2-16], which used higher work-function Ir (5.3 eV) and Ni

(5.1 eV) top electrodes than this TaN (~4.6 eV) case. The high work-function electrode is

especially important for leakage current at low voltage due to the Schottky emission

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We have also measured the variation of the capacitance (ΔC/C) as a function of

voltage. In Fig. 2-2 we show such ΔC/C-V data. The voltage dependence of ΔC/C is

expressed as βV+αV2 [2-8]-[2-12], where β and α are the linear and quadratic

coefficients of ΔC/C-V, respectively. Here α is the important factor for capacitors, since

the effects of β can be compensated in the circuit design [2-8]. Increasing the exposure time of the bottom TaN to an oxygen plasma decreased α from 17858 to 3851 ppm/V2

. Since the α improves rapidly with decreasing capacitance density [2-14], further α reduction is possible at lower capacitance density used for analog/RF application.

To understand these performance improvements, we examined the devices using

cross-sectional TEM. In Figs. 2-3 (a) and (b) we compare the TEM images for the TiHfO

structure without and with the oxygen plasma treatment. A clear interfacial region, ~3 nm

wide, can be seen in the conventional nitrogen-only plasma-treated TaN, giving a total

thickness of ~15 nm. In contrast, the combined oxygen and nitrogen plasma-treated TaN

shows reduced interfacial reactions. A thickness of ~12 nm was measured for the TiHfO dielectric – indicating a κ value of 38, at a capacitance density of 28 fF/μm2

.

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analysis in Fig. 2-5 shows that a significant improvement with less Hf diffusion is

obtained by using O2 and N2 plasma treatment.

The possible reason for the large improvement, given by the oxygen plasma

treatment, may be the larger bond enthalpy of TaO (799 kJ/mol) compared with that of

TaN (611 kJ/mol) [2-19]. When applying only a nitrogen plasma treatment, the lower TaN

will be oxidized to TaON during unavoidable PDA, due to the thermodynamically

favorable larger bond enthalpy – this would lower the capacitance density. The

significantly smaller interfacial layer with oxygen plasma treatment may be de to the

formation of high quality TaON by highly reactive oxygen plasma, which decreases

further oxygen diffusion into underneath TaN to form poor quality thermal TaON at low

temperature during PDA.

2.4 Conclusion

We have shown that a nitrogen plasma treatment cannot, alone, suppress the

interfacial layer formation that causes degraded capacitance density and leakage current

in TaN/TiHfO/TaN MIM capacitors. By using an additional oxygen plasma treatment the

interfacial reactions and growth were reduced, leading to a higher capacitance density and

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Table 2-1 Comparison of MIM capacitors having various dielectrics and metal electrodes. HfO2 [2-7] Tb- HfO2 [2-9] Al2O3- HfO2 [2-8] TiTaO [2-11]-[2-12] STO [2-16] TiHfO This work Process Temp. (oC) 400 400 400 400 400 400

Top Electrode Ta Ta TaN Ir Ni TaN

Work-function (eV) 4.2 4.2 4.6 5.27 5.1 4.6 Cap. Density (fF/μm2 ) 13 13.3 12.8 23 25.2 28 Current Density (A/cm2) @ 1V 6×10-7 6×10-8 5×10-9 2×10-6 2×10-7 4.8×10-6 \

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-1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 20 25 30 O 2 Plasma 3 min O2 Plasma 5 min TaN/TiHfO/TaN 100 kHz 500 kHz Voltage (V) Cap a ci ta nce Den s ity (fF/um 2 ) W ithout O2 Plasma (a) -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 10-9 10-7 10-5 10-3 10-1 101 O2 plasma 3 min O2 plasma 5 min w/o O2 plasma C u

rrent density (A/cm

2 )

Voltage (V)

Gate injection Bottom injection

After O2 Plasma treatment

(b)

Fig. 2-1 (a) C-V and (b) J-V characteristics for TaN/TiHfO/TaN MIM

capacitors measured after the indicated plasma treatments.

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-2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.0 4.0x104 8.0x104 1.2x105 1.6x105 w/o O+ 2 ;α= 17858 O+2 for 5min ;α= 8426 O+ 2 for 10min ;α= 3851 Bottom injection w/o O+2 ;α= 57321 O+ 2 for 5min ;α= 9631 O+ 2 for 10min ;α= 5404 @1MHz Δ C/C ( ppm) Voltage (V) Gate injection

Fig. 2-2

Δ

C/C-V characteristics for TaN/TiHfO/TaN MIM capacitors

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TiHfO

Interfacial layer

10 nm (a)

TiHfO

Interfacial layer

10 nm (b)

Fig. 2-3 Cross-sectional TEM images of the TiHfO structure (a) with only a

nitrogen plasma treatment and (b) with both a nitrogen and a

second oxygen plasma treatment.

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(a)

(b)

Fig. 2-4 The surface roughness of bottom electrode (a) with or (b) without

O

2

plasma treatment by AFM spectroscopy.

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30

40

50

60

70

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

10

4

10

5

10

6

10

7

TiHfO

TaON with O 2 plasma w/o O 2 plasma

Bottom TaN

N

Hf

In

tensit

y (count

s)

De

O

pth(nm)

Fig. 2-5 SIMS analysis for TiHfO/TaN with or without O

2

plasma treatment

(45)

Chapter 3

Low Temperature Crystallized TiO

2

Dielectrics for

DRAM Application

3.1 Introduction

There is a strong desire to decrease the processing temperature of

Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors [3-1]-[3-16], while maintaining a high capacitance density (ε0κ/tκ) and low leakage current. This requirement is due to the low-temperature processing associated with low-κ isolation dielectrics, such as PAR. For VLSI backend integration, temperatures down to 300oC may be desirable [3-17].

Low-temperature-processed MIM capacitors would be useful in the integration of

future-generation Ge-on-Insulator (GOI) [3-18]-[3-19] and IIIV-on-Insulator (IIIVOI)

[3-20] technologies, where the device performance can be crucially dependent on the thermal processing budget. Unfortunately, most high-κ dielectrics, as used for high-density MIM capacitors, require a high process temperature to improve their quality and increase the κ value by crystallization.

Here we describe the performance of MIM capacitors processed at only 300oC. A capacitance density of 28 fF/μm2 was obtained with a leakage current of just 3×10-8

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450oC-processed SrTiO3 (STO) [3-14]-[-15], and is better than that for 400oC-processed

TiLaO [3-11]-[3-12], TiTaO [3-13] and STO [3-16] capacitors. This was achieved by using a high-κ TiO2 dielectric which had a high κ value of 65, due to nano-crystal formation. This occurs at processing temperatures as low as 300oC. These MIM

capacitors have potential in analog, RF and DRAM applications and are vital for GOI

[3-18]-[3-19] and IIIVOI [3-20] technologies.

3.2 Experimental procedure

The high-κ TiO2 MIM capacitors were fabricated on standard Si wafers having a 2-μm-thick SiO2 isolation layer on the Si substrates. Then TaN, 50 nm thick, was deposited on a 200 nm Ta layer and used as the lower capacitor electrode. The TaN

surface was given an NH3 plasma treatment first [3-13]-[3-16] and then exposed to an O2 plasma – this being done to increase the oxidation resistance before the high-κ dielectric deposition and post-deposition anneal (PDA). Then 20 nm thick TiO2 dielectric was deposited at room temperature by electron-beam evaporation at a pressure of 2×10-6

torr,

followed by a 300oC PDA for 10 min in an oxygen ambient of 1 atm pressure. Finally, a

20 nm Ir layer was deposited and patterned to form the top electrode. The capacitors were 180-μm×180-μm in size, thus minimizing any complications from variations in

(47)

standard C-V and J-V measurements.

3.3 Results and discussion

In Figures 3-1 (a) and (b), we show the C-V and J-V characteristics of Ir/TiO2/TaN capacitors, respectively. A high capacitance density of 28 fF/μm2

was measured, along with a low leakage current of 3×10-8

A/cm2 at -1 V. These results are compared with other

MIM data in Table 1. Our results are an improvement over those for a Ni/STO/TaN device, which had a slightly lower density of 25 fF/μm2

and were processed at 400oC

[3-16]. Since the work-function of the Ni electrode is only slightly lower than Ir, the

better leakage in the Ir/TiO2/TaN device, when compared with Ni/STO/TaN, is due to the

larger conduction band offset (ΔEC) of the TiO2 with respect to the STO [3-21]-[3-22].

This is because the larger ΔEC and higher work function electrode will form a higher

Schottky barrier height to lower the leakage current by Schottky emission mechanism

[3-15]-[3-16]. A larger ΔEC to the metal electrode is also important for the

high-temperature leakage current at 125oC. We found a 125oC leakage current of 6×10-7

A/cm2, measured at -1 V. This is, to the best of our knowledge, better than previous data,

and isat a high capacitance density of 28 fF/μm2 [3-1]-[3-16]. Besides, a dual plasma

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for TiO2/TaN with or without O2 plasma treatment on the bottom TaN. The bottom TaN

with O2 plasma treatment reduced effectively the interface reaction due to the formation

of high qualify TaON barrier layer.

A small loss tangent of 0.013 is obtained at such large 28 fF/μm2

density using

advanced four-element model and two-frequency calculation [3-23], which can be

decreased with decreasing capacitance density [3-24]. A quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance (α) of 5010 ppm/V2

was obtained at 500 kHz, which can also be improved

rapidly with a decreased capacitance density [3-14] used for analog/RF application. A

temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) of 353 ppm/oC was measured even at a high 28 fF/μm2 density.

To understand the performance improvements we examined the 300oC-processed

TiO2 structure by cross-sectional TEM. As shown in Fig. 3-3, the nano-crystallization of

TiO2 is observable even at 300oC. This nano-crystallization effect yields a high κ value of

~65 for the TiO2 dielectric – and explains why the leakage current is better than that for

previous TiTaO [3-11]-[3-12] and TiLaO [3-13] MIM capacitors, shown in Table 1, which have a κ value of 45. The high κ value, in combination with the ΔEC and high

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conducting electric field for both Schottky emission and Frenkel-Pool mechanism [3-15].

To study the thermal stability we annealed an Ir/TiO2/TaN capacitor at 350oC for 20

min under an N2 ambient. In Figures 3-4 (a) and (b) we display the C-V and J-V

characteristics before and after this thermal treatment. Only a small degradation of the

capacitance density and leakage current occurred, indicating the good thermal stability of

both the top Ir electrode and the TiO2 capped metal electrodes. We also note that good

thermal stability has been reported for Ir/HfAlON pMOS even at RTA temperatures of up

to 900oC [3-25].

3.4 Conclusion

We have demonstrated Ir/TiO2/TaN MIM capacitors with a capacitance density of 28 fF/μm2, along with a leakage current of 3×10-8

A/cm2 at -1 V. Since the device

processing was performed at 300oC this would permit these capacitors to be integrated into a VLSI backend, along with advanced low-κ isolation dielectrics, or with future front-end GOI and IIIVOI technologies.

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Table 3-1. Comparison of MIM capacitors which have various dielectrics and metal electrodes. HfO2 [3-7] Tb- HfO2 [3-9] Al2O3 -HfO2 [3-8] TiTaO [3-11]-[3-12] TiLaO [3-13] STO [3-16] STO [3-15] TiO2 This work Process Temp. (oC) 400 400 400 400 400 400 450 300

Top Electrode Ta Ta TaN Ir Ir Ni TaN Ir

Work-function (eV) 4.2 4.2 4.6 5.27 5.27 5.1 4.6 5.27 Cap. Density (fF/μm2 ) 13 13.3 12.8 23 24 25.2 28 28 Current Density (A/cm2) @25oC 6×10-7 (1V) 1×10-7 (2V) 8×10-9 (2V) 2×10-6 (1V) 2×10-5 (2V) 1×10-7 (1V) 2.3×10-7 (2V) 2×10-7 (1V) 8×10-6 (2V) 3×10-8 (2V) 3×10-8 (1V) Current Density (A/cm2) @125oC 2×10-6 (1V) 2×10-7 (2V) 6×10-9 (1V) 5×10-8 (2V) - 6.6×10-7 (1V) 6.7×10-6 (2V) 5×10-6 (1V) - 6×10-7 (1V)

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-2 -1 0 1 2 20 25 30 35 40

C~28 fF/

μ

m

2 500kHz 1MHz

Ir/TiO

2

/TaN

Voltage (V) Ca pa cita nce De nsity (fF/u m 2 ) PDA 300 o C (a) -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 10-9 10-7 10-5 10-3 10-1 101 103 125oC 25 oC

C~28 fF/

μ

m

2 Current densi ty (A/ c m 2 ) Voltage (V)

Gate injection Bottom injection PDA 300oC

(b)

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0

500

1000

1500

20

40

60

w/o O

2

plasma

Ti

2p

Ta

4f

A

tom

ic

per

c

ent

(

%)

Etching time (sec)

with O

2

plasma

Bottom TaN Electrode

Fig. 3-2 XPS depth profile for TiO

2

/TaN with or without O

2

treatment on

(53)

Nano-crystal

10 nm

Fig. 3-3 A cross-sectional TEM image of a TiO

2

sample, after 300

o

C

processing.

(54)

-2 -1 0 1 2 20 25 30 35 40 C~28 fF/μm2 Before 350oC N2 PDA for 20min After 350oC N2 PDA for 20min

Ir/TiO

2

/TaN

Voltage (V) Capacitance Density (f F/ μm 2 )

@1MHz

(a)

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

10

-9

10

-7

10

-5

10

-3

10

-1

10

1

10

3

After 350oC N2 PDA for 20min Before 350oC N2 PDA for 20min

Ir/TiO

2

/TaN

C~28 fF/μm

2

Current density

(A

/cm

2

)

Voltage (V)

Gate injection Bottom injection

(b)

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Chapter 4

Improved High-Temperature Leakage in High Density

MIM Capacitors by Using a TiLaO Dielectric and an Ir

Electrode

4.1 Introduction

There is a continuing demand to increase the capacitance density (ε0κ/tκ) of the Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors [4-1]-[4-16]. To achieve this, the MIM devices have evolved by using higher κ dielectrics such as SiN [4-3]-[4-4], Al2O3 [4-6]-[4-7], Ta2O5 [4-5], HfO2 [4-8]-[4-10], Nb2O5 [4-11], TiTaO [4-12]-[4-13] and SrTiO3 (STO) [4-14]-[4-16]. Unfortunately, increasing the κ value usually decreases the conduction band offset (ΔEC) with respect to the metal electrode. For STO [4-17] ΔEC can even be

slightly negative. This low ΔEC leads to unwanted poor leakage current of MIM device at

elevated temperature [4-16], whereas such high temperature operation is unavoidable due

to the increased circuit density with higher power dissipation. Besides, although STO showed higher κ values by forming nano-crystals, this only occurs at a high process

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using a high work-function Ir electrode and processed at 400oC. We measured leakage currents of 1×10-7 and 6.6×10-7

A/cm2 at respective 1 V at 25 and 125oC that are lower

than previous TiTaO and 400oC-processed STO capacitors.

4.2 Experimental procedure

The high-κ TiLaO MIM capacitors were fabricated on standard Si wafers. To permit VLSI backend integration, the process began with depositing a 2-μm-thick SiO2 isolation layer on the Si substrates. Then 50 nm TaN on a 200 nm Ta layer was deposited by

sputtering and used as the lower capacitor electrode. The TaN surface was then given a plasma treatment to increase the oxidation resistance before the high-κ deposition and post-deposition annealing (PDA) [4-5]-[4-6]. A 15 nm thick TixLa1-xO (x~0.67) film was

deposited by PVD, followed by a 400oC PDA in an oxygen ambient to reduce the defects

and the leakage current [4-3]. (The TiLaO thickness was later measured by

cross-sectional TEM.) Finally, 20 nm Ir and/or 50 nm TaN were deposited and patterned to form the top electrode. A large capacitor size of 100-μm×100-μm was chosen to avoid the size difference by lithography. The devices were characterized by C-V and J-V

measurements.

4.3 Results and discussion

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summarized in Table 1. A high capacitance density of 24-24.5 fF/μm2

was measured for the TiLaO MIM devices, which gives a high-κ value of ~45 for the TiLaO dielectric. A leakage current of 2.2×10-6

A/cm2 at -1 V was measured for the TaN/TiLaO/TaN MIM

capacitor, close to that of an Ir/TiTaO/TaN device (Table 1) with a slightly lower

capacitance density. Since the work-function of the TaN on TiLaO is ~0.7 V lower than

that of Ir on TiTaO, the comparable leakage current indicates that the TiLaO is the better

choice for MIM capacitor than TiTaO. This is confirmed by the 5 times lower leakage current of 1×10-7

A/cm2 in the TaN/Ir/TiLaO/TaN device compared with the Ir/TiTaO/TaN

capacitor. This improved leakage current, at a comparable capacitance density, is due to

the higher ΔEC between metal and high-κ interface, which lowers the leakage current

exponentially. Similar lower leakage current was also reported by adding higher ΔEC

Al2O3 into HfO2 MIM capacitor [4-9]. The very small changes of J-V and C-V after

400oC N2 annealing indicates the good thermal stability, while good thermal stability of Ir

on HfAlON up to 900oC was reported for metal-gate/high-κ pMOS [4-17].

A larger ΔEC at the metal/high-κ interface is very important at 125oC, a temperature

required for both DRAM and non-volatile memory. This is shown in the comparison with o

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capacitor it only increased from 1×10-7 to 6.6×10-7

A/cm2. Although the work-function of

the Ir electrode (5.27 eV) is slightly higher than Ni (5.1 eV), the improved 125oC leakage

current, can be attributed to the large ΔEC. We note that La2O3 has the highest ΔEC with

respect to Si (2.3 eV) compared with HfO2 (1.5 eV), ZrO2 (1.4 eV), Ta2O5 (0.3 eV), and

STO (-0.1 eV) [4-18].

To investigate the current conduction mechanism we plot, in Fig. 4-2, ln(J) versus

E1/2 for the TaN/Ir/TiLaO/TaN MIM capacitors:

⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ kT V E J b 2 1 exp γ (1) 2 1 0 3 ⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎝ ⎛ = ∞ K e ηπε γ . (2) Here Kis the high-frequency dielectric constant (= n2). The refractive index n is 2.57 or

1.9 for TiO2 or La2O3 [4-19]), and η is 1 or 4 for Schottky emission (SE) or Frenkel-Poole

(FP) conduction, respectively. The data fitting suggests that the current conduction

mechanism of the TaN/Ir/TiLaO/TaN device changes from SE at low electric fields to FP

at higher fields. In contrast, the TaN/TiLaO/TaN devices fit an SE description at both low

and high fields.

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electrodes, respectively. The large Vb difference explains the reduced leakage current and

weaker temperature dependence in the TaN/Ir/TiLaO/TaN devices. Thus low leakage current at high temperature can be obtained in MIM capacitors by combining a high-κ dielectric having a high ΔEC with a high work function metal electrode.

4.4. Conclusion

A high capacitance density and low leakage current at 125oC have been achieved in

Ir/TiLaO/TaN MIM capacitors. The device processing temperature of 400oC would

enable them to be integrated into VLSI backend technology and be used in multiple

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Table 4-1. Comparison of MIM capacitors with various dielectrics and metal electrodes. HfO2 [4-8] Tb- HfO2 [4-10] Al2O3 -HfO2 [4-9] TiTaO [4-12]-[4-13] STO [4-16] STO [4-14] TiLaO Process Temp. (oC) 400 400 400 400 400 450 400

Top Electrode Ta Ta TaN Ir Ni TaN TaN Ir

Work-function (eV) 4.2 4.2 4.6 5.27 5.1 4.6 4.6 5.27 C Density (fF/μm2 ) 13 13.3 12.8 23 25.2 28 24.5 24 J (A/cm2) @25oC 6×10-7 (2V) 1×10-7 (2V) 8×10-9 (2V) 2×10-6 (1V) 2×10-5 (2V) 2×10-7 (1V) 8×10-6 (2V) 3×10-8 (2V) 2.2×10-6 (1V) 1×10-7 (1V) 2.3×10-7 (2V) J (A/cm2) @125oC 2×10-6 (1V) 2×10-7 (2V) 6×10-9 (1V) 5×10-8 (2V) - 5×10-6 (1V) - 1.3×10 -4 6.6×10-7 (1V) 6.7×10-6 (2V)

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-1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

Ir/TiLaO/TaN

C~24 fF/

μ

m

2

TaN/TiLaO/TaN

100 kHz 500 kHz 1M Hz Voltage (V) C apacitance D ensity ( fF/um 2 ) (a) -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 10-9 10-7 10-5 10-3 10-1 101 103 TaN/TiLaO/TaN Ir/TiLaO/TaN Measured @ 125oC Measured @ 25oC TaN/TiLaO/TaN Ir/TiLaO/TaN Current D ensity (A/c m 2 ) Voltage (V)

Gate injection Bottom injection C ~ 24 fF/μm2

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-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 10-9 10-7 10-5 10-3 10-1 101 103 As-deposited

After 400 C N2 anneal for 20 min

Current Density

(

A/cm

2 )

Voltage (V)

Gate injection Bottom injection

-2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 o 2 Ir/TiLaO/TaN As-deposited (c)

Fig. 4-1 (a) C-V, (b) J-V and (c) thermal stability characteristics of

TaN/TiLaO/TaN and TaN/Ir/TiLaO/TaN MIM capacitors measured

at various frequencies, at 25 and 125

o

C. The thermal stability test

was performance at 400

o

C for 20 min at N

2

ambient.

After N2 anneal for 20 min

Voltage (V) Capac itance D e nsity (fF/um Measured @ 500MHz

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-5 10 1000 2000 3000 4000 -20 -15 -10 0 5

Ir/TiLaO/TaN

C~24 fF/μm2 Schottky emission @ 25oC @125oC Poole-Frenkel emission E1/2(V/cm)1/2 ln (J) 2000 3000 4000 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 TaN/TiLaO/TaN @ 25oC

Fig. 4-2 Measured and simulated J-E

1/2

of an Ir/TiLaO/TaN capacitor. A

TaN/TiLaO/TaN device is shown, for comparison, in the insert.

@125oC Schottky emission E1/2 (V/cm)1/2 ln ( J )

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1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 e-25 e-22 e-19 e-16 e-13 @125oC Gate injection TaN/TiLaO/TaN barrier height = 0.57eV

Ir/TiLaO/TaN

barrier height = 1.35eV

Schottky emission fitting J/T 2 (A/c m 2 -K 2 ) E1/2(V/cm)1/2

Fig. 4-3 The J/T

2

-E

1/2

plots of TaN/TiLaO/TaN and TaN/Ir/TiLaO/TaN MIM

capacitors.

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Chapter 5

MIM Capacitors Using a High-

κ TiZrO Dielectric for

Analog and RF Applications

5.1 Introduction

The continuously increasing capacitance density (εκ/tκ) and preserving low leakage current are the technology trend of the Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors [5-1]-[5-18]. To achieve this goal, the using higher κdielectrics for MIM capacitors are required. However, the increasing κ value usually decreases the conduction band offset (ΔEC) to the metal electrode, where the ΔEC even becomes slightly negative (-0.1 eV) in

SrTiO3 (STO) [5-18]. Such small ΔEC increases the unwanted leakage current of MIM capacitors [5-16], and therefore a trade off between ΔEC and κ value is necessary. Besides, the κ value in STO is strongly dependent on the process temperature due to the formation of nano-crystals at above 450oC [5-16]. Unfortunately, such high temperature is above the maximum allowable temperature of 400oC for VLSI backend integration. In this paper, we report low leakage TiZrO MIM capacitors processed at 400oC. Using a low cost and high work-function (5.1 eV) Ni electrode, low leakage currents of 2.5×10-7 and 4×10-8

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These electrical characteristics are better than previously reported TiTaO [5-12]-[5-13] and TiHfO [5-15] capacitors. Besides, a small quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance (VCC α) of 105 ppm/V2 and temperature coefficient of the capacitance (TCC) of 156 ppm/oC were measured in the 5.5 fF/μm2 TiZrO MIM capacitor. Such excellent device characteristics are due to the higher ΔEC for ZrO2 (1.4 eV) than Ta2O5 (0.3 eV) and better κ of ZrO2 than HfO2 [5-19], [5-20]. These good devices performances of Ni/TiZrO/TaN capacitors can be used for multiple functional System-on-Chip (SoC) application.

.

5.2 Experimental procedure

The high-κ TiZrO MIM capacitors were fabricated on Si wafers. For VLSI backend integration, a 2-μm thick SiO2 isolation layer was first deposited on the Si substrates. After that, the combined bottom electrode of 200 nm Ta and then 50 nm TaN were deposited by sputtering. The TaN surface was exposed to a NH3+ plasma treatment to increase the oxidation resistance during the following post-deposition annealing (PDA) [5-5]-[5-6]. Then a 16 nm-, 47 nm- or 56 nm-thick TixZr1-xO (x~0.67) dielectric layer was deposited by physical vapor deposition. A 400oC PDA in oxygen ambient was performed to reduce the defects in TiZrO and leakage current [5-3]. Finally, a 40 nm Ni and/or 50

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180-μm×180-μm was measured. The devices were characterized by C-V and J-V measurements.

5.3 Results and discussion

Figures 1(a) and 1(b) show the C-V and J-V characteristics of Ni/TiZrO/TaN and Al/TiZrO/TaN capacitors. A high capacitance density of 18 fF/μm2 was measured at 500 kHz. At -2 V, the leakage current of TiZrO MIM capacitors improves by two orders of magnitude using a high work function Ni (5.1 eV) as compared with Al (~4.1 eV) electrode. At this 18 fF/μm2 capacitance density, low leakage currents of 3.3×10-8 A/cm2 and 2.5×10-7 A/cm2 at -1 V and -2V were measured in Ni/TiZrO/TaN MIM capacitor, respectively. Table 1 summarizes the important device performance of various MIM capacitors. The Ni/TiZrO/TaN device data is better than that of the Ir/TiTaO/TaN MIM capacitors with a lower 14.3 fF/μm2 capacitance density shown in Table 1, even though higher work function Ir top electrode (~5.27 eV) is used for TiTaO capacitor than Ni electrode (~5.1eV) for TiZrO. This is mainly attributed to the larger conduction band offset of ZrO2 (1.4 eV) than that of Ta2O5 (0.3 eV) [5-19]. The device performance of Ni/TiZrO MIM capacitors is also better than the Ni/TiHfO [5-15], where higher capacitance density is obtained in Ni/TiZrO with comparable leakage current shown in

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reason why ZrO2 is used in DRAM to replace HfO2 [5-20]. For analog IC application, low VCC α is required. Figure 1 (c) showed the ΔC/C-V characteristics of TiZrO MIM

capacitors, where VCC α can be extracted from the following equation: ; α and β are quadratic and linear VCC, respectively. The VCC α is better using Ni electrode than that of Al. This may arise from the higher work function of Ni than Al, which exponentially decreases the free carriers injection from electrode by Schottky emission and lower the effect of charge relaxation [5-21].

) 1 ( ) ( 2 0 + + =C V V V C α β

To further lower the VCC, we fabricated TiZrO dielectric capacitors at larger 47 and 56 nm thickness. Figures 2(a), 2(b) and 2(c) show the C-V, J-V and ΔC/C-V

characteristics of Ni/TiZrO/TaN capacitors at these TiZrO thicknesses. Low leakage current of 6.7×10-8 A/cm2 and 4×10-8 at -2 V were measured at capacitance density of 6.5 and 5.5 fF/μm2, respectively. Both the VCC α and β decrease with increasing TiZrO thickness or decreasing capacitance density. Small VCC α of 105 ppm/V2 and VCC β of -757 ppm/V at 500 kHz were obtained at a 56 nm thickness of TiZrO with capacitance density of 5.5 fF/μm2. From the experimental data presented in above Figs. 1(c) and 2(c), the VCC α improves with increasing metal work-function and dielectric thickness, where both cases give the lower charge injection into the capacitor. This is well explained by the

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nearly meet the requirements of bypass capacitors used for RF circuits listed in International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) at year 2012: with capacitance density >5fF/μm2, VCC ⎪α⎪ <100 ppm/V2 and VCC ⎪β⎪ <1000 ppm/V [5-1].

The temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) is an important factor, since modern ICs usually operate at elevated temperatures. Figure 4 shows the measured normalized capacitance as a function of temperature. Small TCC values of 179 and 156 ppm/oC were measured at 100 kHz for the 6.5 and 5.5 fF/μm2 density TiZrO MIM capacitors, respectively. The decreasing trend of TCC with decreasing capacitance density is similar to the VCC α case, which again may be related to the charge trapping and relaxation in MIM capacitors [5-21].

Such improving trend of VCC α with decreasing capacitance density of MIM capacitors is summarized in Fig. 4. Here the variation of α is plotted as a function of 1/C to show the dependence of capacitance equivalent thickness (CET=ε0κ/C). The TiZrO shows better chance to meet the ITRS requirement at 2012 than HfO2 and Ta2O5. Besides, for the same required VCC ⎪α⎪ <100 ppm/V2, the TiZrO can have higher capacitance density than using HfO and Ta O .

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and 5(b) display the C-V and J-V characteristics of Ni/TiZrO/TaN device before and after thermal annealing at 350oC for 20 min under N

2 ambient. Only a small degradation of the

capacitance density and leakage current was found, which indicates the good thermal stability of both the top Ni electrode and the TiZrO dielectric.

5.4. Conclusion

We have investigated the device characteristics of Ni/TiZrO/TaN capacitors. Low leakage current and high capacitance density were obtained and better than previous reported MIM capacitors using TiTaO or TiHfO dielectric. Low leakage current, small VCC α of 105 ppm/V2 and TCC of 156 ppm/oC have been achieved in Ni/TiZrO/TaN MIM devices at 5.5 fF/μm2 capacitance density. This high performance device is capable to be integrated into VLSI backend and be used in multiple functions associated with SoC.

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Table 5-1 Comparison of MIM capacitors with various dielectrics and metal electrodes. HfO2 [5-8] Tb- HfO2 [5-10] TiTaO [5-12]-[5-13] TiHfO [5-15]

ITRS @

2012

[5-1] TiZrO (This work) Top Electrode Ta Ta Ir Ni - Ni Work-function (eV) 4.2 4.2 5.27 5.1 - 5.1 C Density (fF/μm2) 13 13.3 14.3 14.3

5

18 6.5 5.5 J (A/cm2) @25oC 6×10-7 (2V) 1×10-7 (2V) 2×10-7 (2V) 8.4×10-8 (1V) - 3.3×10-8 (1V) 2.5×10-7 (2V) 6.7×10-8 (2V) 4×10-8 (2V) α (ppm/V2) 607 2667 634 3392

α<100

3308 248 105

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-2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 14 16 18 20 22 24 100 kHz 500 kHz Ni/TiZrO/TaN Al/TiZrO/TaN Voltage (V) C H (fF/um 2 ) (a) -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 10-9 10-7 10-5 10-3 10-1 101 103 105 107 4.5eV Ni TiZrO TaN 5.1eV 4.1eV Al Ni/TiZrO/TaN Al/TiZrO/TaN Current den sity ( A/cm 2 ) Voltage (V)

Gate injection Bottom injection

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0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 0.0 6.0x103 1.2x104 1.8x104 2.4x104 3.0x104 3.6x104 4.2x104

C~18 fF/

μ

m

2 α=7651 α=3308 Ni/TiZrO/TaN Al/TiZrO/TaN Δ C/C (ppm) Voltage (V) @500kHz (c)

Fig. 5-1 (a) C-V, (b) J-V and (c) ΔC/C-V characteristics of Al/TiZro/TaN

and Ni/TiZrO/TaN MIM capacitors.

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-2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2 4 6 8 10 C~6.5

fF/

μ

m

2 C~5.5

fF/

μ

m

2

Ni/TiZrO/TaN

100 kHz 500 kHz Voltage (V) C H (fF/um 2 ) (a) -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 10-9 10-7 10-5 10-3

Ni/TiZrO/TaN

C~6.5 fF/μm2 C~5.5 fF/μm2 Cu rren t densi ty ( A/c m 2 ) Voltage (V)

G ate injection Bottom injection

數據

Fig. 1-1  The International Technology Roadmap of SIA for  Semiconductor 2007 [1-1]
Fig. 1-1 The International Technology Roadmap of SIA for Semiconductor 2007 [1-1] p.30
Fig. 1-4  Static dielectric constant versus band gap for candidate gate  oxides, after Robertson [1-13]
Fig. 1-4 Static dielectric constant versus band gap for candidate gate oxides, after Robertson [1-13] p.31
Fig. 1-3  Static dielectric constant versus band gap for candidate gate  oxides, after Robertson [1-13]
Fig. 1-3 Static dielectric constant versus band gap for candidate gate oxides, after Robertson [1-13] p.31
Fig. 1-5  The 2007 International Technology Roadmap for  Semiconductors for DRAM (a) stacked capacitors and (b) trench  capacitors
Fig. 1-5 The 2007 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors for DRAM (a) stacked capacitors and (b) trench capacitors p.32
Fig. 1-6  Bond enthalpy for M-O, M-N and M-C in the Periodic Table
Fig. 1-6 Bond enthalpy for M-O, M-N and M-C in the Periodic Table p.33
Fig. 2-1  (a)  C-V and (b) J-V characteristics for TaN/TiHfO/TaN MIM  capacitors measured after the indicated plasma treatments
Fig. 2-1 (a) C-V and (b) J-V characteristics for TaN/TiHfO/TaN MIM capacitors measured after the indicated plasma treatments p.40
Fig. 2-2  Δ C/C-V characteristics for TaN/TiHfO/TaN MIM capacitors  following various plasma treatments
Fig. 2-2 Δ C/C-V characteristics for TaN/TiHfO/TaN MIM capacitors following various plasma treatments p.41
Fig. 2-3  Cross-sectional TEM images of the TiHfO structure (a) with only a  nitrogen plasma treatment and (b) with both a nitrogen and a  second oxygen plasma treatment.
Fig. 2-3 Cross-sectional TEM images of the TiHfO structure (a) with only a nitrogen plasma treatment and (b) with both a nitrogen and a second oxygen plasma treatment. p.42
Fig. 2-4  The surface roughness of bottom electrode (a) with or (b) without  O 2  plasma treatment by AFM spectroscopy
Fig. 2-4 The surface roughness of bottom electrode (a) with or (b) without O 2 plasma treatment by AFM spectroscopy p.43
Fig. 2-5  SIMS analysis for TiHfO/TaN with or without O 2  plasma treatment  on bottom TaN
Fig. 2-5 SIMS analysis for TiHfO/TaN with or without O 2 plasma treatment on bottom TaN p.44
Table 3-1. Comparison of MIM capacitors which have various dielectrics and metal  electrodes

Table 3-1.

Comparison of MIM capacitors which have various dielectrics and metal electrodes p.50
Fig. 3-1  (a)  C-V and (b) J-V (measured at 25  o C and 125 o C) characteristics
Fig. 3-1 (a) C-V and (b) J-V (measured at 25 o C and 125 o C) characteristics p.51
Fig. 3-2  XPS depth profile for TiO 2 /TaN with or without O 2  treatment on  bottom TaN
Fig. 3-2 XPS depth profile for TiO 2 /TaN with or without O 2 treatment on bottom TaN p.52
Fig. 3-3 A cross-sectional TEM image of a TiO 2  sample, after 300 o C  processing.
Fig. 3-3 A cross-sectional TEM image of a TiO 2 sample, after 300 o C processing. p.53
Fig. 3-4  The thermal stability behavior of a 300 o C -formed Ir/TiO 2 /TaN
Fig. 3-4 The thermal stability behavior of a 300 o C -formed Ir/TiO 2 /TaN p.54
Table 4-1. Comparison of MIM capacitors with various dielectrics and metal electrodes

Table 4-1.

Comparison of MIM capacitors with various dielectrics and metal electrodes p.60
Fig. 4-2 Measured and simulated J-E 1/2  of an Ir/TiLaO/TaN capacitor. A  TaN/TiLaO/TaN device is shown, for comparison, in the insert
Fig. 4-2 Measured and simulated J-E 1/2 of an Ir/TiLaO/TaN capacitor. A TaN/TiLaO/TaN device is shown, for comparison, in the insert p.63
Fig. 4-3  The J/T 2 -E 1/2  plots of TaN/TiLaO/TaN and TaN/Ir/TiLaO/TaN MIM  capacitors.
Fig. 4-3 The J/T 2 -E 1/2 plots of TaN/TiLaO/TaN and TaN/Ir/TiLaO/TaN MIM capacitors. p.64
Fig. 5-1  (a)  C-V, (b) J-V and (c) ΔC/C-V characteristics of Al/TiZro/TaN  and Ni/TiZrO/TaN MIM capacitors
Fig. 5-1 (a) C-V, (b) J-V and (c) ΔC/C-V characteristics of Al/TiZro/TaN and Ni/TiZrO/TaN MIM capacitors p.73
Fig. 5-2  (a) C-V, (b) J-V and (c) ΔC/C-V characteristics of Ni/TiZrO/TaN  MIM capacitors with a 47 or 56 nm TiZrO dielectric thicknesses
Fig. 5-2 (a) C-V, (b) J-V and (c) ΔC/C-V characteristics of Ni/TiZrO/TaN MIM capacitors with a 47 or 56 nm TiZrO dielectric thicknesses p.75
Fig. 5-3  Temperature-dependence of capacitance (TCC) characteristics of  Ni/TiZrO/TaN MIM capacitors with 47 nm or 56 nm TiZrO  dielectric thicknesses.
Fig. 5-3 Temperature-dependence of capacitance (TCC) characteristics of Ni/TiZrO/TaN MIM capacitors with 47 nm or 56 nm TiZrO dielectric thicknesses. p.76
Fig. 5-4  Δ C/C-1/C plot for various MIM capacitors.
Fig. 5-4 Δ C/C-1/C plot for various MIM capacitors. p.77
Fig. 5-5  Thermal stability behavior of (a) C-V and (b) J-V characteristics  for Ni/TiZrO/TaN capacitors after a 350 o C N 2  anneal for 20 min
Fig. 5-5 Thermal stability behavior of (a) C-V and (b) J-V characteristics for Ni/TiZrO/TaN capacitors after a 350 o C N 2 anneal for 20 min p.78
Fig. 6-1  (a) C-V and (b) J-V characteristics of the 30 nm TiHfO/TaN MIM  capacitors with Ni or TaN top electrode
Fig. 6-1 (a) C-V and (b) J-V characteristics of the 30 nm TiHfO/TaN MIM capacitors with Ni or TaN top electrode p.85
Fig. 6-2 (a) The temperature-dependent normalized capacitance and (b)  Δ C/C-V characteristics of TiHfO MIM capacitors with Ni or TaN  top electrodes
Fig. 6-2 (a) The temperature-dependent normalized capacitance and (b) Δ C/C-V characteristics of TiHfO MIM capacitors with Ni or TaN top electrodes p.86
Fig. 6-3   The effect of constant-voltage stress on (a) VCC-α (b) J-V and (c)  TCC of [Ni or TaN]/TiHfO/TaN capacitors
Fig. 6-3 The effect of constant-voltage stress on (a) VCC-α (b) J-V and (c) TCC of [Ni or TaN]/TiHfO/TaN capacitors p.88
Fig. 6-4 (a)  Δ C/C as a function of stress time and (b) extrapolated  Δ C/C  for a 10 year lifetime as a function of stress voltage for [Ni or  TaN]/TiHfO/TaN capacitors
Fig. 6-4 (a) Δ C/C as a function of stress time and (b) extrapolated Δ C/C for a 10 year lifetime as a function of stress voltage for [Ni or TaN]/TiHfO/TaN capacitors p.89
Fig. 7-1  Band diagrams before contact for (a) TaN or (b) Ni /SrTiO 3 /TaN  MIM capacitors.
Fig. 7-1 Band diagrams before contact for (a) TaN or (b) Ni /SrTiO 3 /TaN MIM capacitors. p.95
Fig. 7-2  C-V characteristics of (a) [Ni or TaN]/STO/TaN at 25ºC or 125ºC  and (b) J-V characteristics of [Ni or TaN]/STO/TaN under CVS test  at 25ºC or 125ºC.
Fig. 7-2 C-V characteristics of (a) [Ni or TaN]/STO/TaN at 25ºC or 125ºC and (b) J-V characteristics of [Ni or TaN]/STO/TaN under CVS test at 25ºC or 125ºC. p.96
Fig. 7-3  (a) Measured and simulated two-port S-parameters for SrTiO  MIM  capacitors (b) The equivalent circuit for capacitor value extraction  from measured S-parameters.
Fig. 7-3 (a) Measured and simulated two-port S-parameters for SrTiO MIM capacitors (b) The equivalent circuit for capacitor value extraction from measured S-parameters. p.97

參考文獻

  1. www.itrs.net.