教育與文化再製:一個象徵資本的觀點

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!

!

ࣴزፕЎ!

௲ػᆶЎϯӆᇙǺ!

΋ঁຝቻၗҁޑᢀᗺ

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׆஡ᔕʳ

ᙩࡵՕᖂඒߛઔߒࢬඒ඄ଫԳ֮ዄषᄎઝᖂೃೃ९ʳ

گᒚֲཚΚ˅˃˄˄ ڣ ˄˄ ִ ˅ ֲΔ൷࠹עֲ࿆ཚΚ˅˃˄˅ ڣ ˆ ִ ˄ˈ ֲΖʳ

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ύ

ύЎᄔा!

!

ඒߛءߪ༉ᓿڶਬጟ֮֏ႚࢭऱࠌࡎΔ܀ਢΔ֮֏ႚࢭፖ֮֏٦፹ਢࠟڃ ࠃΔ֮֏ႚࢭਢ֮֏ඒߛृΕ੷۟ਢ๯ඒߛृڶრᢝΕ֘৸৵ऱᙇᖗΔ֮ۖ֏ ٦፹ঞਢ࿨ዌࠌྥΔਢԳଚࢬլ౨ᙇᖗऱΖء֮ൕऄഏषᄎ৸უ୮ؒ૭֕ ΰPierre Bourdieuαऱွᐛᇷءΰle capital symboliqueα෻ᓵࠐ֘৸ᅝזඒߛΔ ء֮ᎁ੡ΔඒߛᏁ૞֮֏ႚࢭΔ܀լᏁ૞֮֏٦፹Ζ

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Education and the cultural reproduction :

A view of symbolic capital

Chen-Hui Wang

Professor of Graduate Institute of Education, Providence University

Abstract

Education inherently endowed with some cultural heritage mission, but cultural inheritance is different from cultural reproduction. The cultural inheritance is a conscious and reflective choice by educators and the cultural reproduction, which people cannot choose, is decide by the structure. This article reflects on contemporary education from France social thinker Pierre Bourdieu’s the theory of symbolic capital (Le capital symbolique). We believe that the education needs the cultural inheritance, but no cultural reproduction is required.

Keywords: education, cultural reproduction, Pierre Bourdieu, symbolic capital

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໸Εছߢ

ඒߛਢ๺ڍԳऱኄუΔ௽ܑਢᒡԳΔڂ੡ຘመඒߛΔԳଚױא᧢൓ޓףભ ړΔຘመඒߛΔݺଚױאመထ෻უऱس੒ΔຘመඒߛΔԳᣊऱ֮֏൓אႚࢭΖ ༉ႃ᧯ۖߢΔඒߛڶထᗨᄕΕإ૿ऱᏝଖΔႚࢭٍრᘯထނԳᣊભړऱࠃढԫ זԫזႚᎠՀװΔڇਬጟრᆠՂΔݺଚՈױאނ،ီ੡ԫጟ֮֏٦፹Ζ ྥۖΔᖂ๬੺ኙ࣍ຍጟભړࠃढऱ٦፹থࣄ਍ထլٵऱᨠរΖࠡխΔ௽ܑ ਢڇ֮֏Εඒߛ੺ᇙᙰΔ२༓Լڣࠐኙ֮֏٦፹ຍଡᤜᠲڶ๺ڍऱ֘ઊΖ ឈྥٵᑌൎᓳၸ్ऱ୬ࠫ܂شΔ܀ਢፖႚอ್܌৸׌ᆠऱᨠរլٵΔᅝז ऱψ֮֏٦፹ωΰcultural reproductionα෻ᓵᎁ੡Δᇷء׌ᆠषᄎऱၸ్٦፹ࠀ լਢطᆖᛎسขመ࿓ࠐެࡳΔۖਢ֮֏ඒߛመ࿓Ιຍਢڂ੡อएၸ్բᆖ୬ࠫ Աषᄎ֮֏ፖᏝଖᨠΔڂۖ࠷൓ࠫࡳᖂீᓰ࿓वᢝऱփ୲ፖ࿨ዌऱ׌ᖄᦞΙࠡ ڻΔڇڼԫषᄎխΔٚ۶ᖂسԵᖂຟਢڇਝڶයٙΕ௽ࡳൣቼՀװܮگอएၸ ్ऱ֮֏ࠨᖿΔڂڼΔܒឰᖂسᖂ฾ᜎயऱᑑᄷঁਢ౨ܡৈٽอएၸ్ࢬ׌ᖄ ऱवᢝ࿨ዌፖ᥆ࢤΖڕڼΔڼԫषᄎխطඒߛࢬআګΕං೯ऱषᄎੌ೯Δࠡఽ യ༉෡෡چୖ៲ڇᖂீඒߛፖᓰ࿓փ୲ࢬොᤖऱၸ్რᢝীኪᇙΖ1 ڇࢬڶऱ֮֏٦፹෻ᓵխΔऄഏऱषᄎ৸უ୮ؒ૭֕(Pierre Bourdieu)ऱ ွᐛᇷء෻ᓵਢࠡխ່ࠠז।ࢤऱᨠរΖء່֮׌૞ൕؒ૭֕ऱွᐛᇷء෻ᓵ ࠐ֘৸ᅝזඒߛΖ

၁Εᇷء܂੡ԫጟᦞԺݮڤ

ؒ૭֕ऱ෻ᓵא༿᥻֮֏ඒߛऱषᄎၸ్٦፹פ౨ፖषᄎᗴᙇመ࿓խऱ լؓ࿛෼ွۖထጠ࣍׈Ζ ؒ૭֕ԫ٦ൎᓳࢬڶऱषᄎΕ۩೯Ε৸უ੷۟षᄎઔߒءߪຟ௫֗ွᐛऱ

1ࡌᄅ༄Δπؒዿ૭֕ᓵᖂீඒߛፖ֮֏٦፹ρΔ؀קΔ֨෻Δ˅˃˃ˈ ڣΖ

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ࠌشΔڂۖٚ۶षᄎᖂઔߒؘྥਢ֘৸ऱΰreflexiveαΔڂڼהൄጠ۞աऱष ᄎઔߒ֘৸षᄎᖂΰreflexive sociologyαΖ2ೈԱൎᓳ֘৸ࢤհ؆Δ຃ઠؒ૭֕ ෻ᓵऱ׼ԫଡഗء௽ۥਢΔאਝਢᣂএࢤΰrelationalαԾਢψسګࢤωΰgenerativeα ऱᇞᦰ଺ঞװ൶ಘ׌ᨠፖড়ᨠڂైڇኔᔌመ࿓խΔઌյዶຘࡉઌյ᠏֏ऱ෼ွ ࡉ᧤ᙀΖ3 ؒ૭֕ڇπᤉࢭԳρΰThe Inheritorsαԫ஼Δ։࣫Աऄഏऱඒߛࠀ༼נψ֮ ֏٦፹ω෻ᓵΙؒ૭֕ڇ஼խᎁ੡ΔऄഏՕᖂ๯ီ੡ဍ૎֮֏ऱ壀ᆣঅឤΔՕ ᖂسঞਢຍጟ֮֏ऱᤉࢭԳΖൕषᄎᖂऱߡ৫ࠐ઎Δဍ૎հࢬא੡ဍ૎Δࠡ଺ ڂڇ࣍הଚ౨ജګפچඈೈࠡהԳՓऱ೶ፖΔፂ਍۞ߪኙ࣍ਬࠄᇷᄭऱᡐឰΔ ຍ༉ਢ֮֏٦፹Ζ֮֏٦፹ᑓڤਢਐᖑڶለ೏֮֏ඒߛહནऱ׀ئΔࠡ՗Ֆڇ ඒߛᖲᄎՂࠆڶᚌႨΔ࣍ਢΔ׀ചᔘऱ֮֏ඒߛֽᄷ౨ڇ՗ז൓אᤉࢭࡉ࢏ ᥛΔൕۖݙګ୮அऱ֮֏٦፹መ࿓ΖπᤉࢭԳρਐנΔඒߛ᧯ࠫຘመԱጟጟา ᘈऱ֮֏٦፹መ࿓ΔᕁࡐԱषᄎլؓ࿛ऱ෼ኔΖˇ א࢓ऱݮڤ׌ᆠୃᖂຏൄܫ္ԳଚΔᢌ๬֚թԯਢԫጟፖسଟࠐऱଡԳ֚ ᓿΔ௽ܑਢڇൈᐚऱભᖂᇙᙰΖྥۖΔؒ૭֕ऱ෻ᓵ㤪।ࣔΔԫ֊֮֏ኔᔌ੒ ೯խऱ঴࠺ΔኔᎾՂፖඒߛ࿓৫ࡉषᆖહནຍࠟՕڂైઌᣂΖؒ૭֕।قΔष ᄎױီ੡ڍ૿ٻऱ़ၴΔຍਢԫଡהጠհ੡ψ໱഑ωΰChampsαऱषᄎ़ၴΔ Գଚڇ໱഑ऱۯᆜ࠷ެ࣍ࠡࢬᖑڶऱᇷءᑇᠰΙԫଡԳࢬᖑڶא֗ሎشऱ٤ຝ ᇷء᜔ၦΔ༉ਢၸ్ऱܒឰᑑᄷΖˈ ʳ ʳʳʳʳʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ؒ૭֕ނᇷء׌ᆠխऱψᇷءωီ੡षᄎ֮֏։࣫խॺൄᣂ᝶ऱᤜᠲΔຍ ᅝྥՈਢ࠹್ࠩ܌৸׌ᆠऱඔ࿇Ιڇ್܌৸߷ᇙΔᇷء׌ᆠᇙऱᇷءԯਢᇷء ୮ଷচ໎೯ृऱໍ塒ᏝଖۖࠐऱΔڂڼΔᇷء᧯෼נԫጟีᗨݮګऱ໎೯ໍ塒

˅ ؒ૭֕Εဎൈ൓ထΔޕෳΕޕൈ᤟Δπኔᔌፖ֘৸Κ֘৸षᄎᖂᖄ֧ρΔקࠇΔխ؇ᒳ᤟षΔ˄ˌˌˋ ڣΔ଄ ˇˋΖʳ ˆ ٵছုΖʳ ˇ ʳ ˣˁʳ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʳ˴́˷ʳ˝˸˴́ˀ˖˿˴̈˷˸ʳˣ˴̆̆˸̅̂́ʿʳ˧˻˸ʳ˜́˻˸̅˼̇̂̅̆ʳˍʳ˙̅˸́˶˻ʳ˦̇̈˷˸́̇̆ʳ˴́˷ʳ̇˻˸˼̅ʳ˥˸˿˴̇˼̂́̆ʳ̇̂ʳ˖̈˿̇̈̅˸ʳʿʳ ˖˻˼˶˴˺̂ˍʳ˨́˼̉˸̅̆˼̇̌ʳ̂˹ʳ˖˻˼˶˴˺̂ʳˣ̅˸̆̆ʿ˄ˌˊˋˁ̃̃ˁˆˀ˅ˈˁʳ ˈ ʳ ˣˁʳ ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿʳ˗˼̆̇˼́˶̇˼̂́ˍʳ ˔ʳ ˦̂˶˼˴˿ʳ ˖̅˼̇˼̄̈˸ʳ ̂˹ʳ ̇˻˸ʳ ˝̈˷˺˸̀˸́̇ʳ ̂˹ʳ ˧˴̆̇˸ʿʳ ˟̂́˷̂́ʿʳ ˥̂̈̇˿˸˷˺˸ʳ ˴́˷ʳ ˞˸˺˴́ʳ ˣ˴̈˿ʿʳ˄ˌˋˇʿ̃̃ˁ˅ˋˉˀˋˊʿˁʳ

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ᏝଖΔޓૹ૞ऱਢΔຍᑌऱᇷءࠠڶسګࢤΔ౨լឰچឩՕسขࡉ٦سขΔᇷ ءءߪޓࠠڶٌངᏝଖΔᇷءհၴ౨ၞ۩᠏ངΙൕ್܌৸ऱᇷء෻ᓵΔױא൓ נ༓ଡᄗ࢚ΚଷচΕᚘ૰Εᇷءऱ٦سขʻࢨ٦፹ʼא֗ᇷءऱٌངᏝଖ࿛Δڇ ڼΔݺଚՈؘႊࣹრࠩΔڇ್܌৸׌ᆠᇙΔᇷءऱسขፖ٦سขٵᑌਢၸ్ᓤ ፹ऱছ༼යٙΔਢᇷขၸ్൓אᤉᥛଷচ໎೯ၸ్ऱᖇ៶Ζˉ ʳ ܀ਢΔؒ૭֕ᎁ੡ᇷءࠀॺႛૻ࣍ᆖᛎᇷءΔۖ׊ڕ࣠૞٤૿ᎁᢝࡉ෻ᇞ षᄎ׈੺ऱ࿨ዌፖפ౨Δ༉ؘႊ֧ၞᇷءऱԫ֊ݮڤΖڂڼΔؒ૭್ֺ֕܌৸ ޓၞԫޡࠀ׊၌။Ա್܌৸ႚอᆖᛎᖂऱᒤᡱΔؒ૭֕ኙᇷءڶࠡ௽ܑऱᇭ ᤩΔהᎁ੡ΚᇷءਢԫጟࠠڶسขԺऱᇷᄭΔࠡءᔆਢ໎೯ऱีᗨΔԳଚຏመ ۾ڶᇷء౨ജᛧ൓ޓڍऱषᄎᇷᄭΙؒ૭֕ऱᇷءᨠរឩՕԱᇷء଺ءऱփ ොΙၞԫޡࠐ઎Δؒ૭֕ऱψᇷءωᄗ࢚ឆܶԱኙ۞աࡉהԳآࠐऱ൳ࠫ౨ԺΔ ڂۖΔהࢬᎅऱᇷءኔᎾՂਢԫጟᦞԺऱ।෼ݮڤΔؒ૭֕ᇢቹאڼᄅݮኪऱ ᇷء෻ᓵીԺ࣍ᓳࡉଡԳፖषᄎऱ്ԺΙؒ૭֕ᎁ㻽Δԫֱ૿Δᇷءऱլٵ։ ಻ዌګԱषᄎΔ׼ԫֱ૿ΔଡԳԾጣጐ٤Ժچឩ്ࠡᇷءΙଡԳԫسࢬᗨีऱ ᇷءΔ੺ࡳԱࠡऱषᄎ࿇୶ΔՈ༉ਢᎅΔᇷءլ܀࿯ղהଚڇषᄎس੒խऱױ ౨ࢤࢨᖲሖΔೈڼհ؆Δᇷءޓ๯شࠐ٦ขسၸ్೴։Ζؒ૭֕ނᇷء٦า։ ੡༓ጟᣊীΚᆖᛎᇷءΰle capital ͼconomiqueαΕ֮֏ᇷءΰle capital culturelαΕ षᄎᇷءΰle capital socialαࡉွᐛᇷءΰle capital symboliqueαΖᆖᛎᇷءΔ ਐױאऴ൷܋ངګຄኞऱᇷءݮڤࢨࠫ৫֏੡ขᦞऱݮڤΙ֮֏ᇷءΔਐଗܗ ࣍լٵऱጥሐႚᎠऱԳᣊवᢝΕ֮֏ढ঴ࢨຏመඒߛᢞ஼ݮڤ֏Աऱࠠڶسګ ࢤऱᇷءΙषᄎᇷءΔਐԳऱषᄎٌ࢓ᣂএጻ࿮ࢬዌګऱኔژࢨᑨឆऱᇷᄭΔ ڕۨᒴᣂএΕچᒴᣂএ֗ٵᖂᣂএ࿛ΔۖွᐛᇷءঞਢਐኙছԿጟᇷءऱٽऄ

ˉ ʳ ್܌৸Δπᇷءᓵρรԫ࠴Δπ್܌৸஑௑ཎ٤ႃρรԼք࠴ΔקࠇΔԳاנठषΔ˄ˌˉˇ ڣΔ ଄ ˅˄ˊΖא֗஑௑ཎΔπ׬ዿΗ್܌৸τᇷءᓵυรԫ࠴஼ေΫΫ੡τا׌ၜ໴υ܂ρΔπ್܌৸ ஑௑ཎᙇႃρรԲ࠴ΔקࠇΔԳاנठष ˄ˌˌˈ ڣΔ଄ ˈˋˌˀˈˌˊΖʳ

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֏ᎁٵΖˊ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ڇؒ૭֕ۖߢΔຍ༓ጟᇷءຟڶઌᚨऱפ౨Δ࢖ڼᜤᢀۖ׊౨ઌյ᠏ངΔ ڕषᄎᇷءΕ֮֏ᇷءױຏመ᠏ངګᆖᛎᇷءࠐᛧ࠷ᆖᛎՂऱܓ墿ࡉڃ໴Ζʳ Ղ૪༓ጟᇷءݮڤࠃኔՂᛩᛩઌڬΕઌسઌஒΔ،ଚຟਢषᄎ֮֏٦፹լ ױࢨ౒ऱᛩᆏΙࢍՀݺଚ։ܑףא࿇ཀᓵ૪Ζʳ ʳ

೶Εࠫ৫֏ऱขᦞݮڤΚᆖᛎᇷءʳ

ʳ

ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ڕছࢬ૪Δψᆖᛎᇷءωਐऱਢױאऴ൷܋ངګຄኞऱᇷءݮڤࢨࠫ৫֏ ੡ขᦞऱݮڤΖʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ԫ౳ۖᓵΔषᄎᆖᛎچۯ೏ऱ୮அՈലࠡᖑڶषᄎᆖᛎᇷء᠏ང੡՗Ֆٺ ጟᖲᄎऱᚌႨΔၞ۩լؓ࿛ऱזᎾႚᎠΖ௅ᖕᖂृऱઔߒ।ࣔΔ୮அषᄎᆖᛎ چۯኙ৵זඒߛᛧ൓ದထૹ૞܂شΔຍԫរڇᐖऑऱഏᎾֺለઔߒխ൓ࠩԱ᧭ ᢞΙ୮அषᄎᆖᛎᇷᄭࢨᆖᛎᇷء׌૞ਐ׀ᔘऱᆖᛎ౨ԺΕᦞԺ௽ᦞࡉषᄎጻ ሁᇷᄭ࿛Δፖ୮அඒߛહནઌֺΔ،ଚਢ؆ڇऱΕ࣐᧢ऱΔޓ୲࣐࠹ࠩषᄎࠫ ৫ࡉषᄎणउऱᐙ᥼Ζˋ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ڇ֮֏ඒߛՂΔຍጟᆖᛎᇷءऱ܂ش່੡ࠠ᧯Ι୮அषᄎᆖᛎᇷءऱ܂ش ᖲࠫڇ࣍೏ၸᐋ୮அܓش۾ڶषᄎᆖᛎᇷءऱᚌႨΔڇ֒ᖂࡉᖗீऱመ࿓խ྇ ֟ᤁञ࿓৫Δലຝ։ᤁञृඈ؞ڇᤁ᝛հ؆Δ੷۟ᡐឰඒߛᖲᄎΖڇπᤉࢭԳρ ԫ஼խΔؒ૭֕ڶ堚ᄑऱᓵ૪Ζˌ ຍጟᡐឰඒߛᖲᄎࠠ᧯᧯෼ڇࠟଡֱ૿Κԫ ጟψऴ൷ωඈ؞ࡉ׼؆ԫጟψឆࢤωඈ؞Ζʳ ʳʳʳʳʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ᣂ࣍ψऴ൷ωඈ؞׌૞ڶࠟጟᖲࠫΚ௽ᦞඈ؞ࡉᆖᛎඈ؞Ζ௽ᦞඈ؞ਢਐ

ˊ ʳ ˣ˼˸̅̅˸ʳ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿʳϖ˧˻˸ʳ˹̂̅̀̆ʳ̂˹ʳ˶˴̃˼̇˴˿ϗʿʳ˼́ʳ˝ˁʳ˚ˁʳ˥˼˶˻˴̅˷̆̂́ʻ˸˷ˁʼʿʳ˛˴́˷˵̂̂˾ʳ̂˹ʳ˧˻˸̂̅̌ʳ˴́˷ʳ˥˸̆˸˴̅˶˻ʳ ˹̂̅ʳ̇˻˸ʳ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺̌ʳ̂˹ʳ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́ʿʳˡ˸̊ʳˬ̂̅˾ˍʳ˚̅˸˸́̊̂̂˷ʳˣ̅˸̆̆ʿʳ˄ˌˋˉʿ̃ˁ˅ˋˉˁʳ ˋ ʳ ˗̂́˴˿˷ʳ˝ʳˁʳ˧̅˸˼̀˴́ʿʳ˴́˷ʳ˞˴̀˵̂̅ʳˬ˼̃ʿʳϘ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́˴˿ʳ˴́˷ʳˢ˶˶̈̃˴̇˼̂́˴˿ʳ˔̇̇˴˼́̀˸́̇ʳ˼́ʳ˅˄˖̂̈́̇̅˼˸̆ϙʿʳ˜́ʳ ˠ˸˿̉˼́ʳ ˟ˁʳ ˞̂˻́ΰ˸˷ˁαʿʳ˖̅̂̆̆ʳ ˡ˴̇˼̂́˴˿ʳ ˥˸̆˸˴̅˶˻ʳ ˼́ʳ ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺̌ʳ ʿʳ ˕˸̉˸̅˿̌ʳ ˛˼˿˿̆ʿʳ ˖˴˿˼˹ʳ ˁΚ˦˴˺˸ʿ˄ˌˋˌʿʳ ̃̃ˁˆˊˆˀˆˌˇˁʳ ˌ ʳ ˣˁʳ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʳ˴́˷ʳ˝˸˴́ˀ˖˿˴̈˷˸ʳˣ˴̆̆˸̅̂́ʿʳ˧˻˸ʳ˜́˻˸̅˼̇̂̅̆ʳˍʳ˙̅˸́˶˻ʳ˦̇̈˷˸́̇̆ʳ˴́˷ʳ̇˻˸˼̅ʳ˥˸˿˴̇˼̂́̆ʳ̇̂ʳ˖̈˿̇̈̅˸ʳʿʳ ˖˻˼˶˴˺̂ˍʳ˨́˼̉˸̅̆˼̇̌ʳ̂˹ʳ˖˻˼˶˴˺̂ʳˣ̅˸̆̆ʿ˄ˌˊˋˁʳ

(8)

ڇඒߛࠫ৫๻ૠխ௽ܑ੡ਬ௽ࡳၸᐋΫΫຏൄਢᦞ၆ၸ్ΫΫቃఎԱۯᆜΖຍ ᆖൄ࿇سڇঅښ৞ຨऱषᄎխΔࠏڕڇխഏٺઊٝඒߛຝ॰ຟཏሙژڇထψ೏ ீඒ៭ՠ՗Ֆױᔞᅝ૾։ωլګ֮ऱψᑨڇ๵ঞωΔ10່ࠢীࠏ՗༉ਢ௽౏(Ralph Turner)ࢬ༴૪ऱ૎ഏψݨᥨੌ೯ω(Contest Mobility)ᑓڤΔܛ၆ගࡉ壄૎ၸ్ ऱ՗ݬൕ՛༉ၞԵറ॰ऱᖂீΔྥ৵অಬࠩԫੌՕᖂΔൕۖᒔঅࠡ՗Ֆֲ৵ऱ 壄૎چۯΖ˄˄ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ۖᆖᛎඈ؞ঞਢ෼זषᄎ່ൄߠඈ؞ऱֱڤΔ༄ᇛ୮அಬ৘՗ၞԵگ၄ ೏Ε঴ᔆړऱߏீΔࢨਢࡺ۰ڇψ೏ࡸωष೴ऱԳଚࠆڶ঴ᔆړऱᖂீΖ˄˅ ׼ ؆Δᅝছ֒ᖂխཏሙژڇຍᑌԫጟ෼ွΚԫࢬᖂீڶ೏Ε܅ࠟଡᙕ࠷ᒵΔႛႛ ຏመ܅ᙕ࠷ᒵऱᖂسᏁ૞אψநܗωࢨψᖗீ၄ω࿛ݮڤבנԫࡳᆖᛎזᏝ৵ թᄎ๯ᙕ࠷ΔຍڇءᔆՂਢאᆖᛎᇷءང࠷ඒߛᖲᄎΖኙ࣍षᄎՀᐋۖߢΔᅝ ൷࠹ඒߛऱऴ൷ګءբᆖዌګᆖᛎ૤ᖜΔ༉ᄎנ෼ψە൓࠷ΕՂլದωऱ෼ွΔ אխഏ੡ࠏΔᖂृ۷ጩΔխഏԳ݁ڣگԵႛԶՏց(ԳاᐋΔՀٵ)ՂՀΔ׊ຆ ༄ᣬ௘Δषᄎ࿨ዌᄕլٽ෻Δৄၢ܅گԵ୮அഗᑇ؎ՕΔࠡխ֠אԳ݁ڣگԵ ۟վլߩԿՏցऱልޘ੡ڍΖਊՕᖂᖂ၄ֽؓΔৄ᠜ࡺاऱؓ݁ڣگԵլജԫ ଡՕᖂسԫڣ່܅၄شΔኙልޘࠐᎅΔຍ່܅၄ش૞क़װ 3-4 ଡልاԳ݁ڣگ Եऱ᜔ࡉΔگԵ᎛܅࣍ؓ݁ᑇऱຆܺԳՑ༉൓ޓڍԳլپլ໘թജԫڣᖂ฾၄ شΖڕڇխഏ؄՟ઊګຟॵ२ԫ՛ᗼ్ؑѧᐚၺΔ༉ڶ 20 ټگࠩՕᖂᙕ࠷ຏ व஼ऱ೏ەᖂسڂ୮ຆྃլנᑇՏցᖂ၄ۖ૿ᜯඵᖂऱ࿀ેހᖗΔޓܑᎅልޘ ࡉᢰ᎛ຆܺچ೴ԱΙڇխഏ੷۟٦Կנ෼ྤऄ૤ᖜ৘՗ᖂ၄ۖ۞වऱ׀ئூ ࠏΔխഏᖂृՕຟՈࢭᎁψՂլದᖂΕ઎լದఐΕ۰լದࢪωΔբګ੡խഏ່ Օऱֆ٥ംᠲΖ13 ೈ௽ᦞඈ؞ࡉᆖᛎඈ؞հ؆Δຏመࠌشषᄎጻ࿮࿛ࠡהषᄎ

˄˃ ʳ ዧᚨاΔτ࠷௣೏ீ៭ՠ՗Ֆ૾։௽ᦞᅝ࿀Հެ֨υΔπᄅဎ໴ᄐጻρ˅˃˃ˋˁˊˁ˅Ζʳ ˄˄ ʳ ˥˴˿̃˻ʳ ˧̈̅́˸̅ʿʳ Ϙ˦̃̂́̆̂̅˸˷ʳ ˴́˷ʳ ˖̂́̇˸̆̇ʳ ˠ̂˵˼˿˼̇̌ʳ ˴́˷ʳ ̇˻˸ʳ ˦˶˻̂̂˿ʳ ˦̌̆̇˸̀ϙʿ˼́ʳ ˔̀˸̅˼˶˴́ʳ ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺˼˶˴˿ʳ ˥˸̉˼˸̊ʿʳ̉̂˿ˁ˅ˈʿʳ́̂ˁˉΰ˗˸˶ˁ˄ˌˉ˃αʿʳ̃̃ˁˋˈˈˀˋˉˊˁʳ ˄˅ ʳ ˣ˸̇˸̅ʳ˖̂̂˾̆̂́ʳʿʳ˴́˷ʳ˖ˁʳˣ˸̅̆˸˿˿ʿʳˣ̅˸̃˴̅˼́˺ʳ˹̂̅ʳˣ̂̊˸̅ʳ Κ˔̀˸̅˼˶˴ϗ̆ʳ˘˿˼̇˸ʳ˕̂˴̅˷˼́˺ʳ˦˶˻̂̂˿̆ʳˁˡ˸̊ʳˬ̂̅˾Κ ˕˴̆˼˶ʳ˕̂̂˾̆ʳ Δ˄ˌˋˈΔ̃̃ˁ˄ˆˀˆ˃ˁʳ ˄ˆ ᘕຳᐝΔτඒߛϙขᄐ֏ϙፖຆᒡ׈᦭֏υΔሉπՂ௧ᢞࠦ໴ρ˅˃˃ˈˁˌˁ˅ˌΙࡌᐝઆΔτ୙ࡱᇙऱ ٧រʳ խഏຆܺᖂس׀ئ۞ව᙮᜗υΔሉπՕધցρ˅˃˃ˉˁˊˁ˅ˆΙᤕקΔτاسऱᇤംυΔπתִᓫρ

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ᇷᄭՈױאኔ෼ඈ؞ऱؾऱΖ˄ˇ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ۟࣍ࢬᘯऱψឆࢤωඈ؞ਢਐڇ֒ᖂެ࿜ழΔڂ੡܅ၸᐋኙ֒ᖂଅᙠࢭᖜ ౨Ժ஁ࢨኙඒߛቃཚگ墿ေ۷܅ΔԫࠄԳᄎመڰچಯנ֒ᖂᤁञΖᖂृਐנΔ ឆࢤඈ؞ऱ࿇سլਢڂ੡޲ڶ౨Ժ֭בඒߛऱऴ൷ګءΔۖਢᤚ൓ઌኙऱᖲᄎ ګء֜ՕΖ˄ˈ ،լቝऴ൷ඈ؞߷ᑌߧ፸፸چ๻॰ាኔ෼ඈ؞Δۖਢڇᖲᄎ݁࿛ ऱټᆠՀΔᨃषᄎஇႨၸ్୮அഗ࣍෻ࢤᙇᖗΔڇ۞ᣋऱ।ွՀឆᓈچኔ෼ඈ ؞հؾऱΔਚጠհ੡ψឆࢤωΖʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ լٵၸ్ᖑڶլٵၦऱषᄎᆖᛎᇷءΖषᄎᆖᛎᇷء။ڍऱၸ్༉။ڶ౨ Ժ᠏֏ګ՗ՖඒߛᖲᄎऱᚌႨΔൕۖኔ෼լؓ࿛ऱזᎾႚᎠΖڇຍԫᑓڤհ ՀΔԫଡषᄎऱඒߛլؓ࿛ֽᄷᝫല࠹ࠩषᄎ։֏࿓৫ऱᐙ᥼Ζڕ࣠ၸ్ၴᇷ ءᖑڶ஁ฆլՕΔ߷ᏖᚌႨၸ్ࢬ౨ଘוشאψඈ؞ωऱᇷءՈ༉ઌኙ྇֟Δ ඈ؞ലᣄאኔ෼ࢨृگய੷პΖઌ֘Δᅝषᄎ։֏Ꮳ௺Δၸ్ၴᖑڶऱᇷءၦ ஁ฆ؎ՕΔຍழڕ࣠Ծژڶԫࡳࠫ৫़ၴࠌඈ؞ᖲࠫ౨ڶயሎ܂Δ߷Ꮦᇷء᠏ ֏ᑓڤലګ੡ขسඒߛլؓ࿛ऱ׌ᖄ᧤ᙀΖ˄ˉ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ڇؒ૭֕Δᆖᛎᇷءਢࢬڶᇷءݮڤխऱ່ڶயऱݮڤΔՈࠠ᧯چ୶෼Ա ᇷء׌ᆠऱᗑ௽ࢤΙຍጟᇷءऱ௽ᔆਢൄߠऱΕೳټऱΕڍ᧢ऱΔ،Ոױ᠏ང ګຄኞऱݮڤΔࠀ׊ڇזᎾၴႚᎠΖڼ؆Δᆖᛎᇷءױאޓ᎘࣐Εޓڶயچ๯ ᠏ངګࠡ،ွᐛᇷءΔ֘հঞլԫࡳΖ

ᆥΕᇷᄭऱႃٽ᧯Κषᄎᇷءʳ

ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ࠡኔؒ૭֕լਢรԫଡ༼षᄎᇷءຍଡᄗ࢚ऱᖂृΔ່ڰࠌشषᄎᇷءᄗ

˅˃˃ˉ ڣร ˄ˈ ཚΖʳ ˄ˇ ʳ ৌ෌ᔕΔτඒߛ݁࿛ംᠲፖषᄎ൳ࠫऱᣂᜤࢤυΔሉ࣍խဎاഏֺለඒߛᖂᄎ׌ᒳΔπषᄎ᧢ ᔢխऱඒߛᖲᄎ݁࿛ρΔ؀קΚཆཕΔاഏ ˋˊ ڣΖʳ ˄ˈ ʳ ˥˼˶˻˴̅˷ʳ ˕̅˸˸́ʳ ˴́˷ʳ ˝̂˻́ʳ ˛ˁ˚̂˿˷̇˻̂̅̃˸ʿʳ Ϙ˘̋̃˿˴˼́˼́˺ʳ ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́˴˿ʳ ˗˼˹˹˸̅˸́̇˼˴˿̆Κ˧̂̊˴̅˷̆ʳ ˴ʳ ˙̂̅̀˴˿ʳ ˥˴̇˼̂́˴˿ʳ˔˶̇˼̂́ʳ˧˻˸̂̅̌ʳϘˁʳ˥˴̇˼̂́˴˿˼̇̌ʳ˴́˷ʳ˦̂˶˼˸̇̌Δ̉̂˿ˁˌΔ́̂ˁˆΰ˔̈˺ˁ˄ˌˌˊαΔ̃̃ˁ˅ˊˈˀˆ˃ˈˁʳ ˄ˉ ৌ෌ᔕΔτඒߛ݁࿛ംᠲፖषᄎ൳ࠫऱᣂᜤࢤυΔሉ࣍խဎاഏֺለඒߛᖂᄎ׌ᒳΔπषᄎ᧢ᔢ խऱඒߛᖲᄎ݁࿛ρΔ؀קΚཆཕΔاഏ ˋˊ ڣΖʳ

(10)

࢚ऱਢᆖᛎᖂ୮ᢅᅗ(Glenn Loury)ΔᢅᅗڇτጟගگԵ஁ฆऱ೯Ժᖂυ(A Dynamic Theory of Racial Income Differences)խಾኙᄅײࠢᆖᛎᖂ෻ᓵऱጟග

ၴگԵլؓ࿛ઔߒ༼נהऱᨠរΔᢅᅗא੡Δᄅײࠢᆖᛎᖂ෻ᓵऱݝૻڇ࣍መ ৫ૹီԳԺᇷءऱ܂شΔהൕषᄎ࿨ዌᇷᄭऱߡ৫ࠐ઎Δᎁ੡ݺଚऱषᄎ࿨ዌ ᇷᄭழழࠥࠥຟڇᐙ᥼ထݺଚऱᆖᛎ੒೯Δ࣍ڼΔהଈڻ༼נԫଡኛᄅऱᄗ ࢚——षᄎᇷءΙڇה઎ࠐΔषᄎᇷءਢ壆ڍᇷᄭհԫΔژڇ࣍୮அᣂএፖष ೴ऱषᄎิ៣հխΖ17ᢅᅗឈྥࠌشԱषᄎᇷءຍԫᄗ࢚Δ܀הࠀ޲ڶኙڼၞ ԫޡઔߒΔڂۖՈ޲ڶ֧ದᖂ੺ऱૹီΖ৵ࠐؒ૭֕թኙषᄎᇷءၞ۩ߓอࢤ ऱەኘΔؒ૭֕ኙψषᄎᇷءω່଺ࡨऱ੺ࡳਢຍᑌऱΚʳ ʳ ჴሞޑ܈ወӧޑၗྍޑ໣ӝᡏǴٗ٤ၗྍࢂӕჹࢌ٤࡭Φޑᆛ๎ޑ՞Ԗ ஏόёϩޑǶ೭΋ᆛ๎ࢂεৎӅӕዕ஼ޑǴளډϦᇡޑǴԶЪࢂ΋ᅿᡏ ڋϯޑᆛ๎Ǵ೭΋ᆛ๎ࢂӕࢌიᡏޑ཮঩ڋ࣬ᖄᛠޑǴѬவ໣ᡏ܄ᏱԖ ၗҁޑفࡋࣁ؂ঁ཮঩ගٮЍ࡭ǴගٮࣁдॺគளᖂఈޑᏧ᛾Ƕ˄ˋ ڇڼΔषᄎᇷءਐऱਢኔᎾࢨᑨڇᇷᄭऱፋٽΔ،ץਔଡԳऱषᄎᣂএጻ ࿮ΕଡԳፖิ៣ऱᣂএΔ،ຏൄאႃ᧯ऱݮڤ֭਍ګ୉Δ࣐ߢհΔଡԳऱषᄎ ᣂএࢨጻ࿮ᣂএױא᠏ངګषᄎՂڶᏝଖऱᇷᄭࡉᖲᄎΔࠏڕტൣऱ֭਍Εٽ ऄऱิ៣ߡۥΕ௽ܑऱᇷಛΕՠ܂֒ᔢऱᖲᄎΖڂڼΔؒ૭֕ਐנΔषᄎᇷء ෻ᓵऱഗء׌്༉ਢΚԳଚऱᣂএጻ࿮৬ዌԱ౨ᇞެषᄎംᠲऱڶᏝଖᇷᄭΔ ٵழՈ༼ࠎႃ᧯ࢬڶऱᇷءΔࠀڂۖᏺၞګ୉ၴऱॾᘸტΖ19

˄ˊ ʳ ˚˿˸́́ʳ˟̂̈̅̌ʿϙʳ˔ʳ˗̌́˴̀˼˶ʳ˧˻˸̂̅̌ʳ̂˹ʳ˥˴˶˼˴˿ʳ˜́˶̂̀˸ʳ˗˼˹˹˸̅˸́˶˸̆ϙʳ˼́ʳˣ˻̌˿˿˼̆ʳ˔ˁʳ˪˴˿˿˴˶˸ʳ˴́˷ʳ˔́˸̇̇˸ʳˠˁʳ ˟˴ˠ̂́˷ʳ˸˷̆ˁʿʳ˪̂̀˸́ʿʳˠ˼́̂̅˼̇˼˸̆ʿʳ˴́˷ʳ˘̀̃˿̂̌̀˸́̇ʳ˗˼̆˶̅˼̀˼́˴̇˼̂́ʿʳ˟˸̋˼́˺̇̂́ˍʳˠ˴̆̆ˁˍʳ˛˸˴̇˻ʿ˄ˌˊˊˁʳ ˄ˋ ψषᄎᇷءωʻ̆̂˶˼˴˿ʳ ˶˴̃˼̇˴˿ʼຍଡᄗ່࢚٣طؒ૭֕ڇ ˄ˌˋ˃ ڣ࣍πषᄎઝᖂઔߒρᠧ፾Ղ࿇। Աᠲ੡τषᄎᇷءᙟ࿝υऱ࿍֮ऄ֮ᓵ֮խ༼נΔ܀ऴࠩ ˄ˌˋˈ ڣהش૎֮ᐊऱԫᒧᓵ֮࿇।հ ٿΔຍଡᄗ࢚թ֧ದᖂ๬੺ऱᐖऑࣹრΖˣ˼˸̅̅˸ʳ ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿʳ ϖ˧˻˸ʳ ˹̂̅̀̆ʳ ̂˹ʳ ˶˴̃˼̇˴˿ϗʿʳ ˼́ʳ ˝ˁʳ ˚ˁʳ ˥˼˶˻˴̅˷̆̂́ʻ˸˷ˁʼʿʳ˛˴́˷˵̂̂˾ʳ ̂˹ʳ ˧˻˸̂̅̌ʳ ˴́˷ʳ ˥˸̆˸˴̅˶˻ʳ ˹̂̅ʳ ̇˻˸ʳ ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺̌ʳ ̂˹ʳ ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́ʿʳ ˡ˸̊ʳ ˬ̂̅˾ˍʳ ˚̅˸˸́̊̂̂˷ʳˣ̅˸̆̆ʿʳ˄ˌˋˉˁ̃ˁ˅ˇˋˁʳ ˄ˌ ʳ ˜˵˼˷ˁʳ

(11)

ኙؒ૭֕ࠐᎅΔٚ۶ԫଡԳڇࠡࢬ๠ऱषᄎ़ၴխຟ۾ڶԫࡳऱۯᆜΔڂ ڼࢬᘯऱψषᄎᇷءω༉ਢଡԳڇԫጟषᄎิ៣࿨ዌխΔܓش۞ա௽௘ۯᆜۖ ᛧ࠷ܓ墿ऱ౨ԺΙࠏڕΔ႕ԳፖػԳऱ೴ܑࠀլਢڂ੡ڇषᄎၸ్խऱچۯΔ הଚऱ೴ܑਢڇ࣍הଚڇຍषᄎՂᖑڶڍ֟ٺڤٺᑌऱᇷءΔຍ༉ਢψषᄎᇷ ءωΔຍࠄषᄎᇷءץਔԱԳፖԳհၴऱٺጟषᄎጻ࿮ΔܛଡԳऱᘣ൯Ε֖ࣛΕ ٵᖂΕٵၢ࿛ᣂএΔԫଡԳ౨ൕຍࠄᣂএխᛧ࠷൓ܓ墿။೏Δ߷Ꮦהऱषᄎᇷ ء༉။೏Ιؒ૭֕ᇢቹܘԺچᢞࣔԱຍጟषᄎጻ࿮൅ࠐऱਢլؓ࿛ऱ٦سขΖ 20

ؒ૭֕Ոނषᄎ़ၴ(social space)ጠ੡ψ໱഑ωΰChampsαΔ໱഑ࢬਐ௫ऱ

ᒤ໮ॺൄᐈΔ،ױאਢࠠ᧯ऱΕൄ๵ऱิ៣ΔՈױאਢࠠਬጟ٥ٵᏝଖॾٛऱ ᠾཋऱषᄎᣂএ᧯ߓΖࠉؒ૭֕Δषᄎ़ၴࢨ໱഑༉ቝؑ໱᧯ߓԫᑌΔլٵऱ ௽௘ܓ墿ࢨڍૹऱ௽௘ᇷءڇࠡၴၞ۩᙮᜗ۖᓤᠧऱٌངፖᤁञΔ༉ቝؒ૭֕ ࢬਐנऱΚ բࣁ΋ᅿ൑ୱޑ΋૓ޗ཮ޜ໔Ǵ΋Бय़ࢂ΋ᅿΚໆޑ൑ୱǴԶ೭٤Κໆ ࢂୖᆶډ൑ୱύѐޑՉ୏ޣ܌Ѹ໪ڀഢޑǹќ΋Бय़ǴѬΞࢂ΋ᅿରݾ ޑ൑ୱǹ൩ࢂӧ೭ᅿରݾ൑ୱύǴ܌ԖޑՉ୏ޣ࣬ϕᎁၶǴԶЪǴдॺ ٩ᏵӧΚޑ൑ୱ่ᄬύ܌эᏵޑόӕӦՏԶ٬ҔόӕޑରݾЋࢤǵ٠ڀ ԖόӕޑରݾҞޑǶԜᆶӕਔǴ೭٤Չ୏ޣΨࣁߥ࡭܈ׯ೷൑ୱޑ่ᄬ Զϩձଅ᝘дॺޑΚໆǶ21 ໱഑Δਢڇس੒խ۩೯ृᖑڶऱषᄎچۯΕլٵݮڤऱᇷءԺၦ֗ᦞԺᒤ ໮ۖขسऱઌյᣂএጻ࿮Ζڇ໱഑ᇙᙰࢬၞ۩ऱٺጟွᐛᇷءٌངΔࠃኔਢԫ ጟ෼זݮኪऱ೐ञΔլٵ್࣍܌৸׌ᆠऱၸ్೐ञՕຝ։ະ࣍ᆖᛎᇷءऱ೐

˅˃ ʳ ˜˵˼˷ˁʳ ˅˄ ʳ ᠏֧۞೏৙ཆΔπؒዿ૭֕ρΔ؀קؑΚسཕΔ˅˃˃˅ ڣΔ଄ ˅ˆ˄ˀ˅ˆ˅Ζʳ

(12)

ञΔؒ૭֕ࢬਐጠऱွᐛᇷءऱ೐ञΔਢԫጟޓาᘈऱΕޓ෡ࠥऱΕՈਢޓ੡ ٤૿ऱ೐ञΖ ࠉؒ૭֕Δψ໱഑ωਢطٺጟषᄎᣂএຑ൷ದࠐऱΕܧ෼੡ڍᑌݮڤऱष ᄎ़ၴࢨषᄎᏆ഑ΔڂڼΔψ໱഑ωױࡳᆠ੡ٺጟषᄎۯᆜၴژڇऱড়ᨠᣂএ ऱጻ࿮ࢨ࿨ዌΖ໱഑طլٵऱषᄎ૞ైຑ൷ۖګΔۖषᄎլٵ૞ైঞຏመ۾ڶ լٵψۯᆜωۖڇ໱഑խژڇࠀ࿇ཀࠡ܂شΖݮွچᎅΔ໱഑ڶڕԫ്षᄎհ ጻΔۖۯᆜঞਢጻՂऱ࿨ʻ́̂˷˸ʼΖषᄎ໱഑խऱψۯᆜωਢԳଚݮګषᄎᣂএ ऱছ༼Δषᄎګ୉ࡉषᄎቸ᧯ڂ۾ڶլٵऱۯᆜۖᛧ൓լٵऱषᄎᇷᄭࡉᦞ ܓΖؒ૭֕ᎁ੡໱഑܂੡ٺጟ૞ైݮګऱᣂএጻΔਢଡ೯ኪ᧢֏ऱመ࿓Δۖ᧢ ֏ऱ೯Ժঞࠐ۞षᄎᇷءΖ22 ଖ൓ఎრऱਢΔषᄎᇷءऱژڇؘႊຘመᖑڶ٥ٵऱषᄎ๵ᒤΕյॾא֗ ᇷಛٌੌֱױሒࠩΙࠏڕฝا؆ഏऱ؀᨜Գڕ࣠౨ജڍᎁᢝᅝچଖ൓ॾٚऱࣛ ֖Δ߷Ꮦהԫჺࠩᇠچழঁ౨ജለݶ൓൜ᅝچऱᇷಛΔႉܓᘜԵᇠچऱषᄎ᧯ ߓխΔ௽ܑਢᎁᢝऱ֖ࣛՈਢࠐ۞؀᨜ऱฝاऱᇩΔط࣍הଚࠆڶ٥ٵऱषᄎ ๵ᒤፖᄮຏֱڤΔຍ່୲ٌ࣐ੌ֗൓ࠩਬጟ࿓৫ऱܓ墿Ζ ԫଡ۩೯ृࢬ۾ڶऱषᄎᇷءެࡳԱהڇषᄎ़ၴխࢬ۾ᖕऱۯᆜΔۖຍ ԫۯᆜԾႿທԱהऱψ฾ࢤω(habitusΔࢨ᤟ψክ฾ωʼΙࢬᘯऱ฾ࢤਢ༉Գऱ षᄎኔᔌຍଡᐋڻࠐᎅऱΔڂ੡լٵऱषᄎቸ᧯ٺࠠڶటኔࢨွᐛࢤऱᇷءΔ ࠀאڼආ࠷׌೯ऱ࿜ฃࠐআၞזᎾհၴڶݮࢨ֮֏ᇷขऱႚᎠΖ੡ԱൎᓳԳᣊ ኔᔌፖषᄎኔᎾሎ܂խ׌ড়ᨠڂైհၴઌյዶຘհመ࿓Δؒ૭֕ආشԱψ฾ࢤω ຍԫᄗ࢚ࠐਐጠຍጟणኪΖ˅ˆ ʳ ʳ ؒ૭֕ᎁ㻽Δषᄎس੒ᚨ๯઎܂ਢ࿨ዌΕࢤൣΰdispositionαࡉ۩㻽ԫದ ዌګऱٌյ܂شᖵ࿓Δᆖመٌյ܂شΔषᄎ࿨ዌࡉຍࠄ࿨ዌऱࠠ᧯֏ऱवᢝΔ ݮګኙԳଚ۩㻽ࠠڶ਍Նᐙ᥼ऱࡳٻࢤ(orientation)Δຍࠄࡳٻࢤ֘መࠐԾዌګ

˅˅ ʳ ˣ˼˸̅̅˸ʳ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿʳϖ˧˻˸ʳ˹̂̅̀̆ʳ̂˹ʳ˶˴̃˼̇˴˿ϗʿʳ˼́ʳ˝ˁʳ˚ˁʳ˥˼˶˻˴̅˷̆̂́ʻ˸˷ˁʼʿʳ˛˴́˷˵̂̂˾ʳ̂˹ʳ˧˻˸̂̅̌ʳ˴́˷ʳ˥˸̆˸˴̅˶˻ʳ ˹̂̅ʳ̇˻˸ʳ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺̌ʳ̂˹ʳ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́ʿʳˡ˸̊ʳˬ̂̅˾ˍʳ˚̅˸˸́̊̂̂˷ʳˣ̅˸̆̆ʿʳ˄ˌˋˉˁ̃̃ˁ˅ˇ˄ˀˈˋˁʳ ˅ˆ ʳ ˣ˼˸̅̅˸ʳ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿ˧˻˸ʳ˟̂˺˼˶ʳ̂˹ʳˣ̅˴˶̇˼˶˸ʳʳʿʳ˦̇˴́˹̂̅˷ˍʳ˦̇˴́˹̂̅˷ʳ˨́˼̉˸̅̆˼̇̌ʳˣ̅˸̆̆ʿ˄ˌˌ˃ʿʳ̃̃˄ˇˎˋˆˁˁʳ

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Աषᄎ࿨ዌΖڂڼΔຍࠄࡳٻࢤٵழਝਢψ৬ዌऱ࿨ዌ֏ω(structuring structure) ፖψ๯࿨ዌऱ࿨ዌ֏ω(structure structured)Ι˅ˇ ១ߢհΔ،ଚݮګԱषᄎኔᔌΔ Ո๯षᄎኔᔌࢬݮګΖྥۖΔኔᔌࠀլਢאᣤ᠃ऱᖂ๬ઔߒऱֱڤൕ߷ࠄࡳٻ ࢤխ൓ࠩऱΔۖਢࠐ۞࣍Գଚܛᘋ໌܂ऱመ࿓Δຍԫܛᘋ໌܂መ࿓֘መࠐՈਢ ط֮֏ՂऱࡳٻࢤΕଡԳᔹᖵࡉषᄎյ೯౨ԺࢬዌګऱΖຍጟ๯ዌګऱΕܛᘋ ໌܂ऱ౨ԺΔ༉ਢؒ૭֕ࢬᘯऱψ฾ࢤωΖʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ψ฾ࢤωਢؒ૭֮֕֏٦፹෻ᓵխऱԫଡૹ૞ᄗ࢚Δהᎁ੡฾ࢤਢԫ୚ݮ ᧯֏ࢤൣऱߓอ(a system of embodied disposition)Δຍ୚ߓอᙅ༛ထषᄎ׈੺

ऱ࿨ዌ଺ঞݮႿԱଡԳऱኔᔌΖ˅ˈ

ؒ૭֕མᎅΔהհࢬא༼נψ฾ࢤωຍଡᄗ ࢚Δԯਢ૞܌ࣚ׌ᨠ׌ᆠፖড়ᨠ׌ᆠऱኙمΔޓၞԫޡᝩ܍ኔᢞ׌ᆠഄढᓵ (positivistic materialism)ፖഄཕ׌ᆠഄ֨ᓵ(intellectualist idealism)ऱኙمΖ˅ˉה ᇢቹຏመᖵ׾۩೯ࢬขسऱࠟጟٌ៣ڇԫದऱᖵ׾ݮڤܛࢤൣፖ।෼࣍฾ࢤ խऱᖵ׾ࠐ᤭࿇۩೯ፖ࿨ዌऱᣂএΖהਐנΔ฾ࢤലႃ᧯ࡉଡ᧯ᖵ׾փ֏ࡉݮ ᧯֏੡ࢤൣႜٻΔڂڼΔࢤൣਢݮ᧯֏ऱᖵ׾Δࢤൣਢڇ۩೯ृسژ࣍׈ऱழ ၴੌ᧢խດዬរዠ֤֏ۖګΔࠉؒ૭֕ऱ፿ߢ।૪ΚψਢڇࠃढΕᖲᕴΕ৬ᗰ ढΕᙊᇾΕ஼ᤄΕ෻ᓵΕ฾ঋΕऄ৳࿛ᇙऱழၴੌຓመ࿓խᗨᖸऱᖵ׾ωΖ˅ˊ ڇ ؒ૭֕Δ฾ࢤ܂੡ԫጟࢤൣߓอΔ،ଫࠠ᡹ࡳࢤፖ᧢೯ࢤΙൕ׌ᨠऱषᄎ࿨ዌ

˅ˇ ʳ ࢬᘯऱψ৬ዌऱ࿨ዌ֏ωፖψ๯࿨ዌऱ࿨ዌ֏ωऱመ࿓ਐऱਢΔؒ૭֕׌്ٵழၞ۩։࣫ড় ᨠ࿨ዌऱ։࣫ፖଡԳ֨ཕ࿨ዌسګʻ̇˻˸ʳ˺˸́˸̆˼̆ʳ̂˹ʳ̇˻˸ʳ̀˸́̇˴˿ʳ̆̇̅̈˶̇̈̅˸ʼΖהᎁ੡ΔଡԳ֨ཕ࿨ዌԯ ਢषᄎ࿨ዌࠠ᧯֏ऱขढΔڂڼଡԳ֨ཕ࿨ዌسګऱ։࣫ፖषᄎ࿨ዌءߪڕ۶سګऱਢയլױ ։ऱΖڇڼΔषᄎ࿨ዌਐऱਢषᄎ़ၴʻ̇˻˸ʳ ̆̂˶˼˴˿ʳ ̆̃˴˶˸ʼΔא֗۾ڶषᄎ़ၴऱԳଚΔ،ଚਢᖵ ׾೐ञऱขढΖ۩೯ृʻ˴˺˸́̇̆ʼ௅ᖕהଚڇषᄎ़ၴխࢬ۾ڶऱۯᆜΔא֗הଚشא෻ᇞຍଡ़ ၴऱ֨ཕ࿨ዌΔ೶ፖࠩᖞଡᖵ׾೐ञऱመ࿓խΖط࣍ൎᓳषᄎ࿨ዌፖ֨ཕ࿨ዌऱسګʻ˺˸́˸̆˼̆ʼ ऱ։࣫Δࠀ׊௽ܑൎᓳຍࠟଡᐋڻऱ։ؘ࣫ྥਢጹയઌᣂΔઌյسګऱΔڂڼؒ૭֕ጠ۞աऱ ෻ᓵ੡سګ࿨ዌᓵʻ˺˸́˸̇˼˶ʳ̆̇̅̈˶̇̈̅˴˿˼̆̀ʼΖߠ ˣ˼˸̅̅˸ʳ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿ˧˻˸ʳ˟̂˺˼˶ʳ̂˹ʳˣ̅˴˶̇˼˶˸ʳʳʿʳ˦̇˴́˹̂̅˷ˍʳ˦̇˴́˹̂̅˷ʳ ˨́˼̉˸̅̆˼̇̌ʳˣ̅˸̆̆ʿ˄ˌˌ˃ʿʳ̃ˁ˄ˇˁʳ ˅ˈ ʳ ˣˁʳ ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿʳ˗˼̆̇˼́˶̇˼̂́ˍʳ˔ʳ˦̂˶˼˴˿ʳ˖̅˼̇˼̄̈˸ʳ̂˹ʳ̇˻˸ʳ˝̈˷˺˸̀˸́̇ʳ̂˹ʳ˧˴̆̇˸ʿʳ ˟̂́˷̂́ʿʳ˥̂̈̇˿˸˷˺˸ʳ˴́˷ʳ˞˸˺˴́ʳ ˣ˴̈˿ʿʳ˄ˌˋˇʿʳ̃ˁ˄ˊ˃ˁʳ ˅ˉ ʳ ˣˁʳ ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿʳ ˴́˷ʳ ˪˴˶̄̈˴́̇ʿʳ ˜́̉˼̇˴̇˼̂́ʳ ̇̂ʳ ˥˸˹˿˸̋˼̉˸ʳ ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺̌ʿʳ ˖˴̀˵̅˼˷˺˸ˍʳ ˣ̂˿˼̇̌ʳ ˣ̅˸̆̆ˁ˄ˌˌ˅ʿʳ ̃̃ˁ˄˅˃ˀ˄˅˄ʳ ˅ˊ ʳ ˣ˼˸̅̅˸ʳ ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿʳ Ϙˠ˸́ʳ ˴́˷ʳ ˠ˴˶˻˼́˸̆ϙʿʳ ˼́ʳ ˞́̂̅̅ˀ˖˸̇˼́˴ʿʳ ˞ˁʳ ʹʳ ˖˼˶̂̈̅˸˿ʳ ˔ˁʳ ˩ˁʻ˸˷̆ʼʿʳ ˔˷̉˴́˶˸̆ʳ ˼́ʳ ˦̂˶˼˴˿ʳ ˧˻˸̂̅̌ʳ ˴́˷ʳ ˠ˸̇˻̂˷̂˿̂˺̌ˍʳ ˧̂̊˴̅˷ʳ ˴́ʳ ˜́̇˸˺̅˴̇˼̂́ʳ ̂˹ʳ ˠ˼˶̅̂ˀʳ ˴́˷ʳ ˠ˴˶̅̂ˀ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺˼˸̆ʿʳ ˟̂́˷̂́ʳ ˴́˷ʳ ˕̂̆̇̂́ʿʳ˥̂̈̇˿˸˷˺˸ʳʹʳ˞˸˺˴́ʳˣ̈˴˿ʿʳ˄ˌˋ˄ʿʳ̃ˁˆ˃ˈˁʳ

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ຍֱ૿ࠐᎅΔ،ਝਢ؆ຝᛩቼऱփ֏ΔՈਢං೯ଡԳ۩೯ऱ৬ዌࢤ࿨ዌΔ،࢓ ࢓լवլᤚچ֧ᖄထݺଚऱषᄎ۩੡Ζ28Ո༉ਢᎅΔ฾ࢤਢڇسژයٙՀݮګ ֗࿇୶ऱΔԫ؟ݮګ༉ᄎڇ଺ழΕ଺چ۞೯؆ڇ֏Δ֧ᖄԳ۩೯ऱֱٻΔޏທ Գ۩೯ऱᛩቼΕषᄎᛩቼΖʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ٦ृΔؒ૭֕ਐנΔ฾ࢤኔᔆՂਢԫጟ֮֏෼ွΔ،௫֗ԱԳଚऱࡺ۰ᛩ ቼΕ۪ထΕ۩೯ऱ៖ᆏΕسژֱڤ࿛࿛ΔਢψवᤚΕ෻ᇞࡉ۩೯ऱ଺ݮωΔਢ ψԫิփ֏ऱ౨Ժፖ࿨ዌࢤᏁޣΔਢԫጟ௅ᄭ࣍ۚ᧯वᤚࡉຑ൷׈੺ऱփ֏ݮ ڤωΖ29 ฾ࢤ܂੡ԫጟ֮֏෼ွΔ،ױ౨ݮႿ۞୮அΔޓױ౨ݮႿ۞षᄎΔڂ੡Δ ༉ᖞ᧯ۖߢΔ୮அൕ᥆࣍ԫࡳषᄎࢨԫࡳऱषᄎගᆢΙ௅ᖕؒ૭֕ऱᎁवΔ฾ ࢤޓਢઌٵᖵ׾ऱᖞٽΔڂڼࠠڶઌٵၸ్ऱԳڶထઌٵऱᆖ᧭Δהଚऱषᄎ ੒೯ਢࡉᘫԫીऱΔڂ੡ڇषᄎյ೯խΔԳଚڇषᄎ֏መ࿓ᄎᓳᔞ۞աऱ۩ ੡Δࠌհฤٽၸ్ऱ૞ޣΔڂۖݮګࢬᘯऱψၸ్฾ࢤω(classical habitus)Ζˆ˃ ၸ్฾ࢤቝषᄎយထᕪΰsocial glueαԫᑌᨃषᄎՂٺଡၸ్߂߂چ⊺ထڇה ଚ଺ڶऱषᄎچۯࡉᦞԺՂΙڇڼΔषᄎᇷءൕԫଡषᄎᣂএ᠏֏੡ԫጟࢼွ ऱᏝଖѧ฾ࢤΔ،ਢԫጟڂ੡ࠠઌٵᆖ᧭ऱԳΕࢨࠠઌٵᖵ׾ऱԳۖขऱषᄎ ᎁٵΖຍጟᆖ᧭Εᖵ׾ױ౨ਢઌٵऱ۩ᄐΕઌٵऱ฾ঋΕઌٵऱฅᄐᖂீࢨृ ઌٵऱၸ్ΖڇຍଡრᆠՂΔ฾ࢤԯਢषᄎᇷءऱ᧯෼Ζʳ ؒ૭֕πᤉࢭԳρԫ஼խམᓫ֗ψᎁటωࡉψႧᕿω࿛฾ࢤຍጟྤݮᇷء ऱ܂شΔࠀᎁ੡ຍࠄᇷءױאڇৰՕ࿓৫Ղᚦᇖᖂسଚ֮֏ᇷءऱ٣֚լߩΙ ה㵮૪Ախขၸ్՗ݬऱຍጟ฾ࢤΚψխขၸ్נߪऱՕᖂسైࠐܘԺᖂ฾Δ ࠀ׊ڇՠ܂խ࿇ཀהଚࢬ๠ᛩቼංശऱ៭ᄐભᐚΰڕശਈᣤ௑ۖᜱᣄچݙګՠ ܂αωΔխขၸ్ຍጟψᣤ࿸ኪ৫ױאࠌהଚڇຍԫֱ૿ΰՂᐋၸ్՗ݬऱᚌႨα

˅ˋ ʳ ڹഏဎΔτ฾ࢤፖᇷءˍฃᓵؒ૭֕ऱ׌૞ᄗ࢚ՠࠠʻՂʼυΔπࣟতՕᖂᖂ໴ΰୃᖂषᄎઝᖂठαρΔ ˅˃˃ˇ ڣร ˉ ࠴ร ˄ ཚΔ଄ ˆˇΖʳ ˅ˌ ʳ ˛ˁ˔ˁʳ ˚˼̅̂̈̋ʿʳ ϙ˧˻˸̂̅˼˸̆ʳ ̂˹ʳ ˥˸̃̅̂˷̈˶̇˼̂́ʳ ˴́˷ʳ ˥˸̆˼̆̇˴́˶˸ʳ ˼́ʳ ̇˻˸ʳ ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺̌ʳ ̂˹ʳ ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́ˍʳ ˔ʳ ˖̅˼̇˼˶˴˿ʳ ˔́˴˿̌̆˼̆ϙʿʳ˛˴̅̉˴̅˷ʳ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́˴˿ʳ˥˸̉˼˸̊ʿʳ̉̂˿ˁˈˆʿʳ́̂ˁˆʿʳ˄ˌˋˆˁʳ ˆ˃ ʳ ˣ˼˸̅̅˸ʳ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿ˧˻˸ʳ˟̂˺˼˶ʳˣ̅˴̇˼˶˸ʿʳ˦̇˴́˹̂̅˷ʿʳ˦̇˴́˹̂̅˷ʳ˨́˼̉˸̅̆˼̇̌ʳˣ̅˸̆̆ʿʳ˄ˌˌ˃ˁʳ

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൓ࠩᇖᚍωΖ31 ׼؆ԫଡᖂृ৖ܓཎ(Paul Willisʼঞൕ໎ՠၸ్ऱߡ৫ࠐ઎ຍጟ ֮֏฾ࢤΔ৖ܓཎڇࠡψݼࢴ෻ᓵωʻresistance theory)խ൶ಘ໎ՠၸ్ᖂسݼ ࢴᖂᄐᖄٻऱխขၸ్ᖂீ֮֏ઔߒխՈਐנΔ໎೯ၸ్ऱڣ᎘՛ّ՗ࠡኔਢ ᗨᄕڶߠᢝऱ۩೯ृΔהଚ௅ᖕ۞աऱၸ్ཚඨΔࢴ࿪൷࠹ᖂீඒߛऱ๵ᒤࡉ ඒයΙྥۖإਢᆖطຍጟݼࢴΔהଚՈլवլᤚ፹ທ֗٦፹Աਝڶऱၸ్چ ۯΖˆ˅ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ طڼױߠΔψ฾ࢤωຍጟषᄎᇷءឈྥਢྤݮऱΕ઎լࠩऱΕ੷۟ਢࢼွ ऱΔ܀থڇඒߛፖ֮֏ႚᎠխފዝᣂ᝶ࢤऱߡۥΖ !

ٔ

ٔΕԫଡਝݮႿ࿨ዌԾ֘ਠ᧢֏ऱሎ೯᧯Κ֮֏ᇷءʳ

ʳ

֮֏ᇷءਢؒ૭֕ٺጟݮڤऱᇷءխ່੡ૹ૞ऱᄗ࢚Δؒ૭֕Լ։ૹီ֮ ֏ᇷءڇ֮֏٦፹խऱᣂ᝶܂شΖʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ הᎁ੡֮֏ᇷءױאאԿጟݮڤژڇΚ˄ˁݮ᧯֏ऱݮڤΔٍܛ֨෻ࡉ᠎᧯ ๯ݮ᧯֏੡ԫጟࢤൣ(embodied as a disposition of the mind and body)Δ،א壄壀 ࡉߪ᧯ऱ९ཚࢤൣऱݮڤژڇΔ௽ਐଡԳᆖ৵֚ഛ塄ۖփ֏ऱଥ塄ࡉᖂᢝΙ˅ˁ ড়ᨠ֏ऱݮڤ(objectified form)ΔՈ༉ਢ।෼੡֮֏೸঴(cultural goods)ऱݮ ڤΖֺڕቹ஼ΕՠࠠΕ୶قΕ।ዝΔ،א֮֏೸঴ऱݮڤژڇΔຍࠄ೸঴ਢ෻ ᓵఎՀऱฉᇾࡉ෻ᓵऱড়ᨠ᧩෼Δ௽ਐଡԳᖑڶऱ֮֏೸঴ࡉኙຍࠄढ঴ᇞᒘ ऱ౨ԺΙˆˁ᧯ࠫ֏ऱݮڤ(institutionalized form)Δԯਢطٽऄ֏ऱ᧯ࠫࢬᒔᎁ ऱٺጟඒߛᇷ௑ΔֺڕᖂᖵΕᖂீ࿛్ΕᎁᢞΔ،אԫጟড়ᨠ֏ऱݮڤژڇΔ ຍጟݮڤᓿղ֮֏ᇷءԫጟݙ٤ਢ଺ࡨࢤऱತขΔ֮ۖ֏ᇷءإਢ࠹ࠩԱຍ࿝

ˆ˄ ʳ ˣˁʳ ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿʳ˧˻˸ʳ ˜́˻˸̅˼̇̂̅̆ʳ ˍʳ ˙̅˸́˶˻ʳ ˦̇̈˷˸́̇̆ʳ ˴́˷ʳ ̇˻˸˼̅ʳ ˥˸˿˴̇˼̂́̆ʳ ̇̂ʳ ˖̈˿̇̈̅˸ʳʿʳ ˖˻˼˶˴˺̂ˍʳ ˨́˼̉˸̅̆˼̇̌ʳ ̂˹ʳ ˖˻˼˶˴˺̂ʳˣ̅˸̆̆ʿ˄ˌˊˋˁʳ ˆ˅ ʳ ˣ˴̈˿ʳ˪˼˿˿˼̆ʿʳ˟˸˴̅́˼́˺ʳ̇̂ʳ˟˴˵̂̈̅ʿʳ ˡ˸̊ʳˬ̂̅˾ˍʳ˖̂˿̈̀˵˼˴ʳ˨́˼̉˸̅̆˼̇̌ʳˣ̅˸̆̆ˁ˄ˌˊˊˁʳ ݼࢴ෻ᓵᖂृᨠរٺ ฆΔڕ ˛ˁʳ˚˼̅̂̈̋ ঁᎁ੡ᖂسࠀլᄎڕᖲඳ౳چྤრᢝ൷࠹ᥒᙁΔඒᖄृՈլԫࡳຘመඒߛ༉ױ ኙࠡၞ۩֮֏ΰၸ్αᓤ፹Δٍܛᖂس଺ء༉ਢԫଡࠠޅܒݼࢴ׌೯᧯Ζ˛ˁʳ ˚˼̅̂̈̋ʿʳ˧˻˸̂̅̌ʳ ʹ˥˸̆˼̆̇˴́˶˸ʳ˜́ʳ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́ˍʳ˔ʳˣ˸˷˴˺̂˺̌ʳ˹̂̅ʳ̇˻˸ʳˢ̃̃̂̆˼̇˼̂́ˁʳˠ˴̆̆˴˶˻̈̆˸̇̇˸ˍʳ˕˸̅˺˼́ʳʹʳ˚˴̅̉˸̌ˁ˄ˌˋˆˁʳ

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ತขऱݨᥨΔ௽ਐଡԳࢬᛧ൓ऱඒߛ֮ᖇࡉᢞ஼Ζˆˆ ʳ ࠉᖂृऱᇞᦰΔຍԿጟݮڤ։ܑױጠ܂֮֏౨ԺΕ֮֏ข঴ࡉ֮֏ࠫ৫Ζ  ֮֏౨Ժאփ֏੡ছ༼ΔਢਐຏመඒߛΔຏመ۩೯ृऱߪ᧯Ժ۩ፖދԵᖂ฾ ऱ࿓৫Δփ֏੡੡壄壀ፖߪ᧯ԫຝ։Δ،ױ౨।෼੡वᢝΕඒ塄Εଥ塄Εො塄Ε ݾᢌΕᘋᔊ֗ཕᐝ࿛֮֏ขढΖ֮֏ข঴ਢ֮֏Ꮭଖऱ᧯෼ΔࠡᏝଖਢطଡ᧯ ௅ᖕ९ཚຯ܏ऱ֮֏փොࢬᓿղऱΔ،ຏൄ।෼੡ԫጟױאႚᎠऱढᔆΖ᧯ࠫ ֏ऱ֮֏ᇷءਢ֮֏౨Ժᆖመ֮֏᧯ࠫऱᇷ௑඄ᦞ৵ऱژڇݮڤΔඒߛ۩ਙຝ ॰ຏመኙ֮֏ࠫ৫֏ࠐեቃΕ൳֮ࠫ֏ᇷءΔࠌ֮֏ᇷءګ੡ԫጟᑑ᧘Δԫࡳ ࿓৫ऱ֮֏ᇷءঁڶፖࠡઌᚨऱᇷ௑ࡉᢞ஼ղאᢞࣔΔ،ٵழኦ᧩Ա۾ڶृऱ षᄎچۯΖྥۖΔຘီ᧯ࠫ֏ऱહ৵ΔࠡኔਢԫጟᦞԺᖙ܂ΔԳଚױא堚ᄑچ ઎ࠩอएृ᧯ࠫࢤऱᦞԺΔ઎ࠩอएृ᧩᥻۞ߪऱᦞԺࡉ஭ᓡࠡॾٛऱᦞԺΖ ڕ࣠אඒߛऱመ࿓ࠐᎅΔᖂسܘԺᖂ฾ีᗨ۞աऱറᄐ౨ԺΔᨃ۞աࠠໂٺጟ റᄐݾ౨Δຍਢԫጟ֮֏౨ԺΙۖᖂسࢬ൷࠹ऱᖂீڜඈऱᓰ࿓Δᓰ࿓ঞਢԫ ጟ֮֏ข঴Δڂڼ،ਢଡ᧯൷࠹֮֏ข঴ऱመ࿓Δ܀،ٵழՈڇ׼ԫೡ૿।෼ Ա֮֏ࠫ৫Δڂ੡ຏመኙᓰ࿓ऱᖂ฾Δթ౨࠷൓ฅᄐᇷ௑ऱᎁᢞΔຍਢڇ֮֏ ᧯ࠫՀኙᦞԺऱٽऄ֏൷࠹Ζʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ Ղ૪ऱԿጟ֮֏ᇷءऱݮኪൕ।૿Ղࠐ઎Δۿ׏Օڍᑇਢԫጟբᆖढ֏ऱ ᇷءݮڤΔࠉᖕᖂृऱᇞᦰΔࠡኔڇؒ૭֕ऱ෻ᓵ᧯ߓխΔψ֮֏ᇷءլ׽ਢ ԫଡ౨ނ༽֮֏ऱό๯ݮႿ࿨ዌ܂شύऱᙩኪऱΕࠠڶषᄎެࡳᓵۥ൑ऱኔ᧯ ࢤᄗ࢚Δ،ٵழՈਢԫଡ౨ך։෻ᇞ۩೯ृόݮႿ࿨ዌऱ܂شύΕࠀ֘ਠנٺ ጟ᧢֏ऱ೯ኪऱሎ೯᧯ωΖ36 ٦ृΔ֮֏ᇷءऱᗨีຏൄਢאԫጟ٦፹ΰسขαऱֱڤၞ۩ऱΖψ֮֏

ˆˆ ʳ ˣ˼˸̅̅˸ʳ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿʳϖ˧˻˸ʳ˹̂̅̀̆ʳ̂˹ʳ˶˴̃˼̇˴˿ϗʿʳ˼́ʳ˝ˁʳ˚ˁʳ˥˼˶˻˴̅˷̆̂́ʻ˸˷ˁʼʿʳ˛˴́˷˵̂̂˾ʳ̂˹ʳ˧˻˸̂̅̌ʳ˴́˷ʳ˥˸̆˸˴̅˶˻ʳ ˹̂̅ʳ̇˻˸ʳ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺̌ʳ̂˹ʳ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́ʿʳˡ˸̊ʳˬ̂̅˾ˍʳ˚̅˸˸́̊̂̂˷ʳˣ̅˸̆̆ʿʳ˄ˌˋˉˁʳ ˆˇ ʳ ᢅس٤Ε⣗دᑗΔτᓰ࿓܂੡֮֏ᇷءऱᇩ፿ዌ৬ᖲࠫ൶ಘυΔπඒߛઔߒፖኔ᧭ρΔ˅˃˃ˊ ڣร ˄ ཚΖʳ ˆˈ ʳ ٵছုΖʳ ˆˉ ʳ ڹ೛⢮Δτ၌။षᄎެࡳᓵˀˀؒ૭֕ʵ֮֏ᇷءʵᄗ࢚٦ەυΔሉπতࠇषᄎઝᖂρ˅˃˃ˉ ڣร ˆ ཚΔ଄ ˋˋΖʳ

(17)

٦፹ωਢԫଡזᎾհၴ֮֏ᇷءႚᎠֱڤऱᄗ࢚Δڇؒ૭֕ऱွᐛᇷء෻ᓵխ ࠠڶᣂ᝶ࢤऱچۯΔψ٦፹ωൎᓳ֮֏ᇷءᗨีመ࿓խψ֘༚سขࢨᓤ፹ωऱ ௽ᐛΖՈ༉ਢᎅΔ֮֏ᇷءऱᗨีլਢԫጟൕྤࠩڶऱ໌ທࢤسขΔۖ׌૞ਢ אזᎾႚࢭֱڤኔ෼ऱΖլመΔ٦፹ࠀլਢԫጟ໢ొऱᓤ፹Δ،ٵழՈ࠹ࠫ࣍ ๺ڍ؆ࠐڂైΔֺڕழၴΕ᠏ངࡉԳऱኔᔌ۩೯ΖൕڼԫრᆠՂᎅΔ֮֏ᇷء ऱ٦፹ਢԫጟڶૻ۞طऱૹᓤࢤسขΔۖ׊֮֏ᇷءऱ٦፹່׌૞ऱᣂ᝶ᝫਢ ڰཚ୮அඒߛࡉᖂீඒߛΖ37 ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ؒ૭֕ᎁ੡Δ֮֏ᇷء׌૞ਢඒߛऱขढΔה௽ܑൎᓳࠡψඒ塄ࡉ঴࠺ω ऱොᆠא֗୮அહནኙຍጟ঴࠺ࢤऱ֮֏ᇷءऱݮګࢬದऱެࡳ܂شΖؒ૭֕ ᎁ੡Δ֮֏٦፹༉ਢຏመွᐛᑊԺΰsymbolic violenceαࠐኔ෼ऱΔۖᖂீඒ ߛ൳ࠫထွᐛᦞԺΔᖂீႚ඄ऱ֮֏༉ਢอएၸ్ऱ֮֏ࢨ੡อएၸ్ᎁױऱ ֮֏Δ،၈܅ൕ᥆ၸ్ऱ֮֏ΔڂڼΔࠠڶլٵ୮அહནऱᖂسࢬᖑڶऱ֮֏ ᇷء༉ڶԱ؎Օऱ஁ฆΖ ڇڼΔ୮அڇؒ૭֮֕֏ᇷء෻ᓵխਢԫଡઌᅝૹ૞ऱᛩᆏΖ୮அխ່ૹ ૞ऱ༉ਢ՗Ֆፖ׀ئऱᣂএΔڇ֮֏٦፹խΔ׀ئኙࠝՖऱඒߛཚඨፖދᇷ੡ ࠡխ່ૹृΖ ඒߛཚඨਢਐ׀ئඒߛ࿓৫ለ೏ऱ୮அΔࠡޓૹီඒߛΔኙ՗Ֆڶለ೏ऱ ඒߛཚඨΔՈᣋრ੡ڼבנޓڍऱזᏝΖۖ՗ՖՈᄎᑨฝᚈ֏چ൷࠹ຍԫᨠ ࢚Δ۞ݺऱඒߛཚඨࡉᖂ฾ᑷൣՈለ೏Ζ୮அඒߛહན܂شऱᖲࠫਢࠐ۞׀ئ ࡉ۔ஃऱቔᚐΕᅮআࡉᐙ᥼ΖࠡխΔ׀ئऱቔᚐਢ৘՗অ਍ᖂ฾ᑷൣࡉ࠷൓ለ ړᖂ฾।෼ऱ௅ء଺ڂΖˆˋ

ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ڇπ׈੺ऱેᣄρ(La misère du monde)ԫ஼խΔؒ૭֕༼ࠩԱԫᣊژڇ࣍ ୮அזᎾᤉࢭᣂএհխऱ࿀ેΖڇຍຝထ܂խΔؒ૭֕ፖࠡ، ˅˅ ۯٽ܂ृΔ

ˆˊ ڹ ೛ ⢮ Δτ ֮ ֏ ᇷ ء ፖ Գ Ժ ᇷ ء Κ ؒ ૭ ֕ ֮ ֏ ᇷ ء ෻ ᓵ ऱ ᆖ ᛎ ᖂ რ ᆠ υΔ ֧ ۞ ˽̃˾˶ˁ̆̊̈ˁ˸˷̈ˁ˶́˂˷˴̇˴˂̋̍˅˂˶̂́̇˸́̇˂̍˼̌̈˴́˂̇̈̂̍˻˴́̌̈˸˷̈˂̊˸́̍˻˴́˺˂˃ˊ˅ˁʳ ˆˋ ʳ ˪˼˿˿˼˴̀ʳ˛ˁʳ˦˸̊˸˿˿ʿʳ˴́˷ʳ˥̂˵˸̅̇ʳˠˁʳ˛˴̈̆˸̅ʿϙʳ˔ʳ˥˸̉˼˸̊ʳ̂˹ʳ̇˻˸ʳ˪˼̆˶̂́̆˼́ʳ˟̂́˺˼̇̈˷˼́˴˿ʳ˦̇̈˷̌ʳ̂˹ʳ˦̂˶˼˴˿ʳ ˴́˷ʳˣ̆̌˶˻̂˿̂˺˼˶˴˿ʳ˙˴˶̇̂̅̆ʳ˼́ʳ˔̆̃˼̅˴̇˼̂́̆ʳ˴́˷ʳ˔˶˻˼˸̉˸̀˸́̇̆ʳ˄ˌˉˆˀ˄ˌˌ˅ϙˁʳ˖˗ʳ˘ʳ˪̂̅˾˼́˺ʳˣ˴̃˸̅ʿʳ́̂ˁˌ˅ˀ˃˄ ΰ˄ˌˌˆαˁʳ

(18)

ຏመ๺ڍא๶ᓫݮڤנ෼ऱาᒯ෡Եऱس੒׾ଡூΔ੡ᦰृ୶قԱᅝזषᄎཏ ຏԳֲൄس੒խऱጟጟ࿀ેΔࠀຘመषᄎᖂ୮ऱᨠኘΔ༿قנ࿀ેહ৵෡ࠥऱ षᄎࡉਙए௅ᄭΖؒ૭֕ਐנΔᅝזषᄎΔ׀ئຟല۞աऱཚඨᇖᚍࢤچދ୴ ࠩ՗ՖߪՂΔ௅ءլം՗Ֆڶ޲ڶ౨ԺΖৰڍԳ઎Ա׀ئऱ೛ՕཚৱΔ٦უუ ۞ա౨ԺΔኙࠡၴऱᆵ஁෡ტ࿀ેΖۖຍጟ࿀ેԾࡉषᄎੌ೯Εඒߛ᧯ࠫΕጟ ගࣴီΕၸ్࿨ዌࡉՖࢤچۯ࿛࿛ംᠲઌյिᥚΔګ੡ᅝז׈੺࿀ેऱԫଡૹ ૞षᄎࠐᄭΖֺڕΔኙ࣍߷ࠄᄅԫז؆ࠐฝاࠐᎅΔהଚፖ׀ئԫזขسԱ᧩ ထऱឰါࡉᓢડΖהଚऱ֮֏ᨠ࢚ࡉ۩੡ֱڤ࿇سԱૹՕ᧢֏Δ܀ਢהଚ۞ߪ Ո૿ᜯထᣤૹऱᎁٵٲᖲΖהଚፖመװΕࡲඒΕ୮ගڶထਬጟឰါΙ܀Ծྤऄ టإᘜԵ׌ੌषᄎհխΔۖਢᔡࠩޓൎ௺ऱࣴီΔຍጟچۯऱᠨૹࢤທګຍԫ זฝا֨෻ՂऱྡྷᐞࡉહধტΖˆˌ ʳ ၞԫޡࠐᎅΔؒ૭֕ᎁ੡Δ࠹ඒߛመ࿓ਢԫଡ൷࠹ࡉႚࢭ֮֏ᇷءऱመ ࿓ΔᖂீءᔆՂਢԫଡࢭᖜထඒ֏ࡉႚᎠ֮֏ᇷء៭ຂऱषᄎᖲዌΖ40 ڇຍଡ რᆠՂΔለ೏ඒߛ࿓৫୮அ৵זڇᛧ൓ඒߛګפऱᖲᄎՂࠠڶ٣֚ᚌႨΖඡ२ ᆖ᧭ઔߒޓ࿇෼Δ֮֏ᇷءऱ܂شᖲࠫ׌૞ڇ࣍Δ୮அඒߛહནړऱ՗Ֆڂ࠹ ୮அ֮֏ࣷ໮ऱᐙ᥼Δᄎޓڍၞ۩ԫࠄڶܗ࣍ᖂ฾ګᜎऱवᢝᖂ฾ΰڕᓰ؆ᔹ ᦰ࿛αΔၞۖ༼೏ᖂ฾।෼Ζ41 ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ڂڼΔൕؒ૭֕ऱᨠរࠐ઎Δᖂீඒߛ࿨ٽԱࠫ৫ፖኔᔌΔ،ऱפ౨ڇ࣍ אٺጟွᐛፖ֮֏ऱݮڤᓤ፹଺ڶऱषᄎᦞԺᣂএΔՈ༉ਢᎅΔᖂீඒߛؾऱ ڇፂᢀፖঅᎽԫଡቸ᧯ࢨၸ్୬ࠫ׼ԫଡቸ᧯ࢨၸ్ऱ֮֏ΕढᔆΖڂڼΔڇ ᖂீխΔषᄎၸ్چۯለ೏ऱᖂسΔᄎڂ੡הଚᖑڶՕၦऱ֮֏ᇷءΔۖࠌ൓ ᇠᖂسऱᖂᄐګ༉೏࣍षᄎၸ్ለ܅ۖᖑڶ֟ၦ֮֏ᇷءऱᖂسΖ।૿Ղ઎Δ

ˆˌ ʳ ဎٻၺΔτ᠏ীழזषᄎᖂऱຂٚፖࠌࡎΚؒ૭֕π׈੺ऱેᣄρ֗ࠡඔقυΔπषᄎρ᜔ร ˅ˇ˅ ཚΔ˅˃˃ˈ ڣ ˇ ִΖʳ ˇ˃ ʳ ˣ˼˸̅̅˸ʳ ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿʳ ˧˻˸ʳ ˦˶˻̂̂˿ʳ ˴̆ʳ ˴ʳ ˖̂́̆˸̅̉˴̇˼̉˸ʳ ˙̂̅˶˸ʳ ˍʳ ˦˶˻̂˿˴̆̇˼˶ʳ ˴́˷ʳ ˖̈˿̇̈̅˴˿ʳ ˜́˸̄̈˴˿˼̇˼˸̆ˁʳ ˜́ʳ ˝ʳˁ˘˺˺˿˸̆̇̂́ʳ ΰ˸˷ˁαʿʳ˖̂́̇˸̀̃̂̅˴̅̌ʳ˥˸̆˸˴̅˶˻ʳ˼́ʳ̇˻˸ʳ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺̌ʳ̂˹ʳ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́ʿʳ˟̂́˷̂́ˍˠ˸̇˻̈˸́ʿʳ˄ˌˊˇˁʳ ˇ˄ ʳ ˔˿˼˶˸ʳ ˦̈˿˿˼̉˴́ʿʳ Ϙ˖̈˿̇̈̅˴˿ʳ ˖˴̃˼̇˴˿ʳ ˴́˷ʳ ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́˴˿ʳ ˔̇̇˴˼́̀˸́̇ϙˁʳ ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺̌ˁ̉̂˿ˁˆˈʿʳ ́̂ˁˇΰ˅˃˃˄αʿʳ ̃̃ˁˋˌˆˀˌ˄˅ˁˡ˴́ʳ˗˼̅˾ʳ˗˸ʳ ʳ ˚̅˴˴˹ʿʳˣ˴̈˿ʳˠˁʳ˗˸ʳ˚̅˴˴˹ʿʳ˴́˷ʳ˚˸̅˵˸̅̇ʳ˞̅˴˴̌˾˴̀̃ʿʳϘˣ˴̅˸́̇˴˿ʳ˖̈˿̇̈̅˴˿ʳ˖˴̃˼̇˴˿ʳ ˴́˷ʳ ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́˴˿ʳ ˔̇̇˴˼́̀˸́̇ʳ ˼́ʳ ̇˻˸ʳ ˡ˸̇˻˸̅˿˴́˷̆ϙˁʳ ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺̌ʳ ̂˹ʳ ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́ʿʳ ̉̂˿ˁˊˆʿʳ ́̂ˁ˅ΰ˔̃̅ˁ˅˃˃˃αʿʳ ̃̃ˁˌ˅ˀ˄˄˄ˁʳ

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ᖂீඒߛڶࠡᖲᄎؓ࿛ऱრᢝীኪፖەᇢഄթऱګ༉ᑑᄷΔ،אխمΕড়ᨠऱ ૿ᎎנ෼Δല୬ࠫၸ్ऱ֮֏ᇷءፖषᄎᇷءၞ۩ٽऄऱᙁಬΔႉܓᕁࡐࠡᦞ ԺᣂএΖࠃኔ༉ڕᖂृऱေᓵΚ Ȩ೯ၸ٬Ӛᅿޗ཮฻ભᡏسکჹ೭٤฻ભᡏسޑӆғౢǴᡉளࡌҥӧҗ Ѭዴۓک҅Ԅץ঑ޑȬϺ፟ȭǵ཰ᕮ܈ޣמૈޑ฻ભᡏس୷ᘵϐ΢ΞΞ ௲ػس಍൩ჴ౜Α΋ᅿӝݤϯфૈΞΞ೭ᅿӝݤϯфૈຫٰຫԋࣁΓॺ ٬Ȭޗ཮જׇȭ࡭ΦӸӧ܌όё܈લޑӢનȩǶˇ˅ ! ངߢհΔଡԳڇᖂீխࢬݮګऱᣂএΔ।૿Ղਢנ࣍ψֆؓωऱەᇢࠫ৫ ࢬᔅΔۖኔᎾՂΔຘመᜎய׌ᆠऱ։࿇Δլٵषᄎၸ్ऱԳᆵڇլٵ࿛్ऱᖂ ீࢨ᧯ࠫխΔᨃᖂس௦ෞڇլٵऱၸ్฾ࢤխΔࠀ൓אݮႿլٵऱᏝଖᨠࡉԳ سኪ৫Ζ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ೈԱՂ૪ऱٺጟ֮֏ᇷءݮڤΔڇ֮֏٦፹խΔՈڶᖂृᆖൄࠌشψԳԺ ᇷءωऱᄗ࢚ࠐ։࣫षᄎ٦፹ऱመ࿓ΙψԳԺᇷءωຍଡᄗ࢚ࠃኔՂፖؒ૭֕ ऱ֮֏ᇷءᄗ࢚ڶထՏ࿭ᆄᜐऱᣂএΔଖ൓ԫᓵΖʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ࠃኔՂΔԳԺᇷءದॣਢԫጟᆖᛎᖂऱᄗ࢚Δࠏڕ 1979 ڣᘭߦዿᑻ൓׌ ભഏᆖᛎᖂ୮ݦᑛڍዿΘငಅΰTheodore W. Schultzαᎁ੡ԳԺᇷءਢઌኙ࣍ ढᔆᇷءࢨॺԳԺᇷءۖߢऱΔਐ᧯෼࣍ԳߪՂऱΔࠀ׊ױא๯شࠐ༼ࠎآࠐ گԵऱԫጟᇷءΔਢԳᣊ۞ߪڇᆖᛎ੒೯խᛧ൓گ墿ࠀլឰᏺଖऱ౨ԺΔ،ਢ ԫጟދᇷऱขढΖငಅ੡ԳԺᇷءՀԱԫଡࡳᆠΔהᎁ੡ԳԺᇷءറਐଡԳࠠ ໂऱթიΕवᢝΕݾ౨ࡉᇷᖵΔࠀ׊ਐנΔԳԺᇷءਢᏁ૞ຏመދᇷթ౨ݮګ ऱΖψԳԺऱ࠷൓լਢྤזᏝऱΔ،Ꮑ૞௣౛࿕౒ᇷᄭΔܛᏁ૞௣౛ᇷءދᇷΖ ԳԺץਔԳऱवᢝࡉԳऱݾ౨ऱݮګਢދᇷऱ࿨࣠Δࠀॺԫ֊ԳԺᇷᄭຟਢ່ ૹ૞ऱᇷᄭΔ׽ڶຏመԫࡳֱڤދᇷΔ༳༽Աवᢝࡉݾ౨ऱԳԺᇷᄭթਢԫ֊

ˇ˅ ʳ θભιໃ֛ᅗΗ˖ˁࠅᖵ՞ՕΔ്ளؓ᤟Δπ׈ધأषᄎ෻ᓵρΔՂ௧ΔՂ௧ԳاנठषΔ˅˃˃ˆ ڣΔ଄ ˅˅ˌΖʳ

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سขᇷᄭխ່ૹ૞ऱᇷᄭΖڂڼΔԳԺΔԳऱवᢝࡉݾ౨ΔਢᇷءऱԫጟݮኪΖ ݺଚጠࠡ੡ԳԺᇷءωΖˇˆ ૞ߢհΔψԳԺᇷءωਢଡԳࢬࠠໂऱवᢝΕթ౨Ε ݾ౨ࡉᇷᖵ࿛૞ైऱ᜔ࡉΔᇿؒ૭֕ࢬਐ௫ऱ֮֏ᇷءԫᑌΔຟਢԫጟψॺढ ᔆᇷءωΖʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ؒ૭֕Ոڶԫࠄᣂ࣍ԳԺᇷءऱᓵ૪Δה㺞ᓳᖂீඒߛኙ۩೯ृᛧ࠷वᢝ ࡉݾ౨ऱૹ૞ࢤΔᎁ੡ඒߛދᇷਢഗ࣍۩೯ृ۞طრᢝፖრݳऱ෻ࢤ۩੡Ιˇˇ ᖂ ृᎁ੡Δඒߛ࿓৫ለ೏ऱ୮९ڶ౨Ժኙࠡ৘՗ऱᖂ฾ၞ۩᎖ᖄΕᇞެጊംΔࠀ ޏၞࠡᖂ฾ֱऄࡉݾ؏Δຍࠄྤጊຟڶܗ࣍՗Ֆऱᖂ฾।෼Ζˇˈ طඒߛࢬ൓ࠐ ऱवᢝΕ֮ᖇא֗ڶඒ塄ऱߪٝွᐛ༉ګ੡ԱԫጟॺൄڶᏝଖऱԫ౳࿛ᏝढΔ ˇˉ ຍঁዌګؒ૭֕ࢬᝑऱψ֮֏ᇷءωࢨψွᐛᇷءωΖຍࠄᇷءຏመጟጟऱ षᄎᖲࠫױא᠏֏੡ࠡהᇷءڕᆖᛎᇷءΕਙएᇷءࡉषᄎᇷء࿛࿛Δإਢڇ ຍጟრᆠՂΔඒߛᐙ᥼ԱԳऱषᄎچۯΔൕۖګ੡ᛀီԳऱषᄎ։ᐋൣቼऱԫ ଡஆᑑΙԳԺᇷءऱࠠ᧯।෼੡ԳऱवᢝΕݾ౨ΕᇷᖵΕᆖ᧭ࡉᑵᒭ࿓৫࿛Δ ԫ؁ᇩΔ।෼੡ԳऱైᔆΖʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ൕषᄎᖂऱم໱ߢΔኔᎾՂ֮֏ᇷءࡉԳԺᇷءژڇઌۿհ๠Δ،ଚਢΚ ኙԳऱߪ᧯ऱࠉॵࢤΕ֮֏ࡉԳԺᇷءऱڶૻࢤΕլױီࢤࡉᣄא৫ၦࢤΖˇˊ ʳ ྥۖΔؒ૭֕ऱ֮֏ᇷءᄗ࢚ΔࡉԳԺᇷءհၴսڶૹՕ஁ܑΖԳԺᇷء׌૞ ץਔֱࠟ૿ऱփ୲Κԫਢਐຏመދᇷ࣍ඒߛࡉٺᣊഛಝࢬᛧ൓ऱᇷءΔࠠ᧯ץ ਔवᢝࡉݾ౨࿛ፖ֮֏ڶᣂऱփ୲Ι׼ԫຝ։ਐຏመ᠔᛭ࡉঅ೜࿛ຜஉᛧ൓ऱ ᇷءΔ׌૞᧯෼੡ଡԳऱᓡسΕ೜ൈࡉኂࡎ࿛ֱ૿Ζۖؒ૭֕܂੡षᄎᖂᄗ࢚

ˇˆ ʳ ˧˻˸̂˷̂̅˸ʳ ˪ˁʳ ˦˶˻̈˿̇̍ʿʳ Ϙ˜́̉˸̆̇̀˸́̇ʳ ˼́ʳ ˛̈̀˴́ʳ ˖˴̃˼̇˴˿ϙʳ ʿʳ ˼́ʳ ˧˻˸ʳ ˔̀˸̅˼˶˴́ʳ ˘˶̂́̂̀˼˶ʳ ˥˸̉˼˸̊ʳ ʿ˟˜ʳ ʻ˄ˁˠ˴̅˶˻ʼʿʳ˄ˌˉˊˁʳ ˇˇ ʳ ˣˁʳ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿʳ˧˻˸ʳ˙̂̅̀ʳ̂˹ʳ˖˴̃˼̇˴˿ʿʳ˼́ʳ˝ˁʳ˚ˁʳ˥˼˶˻˴̅˷̆̂́ΰ˸˷αʿʳ˛˴́˷˵̂̂˾ʳ̂˹ʳ˧˻˸̂̅̌ʳ˴́˷ʳ˥˸̆˸˴̅˶˻ʳ˹̂̅ʳ̇˻˸ʳ ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺̌ʳ̂˹ʳ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́ʿʳˡ˸̊ʳˬ̂̅˾ˍʳ˚̅˸˸́̊̂̂˷ʳˣ̅˸̆̆ʿ˄ˌˋˆ˂˄ˌˋˉˁڹ೛ऩΔτ֮֏ᇷءፖԳԺᇷءΚؒ ૭ ֕ ֮ ֏ ᇷ ء ෻ ᓵ ऱ ᆖ ᛎ ᖂ რ ᆠ υΔ֧ ۞ ˽̃˾˶ˁ̆̊̈ˁ˸˷̈ˁ˶́˂˷˴̇˴˂̋̍˅˂˶̂́̇˸́̇˂̍˼̌̈˴́˂̇̈̂̍˻˴́̌̈˸˷̈ʳ ˂̊˸́̍˻˴́˺˂˃ˊ˅ˁʳ ˇˈ ʳ ˝˴̀˸̆ʳ˔ˁʳ˖̂˿˸̀˴́ʿʿʳ˦̂˶˼˴˿ʳ˖˴̃˼̇˴˿ʳ˴́˷ʳ̇˻˸ʳ˖̅˸˴̇˼̂́ʳ̂˹ʳ˛̈̀˴́ʳ˖˴̃˼̇˴˿ʳ˔̀˸̅˼˶˴́ʳ˝̂̈̅́˴˿ʳ̂˹ʳ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺̌ʿʳ ̉̂˿ˁˌˇΰ˄ˌˋˋ˦̈̃̃˿˸̀˸́̇ʳ αʿʳ̃̃ˁˌˈˀ˄˅˃ˁʳ ˇˉ ʳ ௑ዿশཎΗ଩ཎഗΔᣂॾؓ࿛᤟ΔπᦞԺፖ௽ᦞΚषᄎ։ᐋऱ෻ᓵρΔࣜڠΔ௨ۂԳاנठ षΔ˄ˌˋˋΖʳ ˇˊ ʳʳ ڹ೛ऩΔτ֮֏ᇷءፖԳԺᇷءΚؒ૭֮֕֏ᇷء෻ᓵऱᆖᛎᖂრᆠυΔ֧۞ ˽̃˾˶ˁ̆̊̈ˁ˸˷̈ˁ˶́˂ʳ ˷˴̇˴˂̋̍˅˂˶̂́̇˸́̇˂̍˼̌̈˴́˂̇̈̂̍˻˴́̌̈˸˷̈˂̊˸́̍˻˴́˺˂˃ˊ˅ˁʳ

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ऱߪ᧯ݮኪ֮֏ᇷءՈץਔֱࠟ૿Κԫਢඒ塄Δറਐຏመڰཚ୮அᛩቼᛧ൓ऱ ᘋᔊΕ঴࠺ΕሐᐚΕࢤ௑Ε௛ᔆࡉൣፃጥ෻౨ԺΖԲਢवᢝΔ׌૞ਐຏመᖂீ ඒߛ༳༽ऱवᢝࡉݾ౨ΖױߠΔԳԺᇷءࡉߪ᧯ݮኪऱ֮֏ᇷءਝڶઌۿհ ๠Δܛຏመᖂீඒߛࢨٺᣊ᧯ࠫ֏ऱಝᒭދᇷᛧ൓ऱवᢝࡉݾ౨ΔՈڶࠡٺ۞ ऱ௽ࢤΔܛຏመ᠔᛭ࡉঅ೜࿛ຜஉᛧ൓ऱ߷ຝ։ԳԺᇷءࡉ֮֏ᇷءխऱඒ 塄Ζˇˋ ʳ ʳ ʳʳʳʳʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ௽ܑଖ൓ԫ༼ऱਢΔᕣጥ،ଚڶ஁ฆࡉઌۿຝ։Δ܀ਢຏൄ๯ီ੡ԳԺᇷ ءࡉ֮֏ᇷءऱ٥ຏຝ։ঞਢຏመඒߛދᇷᛧ൓ऱᇷءΖʳ

ຬΕԿጟᇷءݮڤऱ᜔ٽΚွᐛᇷء

ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ᆖᛎᇷءΕषᄎᇷءΕ֮֏ᇷءԿጟᇷءݮڤ᜔ٽದࠐ༉ਢွᐛᇷءΖʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ʳ ኙ࣍ԫࠄᑷფ֮ᖂΕᢌ๬ऱԳଶ൷ᤛؒ૭֕ऱ෻ᓵױ౨ڶࠄլ֜฾ክΔڂ ੡ݺଚຏൄᄎء౨چࢴ࿪ኙ࣍ᢌ๬Ε֮֏ףאᆖᛎᖂࢨृषᄎᖂऱᇞᤩΔຍਢ ط࣍Գᣊ֮ᖂΕᢌ๬ऱശ೏ࡉᆣᑥۿ׏ਢᢞࣔԳᣊսྥਢ೏࿛೯ढऱഄԫᢞ ᖕΔڂڼኙຍᣊނ֮֏ψ೸঴֏ωψᇷء֏ωऱႜٻ᜔ᄎאԫጟሐᐚᑑᄷࠐ઎ ৱ،ࢬױ౨ທګऱ࿨࣠Ζ ܀ਢਊᅃؒ૭֕ऱ෻ᇞΔൕԳᣊषᄎس੒ऱኔᔌࠐᎅΔ֮֏ኔᔌٵᑌ㻽ଡ Գࢨृᆢ᧯ऱܓ墿ࢬᦀ೯Δ֮֏ऱس㶷Ε௣၄ΕႚᐾΕᗨีΕᤉࢭ࿛壆ᛩᆏΔ ፖࠡהࠃढԫᑌΔՈױאࠉᅃԫጟኔᔌऱฤᇆᆖᛎᖂࠐףאઔߒΖؒ૭֕ࠀլ ܡᎁ֮֏㶷঴ऱᗑمᏝଖΔ܀ਢהഒ਍Δ׽ڶނ֮֏ᆜ࣍௽ࡳऱषᄎ़ၴ௽ܑ ਢ֮֏س㶷໱഑խΔࠡᗑ໌ࢤթ౨൓ࠩޓ㻽ך։ऱᇞᤩΖ49 ڇؒ૭֕ऱွᐛᇷء෻ᓵխΔ֮֏٦፹ທګषᄎᦞԺऱ٦։಻Δআࠌषᄎ ࿨ዌլឰ࿇س᧢֏Δהऱ෻ᓵ༿قΔᅝזषᄎբᆖၞԵא֮֏٦፹੡׌ၗΔլ

ˇˋ ʳ ˣˁʳ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʿʳ˧˻˸ʳ˙̂̅̀ʳ̂˹ʳ˖˴̃˼̇˴˿ʿʳ˼́ʳ˝ˁʳ˚ˁʳ˥˼˶˻˴̅˷̆̂́ΰ˸˷αʿʳ˛˴́˷˵̂̂˾ʳ̂˹ʳ˧˻˸̂̅̌ʳ˴́˷ʳ˥˸̆˸˴̅˶˻ʳ˹̂̅ʳ̇˻˸ʳ ˦̂˶˼̂˿̂˺̌ʳ̂˹ʳ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́ʿʳˡ˸̊ʳˬ̂̅˾ʳˍʳ˚̅˸˸́̊̂̂˷ʳˣ̅˸̆̆ʿ˄ˌˋˆˁʳ ʳ 49 ڹഏဎΔτؒ૭֕Κԫଡ堚ᙌऱ֮֏ߡ೐ՓυΔπ׈ધխഏρ2003 ڣ 3 ִ 17 ֲΖ

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ٵ࣍א࢓ऱषᄎݮኪΔ֮֏ऱڂైբዶຘࠩٺᏆ഑Δࠀ׊ᙟထඒߛऱཏ֗ࡉઝ ᖂऱឩ୶Δ֮֏٦፹ֺᆖᛎ٦سขᓤᠧ൓ڍΔڇਬጟრᆠՂΔݺଚ੷۟ױאᎅΔ ֮֏ڂైᚌۯ࣍ᆖᛎڂైΔਢᅝזषᄎ࿇୶ऱੈᄭΖ ່৵Δଖ൓ᣂࣹऱਢΔڇؒ૭֕ऱွᐛᇷء෻ᓵխΔ֮֏ᇷءऱயشڶழ ֺᆖᛎᇷءࠐ൓ՕΔڂ੡֮֏ᇷءڶထψឆᓈω(conceal)ऱפ౨Ιܛਐ۩೯ृ ڇၞ۩֮֏ᇷءऱދᇷΕᗨีࡉ਍ڶመ࿓խ।෼נࠐऱԫጟψဠೕऱωॺפܓ ࢤΰdésintéressementαΖ଺ࠐΔؒ૭֕ലᇷءऱᄗ࢚֧Ե֮֏ઔߒΔڱڇᇞዌ ᇷขၸ్რᢝݮኪऱ׼ԫଡ೛Օऱ壀ᇩΔܛ֮֏ፖܓ墿(interests)ऱๅᆏԯ۟ኙ ݼΖהᎁ੡ΔႚอՂނ֮֏壀ᆣ֏Δᎁ੡֮֏ኧࢍඈೈܓ墿ऱեឫࡉۆ਩Δኔ ᎾՂؒ૭֕ᎁ੡ຍਢԫ໱ᇷขၸ్֮֏ᖂृፖᆖᛎᖂृऱ٥ᘩΖᇷขၸ్ᆖᛎ ᖂृല۞աऱઔߒኙွፖᒤ໮๻ࡳڇ೸঴سขፖٌངΔല،ൕषᄎ़ၴࡉ੒೯ խᗑمנࠐΔጠհ੡ᆖᛎ(economy)ΖڕڼΔຍ༉ឆඤچലषᄎ़ၴࡉسขኔ ᔌऱࠡהຝ։੺ࡳ੡ॺᆖᛎ(noneconomy)Ζ50 ࠃኔՂΔ֮֏ᇷءࠠڶൽ።ࠡ۞ ߪױאፖᆖᛎᇷءၞ۩ઌյ᠏ངऱפ౨Ζࠉؒ૭֕Δൕढᔆࢤऱψᆖᛎᇷءω ዝ֏ۖࠐࠀאԫጟဠ೗ऱ૿ؾנ෼ऱွᐛᇷءΰ֮֏ᇷءαΔᖇ៶ࠡױאڇլ ٵ࿓৫Ղൽ።۞ߪਢԫጟᄭ۞࣍ψढᔆωݮኪᇷءऱࠃኔא֗ڼ৵Ո౨ജᤉᥛ ൽ።ຍԫࠃኔऱ౨ԺΔ໌ທנԫጟᆖᛎᇷءֺլՂऱயشΖ ؒ ૭ ֕ ऱ ֮ ֏ ٦ ፹ ෻ ᓵ ൶ ಘ อ ए ၸ ్ ڕ ۶ პ ݎ چ ሎ ܂ ψ ွ ᐛ ᑊ Ժ ω ΰsymbolic violenceαאፂ਍षᄎၸ్ऱ೴։ΔႚᎠፖ٦፹ฤٽอएၸ్ܓ墿 ऱრᢝীኪፖढᔆ࿨ዌΖؒ૭֕ऱᓵរڇ༼ᙌඒߛृᚨᇠ᧯᧭ᖑڶլٵ฾ࢤऱ ᖂسڇ֮֏ᇷءऱᛧ࠷ՂΔ࠹ࠫ࣍ွᐛᑊԺऱᐙ᥼Δᄎط֮֏٦፹ऱ෼ွᖄી ၸ్ऱ٦፹Ζ ԫ԰Ԯ O ڣؒ૭֕ፖ Jean-Claude Passron ٽထऱπඒߛΕषᄎࡉ֮֏խ

50֧۞ڹ೛ऩΔτ”ᇷء”ऱԫጟॺᆖᛎᖂᇞᦰ——ؒ૭֕ऱ֮֏ᇷءᄗ࢚υΔሉ੍֚πषᄎઝ ᖂρ2007 ڣร 3 ཚΔ଄ 117-123Ζ

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ऱ٦፹ρΰReproduction in Education, Society, and Cultureαԫ஼Δಾኙ֮֏٦፹ ֗ᖂீඒߛআၞषᄎੌ೯ऱ೗ွၞ۩ޅܒΖᖂீඒߛߓอਢലषᄎၸ్஁ฆٽ ऄ֏ऱᖲᕴΔؒ૭֕ಾኙຍᑌऱሎ܂ᖲࠫΔኙऄഏऱඒߛߓอ܂ֺለ։࣫Δψᅝ זऄഏኔ۩ࠟՕᣊীऱᖂீඒߛࠫ৫ΚԫΕࣔྨᖂீඒߛ…ΙԲΕཏຏᖂீඒ ߛߓอ…ωΔ51הᎁ੡อएၸ్ࡉ௽ᦞၸ్Δຘመᖂீඒߛߓอᕁࡐګ୉ڇࣔ ਣᖂீᛧ൓षᄎᦞԺ։಻խ່෻უऱچۯࡉ៭ᄐΙאڼᨠរ෡Ե൶ಘ໎೯ၸ్ ڇᖂீࢬ൷࠹ऱլؓ࿛چۯΖ ؒ૭֕ፖ Jean-Claude Passron ਐנΔᅝᦞृڇឆ៲ࠡᦞԺᣂএழΔ࢓࢓ᄎ ᓿղࠡषᄎრᆠΔࠀຏመඒߛނຍࠄრᆠٽऄ֏Ζޓ੷ृΔᅝᦞृᝫᄎലࠡᦞ Ժ᠏֏ګွᐛࢤԺၦΔ່৵ທګޢଡழזऱ׌ੌ֮֏᜔ਢอएၸ్ऱ֮֏Δۖ ຍጟ׌ੌऱ֮֏ঞၞԫޡঅᎽ֮ࠡ֏٦፹ᖲࠫऱႉܓሎ܂Δڕڼ༛ᛩ࢓༚ყ࿇ ᕁࡐอएृऱچۯΖຍࠡၴΔ֮֏٦፹ऱᣂ᝶ছ༼༉ਢ৬ዌԳଚऱψᎄᎁω ΰmisrecognitionαΔຍጟᎄᎁႉܓچലอएृऱᦞԺ᠏֏ګွᐛࢤԺၦΙۖᨃ Գଚขسᎄᎁऱ׌૞ՠࠠ༉ਢඒߛ۩೯(pedagogic action)ΔڇהଚۖߢΔඒߛ ءᔆՂਢԫଡψլױಭ᠏ऱመ࿓ω(irreversible process)Δۖᇷขၸ్ऱඒߛ۩ ೯ഗءՂ༉ਢ֘ᚨอएၸ్ऱܓ墿Δ،ᄎԫ٦ᥒᙁ֮֏ᇷءլ݁࿛ऱ։಻෻࢚ ፖ֭಻ၸ్ऱ֮֏Δࠌᖂس۞ྥ൷࠹ᖂீࢬڜඈऱඒߛ۩೯Δሒګ֮֏٦፹ऱ ؾऱΔڂڼΔᖂீ᧯ߓऱٽऄ֏ᦞ৖ԯਢषᄎլؓ࿛෼ွऱૹ૞ڂైΔޓਢष ᄎၸ్ኙمऱᣂ᝶Ζ52 ༓׏ڇڼٵழΔ᎛ڇભഏऱᖂृ Samuel Bowles Ո࣍ 1971 ڣሶ௧ࡅᚨΔ ࿇।റ֮ൎᓳᖂீඒߛऱ٦፹ທګԱषᄎլؓ࿛Δڇࠡψլؓ࿛ऱඒߛፖषᄎ ։ՠऱ٦፹ωԫ֮խਐנΔᅝזֱ۫ᘋದԱᆢฒࢤඒߛᒴದ࣍Κ ΰ ΰ1αᥒᙁਙࢌոსݮွΚԳଚ࿇෼Δ౨ജ່ړچ੡ՠᐗ໎೯܂ړᄷໂऱ ᖂீऱषᄎᣂএΚ،௽ܑൎᓳધ৳ΕښழΕ൷࠹୮அא؆ऱᦞ৖Εא֗ኙ۞ա

ˈ˄ ࡌᄅ༄Δπؒዿ૭֕ᓵᖂீඒߛፖ֮֏٦፹ρΔ˅˃˃ˈ ڣΔ؀קؑΔ֨෻Δ଄ ˄˅˅Ζʳ ˈ˅ ʳ ʳ ˣˁʳ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʳ˴́˷ʳ ˝˸˴́ˀ˖˿˴̈˷˸ʳˣ˴̆̆̅̂́ʿʳ˥˸̃̅̂˷̈˶̇˼̂́ʳ˼́ʳ˘˷̈˶˴̇˼̂́ʿʳ˦̂˶˼˸̇̌ʳ˴́˷ʳ˖̈˿̇̈̅˸ˁʳ˅́˷ʳ˸˷ˁʳ˧̂̀ʳ ˕̂̇̇̂̀̂̅˸ʿʳ̇̅˴́̆ˁʳ˟̂́˷̂́ˍʳ˦˴˺˸ʳˣ̈˵˿˼˶˴̇˼̂́̆ˁʳ˄ˌˌ˃ʻ˄ˌˊ˃ʼˁ̃̃ˁ˄˃ˁ˄˄ˁˆ˄ˁˇˆˀˇˇˁʳ

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ऱՠ܂૤ຂΖᖂீऱषᄎᣂএፖՠ܂໱ࢬऱषᄎᣂএݙ٤ઌٵΔຍലڶܗ࣍ॹ ڣԳᔞᚨषᄎऱ໎೯։ՠΖᖂீലၞԫޡ֧ᖄڣ᎘Գൕ՛༉൷࠹ഏ୮֗ࠡז෻ Գ---ඒஃ---ऱᦞ৖Δࠡխऱԫଡ֫੄ਢ࿯ॹڣԳऱທګຍᏖԫጟ֤ᤚΔܛਙࢌ ኙֆاਢոსऱΖ ΰ ΰ2αᛜທඒߛၲ࣋ऱ֤ᤚΚڼ؆Δط࣍ᖂீඒߛ।૿ՂਢٻࢬڶԳၲ࣋ ऱΔࢬאޢଡԳڇषᄎ໎೯։ՠխچۯլਢאנߪΔۖਢאࠡܘԺࡉթიࠐᒔ ࡳऱΖڼԫؾऱ༉ຘመᓰ࿓ࠐᥒᙁᇷขၸ్ऱრᢝীኪΖ ΰ3αॣ࿛ඒߛࠠڶൎࠫࢤΚԼ԰׈ધ࿇سڇભഏٺڠऱֆمॣ࿛ࡉխ࿛ ඒߛሎ೯խΔਢ൳ࠫڇ࿇୶խऱՠᄐᇷขၸ్֫խऱΔຍԫរא್៳壆Ⴞڠ່ ડנΖೈԱতֱհ؆Δຍԫሎ೯ڇ٤ഏٺچ߰ຒᓍ࢏Ζॣ࿛ඒߛឩ്׌૞ਢ੡ Աᔞᚨՠᄐ֏א֗ኙ؆ࠐ໎೯Ժၞ۩षᄎࠫપऱᏁ૞Δឈྥڶࠄ໎ՠሎ೯༼נ ۞طඒߛऱ૞ޣΔ܀থլ౨ൽ።ඒߛឩ്ऱൎࠫࢤᔆΖ ΰ4α৬ዌඒߛषᄎ֏հဠ೗ᏁޣΚᆖᛎ࿇୶༼נᄅऱषᄎ֏ᏁޣΔႄ׌ ૞ޣՠԳޓႉൕࡉښழΖط࣍ՠ܂ऱᓤᠧࢤᏺףΔႄ׌Ոၲࡨ༈ބխၸጥ෻Գ ୉Δ๺ڍԳঁലᖂீඒߛ઎ګਢ༼ࠎᄅषᄎ֏ᏁޣऱຜஉΖ ΰ5αඒߛ፹ທၸ్։֏෼ွΚڇ߰ຒឩ୶ऱඒߛ᧯ࠫᇙΔྗ९נၸ్։ ֏ऱߓอΖषᄎဍ૎ऱ՗ݬ࢓࢓ಬၞߏمᖂீΖط࣍ՠԳၸ్՗ݬ࢓࢓ৰڰঁ ᠦၲᖂீΔࢬאֆمխᖂऱఄ్ዌګխ૎թ᧩ྥਢڍ࣍՛ᖂԱΖՕᖂඒߛኙ࣍ ௫֗೸੺Ղᐋࠠڶૹ૞܂شΔۖլ٦ႛႛਢಝᒭඒஃࡉඒ඄壀ᖂΔڂڼΔՂᐋ ၸ్୮அঁሎشהଚऱ८ᙒࡉᐙ᥼Δࠌࠡ՗ݬ൓אၞԵ່ړऱՕᖂΖྥۖΔຍ ൄ૞אᥔ੪ࠡה୮அ՗ݬ੡זᏝΖᖂீඒߛ܂੡ᒔࡳࠝ࿙ڇၸ్࿨ዌխچۯऱ ຜஉऱૹ૞ࢤດޡ༼Δࠀኙၸ్࿨ዌऱٽऄ֏ದထ׌૞ऱ܂شΖ ΰ6αඒߛ։ੌ֘ᚨषᄎၸ్Κڂᚨψၞޡ׌ᆠωऱᨠរΔܛඒߛᚨᅝ᎛ ᚨޢଡࠝ࿙ऱᏁ૞Ζ੡ԱٻՠԳၸ్୮அऱ৘՗༼ࠎᔞٽࠡലࠐس੒ऱඒߛΔ ៭ᄐᖂீࡉ៭ᄐඒߛՈ࿇୶ԱΖᖂ๬ࢤᓰ࿓ঞঅఎ࿯߷ࠄലࠐڶᖲᄎڇՕᖂࢨ ػᏆ៭ᄐխܓش஼ءवᢝऱᖂسΖຍጟၞޡ׌ᆠඒߛຟ֘ਠထԫጟآߢࣔऱ೗ ๻ѧၸ్࿨ዌਢլױޏ᧢ऱΖ

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ΰ ΰ7αඒߛฤᚨၸ్ᣂএΚط࣍ඒߛၸ్։֏ፖ໎೯Ժၸ్։֏Ꮨᙰࠀ ၞΔଡԳگԵΕچۯࡉ۞׌ᦞՕڍਢࠉࠡڇ໎೯ᣂএխհၸ్ۖެࡳΔۖٺጟ ៭ۯڶፖඒߛ֮ᖇڶᣂΔإڂ੡ඒߛࡉݾ౨ኙषᄎၸ్ࠫ৫܂شᏅՕΔڂڼࠌ ൓ᖂீڇၸ్࿨ዌऱ٦፹ࡉٽऄՂފዝထૹ૞ऱߡۥΖ53

ੀΕ՛࿨

ڶᖂृᎁ੡֮֏٦፹෻ᓵਢԫጟᖿၞۖ௡ደऱ෻ᓵΔڶထመ࣍ᖲඳ֏Εެ ࡳᓵऱ౒រΔ54 ՈڶԳᎁ੡Δ֮֏٦፹෻ᓵ࢙ီ۩೯ृࠀॺ٤ྥ࠹ࠫ࣍࿨ዌΔ ࢨਢ࢙ီᖵ׾ᐋ૿ऱ։࣫Ζ55ྥۖΔࠃኔՂΔڇ֮֏٦፹խΔࠡመ࿓ਢઌᅝᓤ ᠧऱΔषᄎ࿨ዌऱ٦፹ࡉ֮֏ᇷءऱ։಻ਢઌյᐙ᥼Ծઌኙ۞׌ऱΔڂڼ٦፹ ࠀॺਢᖲඳڤऱΔࢨਢެࡳᓵऱΔڇ֮֏٦፹ऱመ࿓խΔٚ۶ᦞԺऱ᧩෼լᄎ ႛאᦞԺֱڤΔۖਢאٚ۶ױ౨ऱݮڤנ෼Ζ ኔᎾՂΔ֮֏٦፹ፖ֮֏ႚࢭ׽ਢԫᒵհሶΔԳᣊႚอ֮֏Ꮑ૞ඒߛᨃ، լឰጿ࢏Հװאᕁࡐ֮ࠡࣔΔױਢΔઌ֘ऱΔڕ࣠ൕ๯อएृऱߡ৫ࠐ઎Δຍ ጟ֮֏ႚࢭথਢהଚࢬլ౨ᙇᖗऱΔֹኑᎅΔ๯อएृة᎛ਢ๯ެࡳऱԫᆢΖ ൕຍଡߡ৫ࠐᎅΔ֮֏٦፹෻ᓵךႾထԳሐൣᡖΔ،ݦඨޏ᧢ֲ࣏ඒߛ߷ጟอ एፖ๯อएऱ௑ݝΔٞቹᚦೈอएፖ๯อएऱ੺ᒵΔຍਢԫጟ෻უऱཚৱΖ௽ ܑਢڇԫଡ෼ז֏षᄎխΔഏ୮ᖲᕴ༳൳Աײ۔षᄎࢬ޲ڶऱ߷ጟᇷᄭΕ๻ໂ ፖิ៣Δڔࢬᖙ᜕ऱᡓՕΕᓤᠧۖ׊פ౨ൎՕऱᖲᕴΔਢ᎛ײԳᣊࢬྤऄუቝ ऱΔᅝഏ୮༳൳ԱຍᏖڍऱᇷᄭΕຍᏖൎՕऱԺၦழΔڔऱ౨Ժ༓׏ਢྤࢬլ ౨ऱΔઌኙऱΔ๯อएृڇ෼זഏ୮ᖲᕴ૿ছޓ᧩൓፧ػΕྤԺΔהऱᙇᖗޓ ਢ֟൓ױᐧΖڇຍଡრᆠՂΔ֮֏٦፹෻ᓵޓܑࠠࠡழזრᆠΔ௽ܑᏁ૞ඒߛ

ˈˆ ʳ ˦˴̀̈˸˿ʳ˕̂̊˿˸̆Δτլؓ࿛ऱඒߛፖषᄎ։ՠऱ٦፹υΔߠᏩאᔃᒳΔπֱ۫ඒߛषᄎᖂ֮ᙇρΔ ؀קΚնতΔ˄ˌˌ˅ ڣΔ଄ ˄˄ˋˀ˄ˌˆΖʳ ˈˇ ʳ ᢟ٠ቓΔτषᄎፖ֮֏٦፹෻ᓵհေ࣫υΔπඒߛઔߒႃעρΔ˄ˌˌˋ ڣร ˄ ࠴ΰˇ˃αΔ଄ ˅ˆˀˈ˃Ζʳ ˈˈ ʳ ᤕ୽՞ΔτπඒߛΕषᄎፖ֮֏խऱ٦፹ρᖄᦰυυΔ࿇।࣍ ˅˃˃ˆ ڣ ˇ ִΔรԿࡻψრᢝΕᦞԺ ፖඒߛˀ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ ඒߛषᄎᖂറᓵωઔಘᄎΔቯᆠՕࣥΔতဎՕᖂΖʳ

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ृ෡৸ݺଚֲ࡙ᣬ࢚ऱඒߛਢܡਢᅝట౨ޏ᧢ԳاऱჟਡΕᏺ९ԳاऱཕᐝΛ ྥۖΔಾኙอएृ֮֏٦፹ऱ౨ၦΔ๯อएृࠀॺශྤࣂݼԺױߢΔڇڼΔء ֮ጵٽᖂृറ୮א֗෼໱۔ஃଚऱ᧯ኘΔ༼נԫࠄ֘ઊΔᨃڶݳ࣍ඒߛृࢨઔ ߒृ೶ەΔ،ଚਢΚ

ԫ

ԫΕᖂீᚨࢭᖜष೴ඒߛՠ܂Δ༼֒୮९֮֏ᇷء

ൕء֮ױवΔᖂسऱ֮֏ᇷءΕषᄎᇷءࡉᆖᛎᇷءऱ஁ฆࢤઌᅝՕΔຍ Ոዌګ֮ࠡ֏٦፹ऱૹ૞ڂైΔࠡխ୮அၸ్હནਢԫՕᣂ᝶Δ௽ܑਢஇႨၸ ్Εೣ᎛چ೴אֲ֗墿ᏺףऱᄅฝاΔຍࠄஇႨ୮அլႛ๠࣍ᆖᛎΕषᄎஇႨΔ ڶࠄ୮९੷۟ڶᔹᦰऱܺᣄΔڂڼΔᖂீᚨފዝष೴֮֏խ֨ऱߡۥΔၲ࣋ᖂ ீऱᇷᄭΔ࿏᧯ֱ૿ڕቹ஼৛Εሽᆰඒ৛࿛Δא༼ࠎष೴֗୮९ᖂ฾ګ९ऱᖲ ᄎΔۖᖂீऱஃᇷՈױא࿳ףሎشΔڕၲᙄᘣ՗૎፿٥ᦰΕ؆ᤄԳՓᎁڗఄ࿛Δ ៶ڼ༼֒اฒऱ֮֏ై塄Δ௣৮୮९ڇ֮֏ᇷءՂऱ஁၏Ζ

ԲΕ࿯ղٺᣊᖂسګפऱᖲᄎ

ᖂீᚨᇠאለ੡ڍցऱߡ৫ፖڍցऱေၦֱڤΔጐױ౨࿯ղլٵၸ్נߪ ऱᖂسઌٵऱګפᖲᄎΖլױܡᎁऱΔڇ֒ᖂ׌ᆠ೏ይऱழזխΔګᜎൄൄਢ شࠐေၦᖂسګפࢨ؈ඓऱૹ૞ਐᑑΖႚอᖂઝൄ๯ီ੡ਢอएၸ్ऱזߢ ԳΔႚอᖂઝګ੡อएၸ్׌ੌ֮֏ऱႚᜢ࿟ΔኙנߪլܓऱᖂسࠐᎅΔႚอ ᖂઝࠥ྽נࠐऱψᣋནωΔ࢓࢓׽ਢԫጟᙑᎄऱრᢝΔԫጟլژڇऱ壀ᇩΖᖂ ீԫֱ૿ޓףᕁࡐԱ׌ੌषᄎऱਝڶ൳ࠫᦞԺΔ׼ԫֱ૿ࠌྤᜢऱᚘ૰אԫጟ լឰ٦سขऱ᥹ᦞݮڤ਍ᥛऱၞ۩Ζ៭ਢΔޏ࿳հሐڇ࣍ڕ۶ૹᄅᛀಘᖂ࿙ڇ ᖂீփऱᖂᄐګ༉ऱᑑᄷΔֺڕΚኙ࣍ႚอᖂઝऱૹࢼွΕࡸ౐࿝հփ୲ࢨေ ၦֱڤᚨܡᓳᖞΛᅝছ԰ڣԫ຃ඒߛޏ଀Δຘመᓰ࿓อᖞ๵ቤፖڍցေၦֱڤ ऱආ۩Δࢨ๺ڶܗ࣍ࠌᖂீ༼ࠎޓڍऱګפᆖ᧭Δࠌᖂீඒߛࢬފዝऱψඈೈω

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ߡۥ૾܅Δᨃ໎ՠၸ్՗ՖՈڶٻՂੌ೯ऱᖲᄎΖլመΔຍᇙΔ۔ஃፖ୮९ᚨ യ֊ٽ܂Δյઌ༼ᙌΔ֊ݲא໢ٻ৫ګ༉ေၦᖂسᖂ฾Ζ

Կ

ԿΕಾኙ֮֏լܓᖂس࿯ղᗨᄕࢤऱ஁ܑৱሖ

ᖂீඒߛ੡ኔ෼ඒߛᖲᄎ݁࿛ΔᆵኔषᄎֆؓإᆠΔᚨऺ਍ထψTo treat equal equally, to treat unequal unepuallyωऱ壄壀Δ࿯ղլܓ֮֏ऱᖂسᗨᄕࢤ ऱ஁ܑৱሖΔഏփڶࠄՕറೃீ༉ܘԺᆵኔڼጟषᄎإᆠΔڕᙩࡵՕᖂஃᇷഛ ߛխ֨ஃس༓ڣࠐຟ਍ᥛၞ۩ऱ׾ᡖୃ壄壀ඒߛࣚ೭ૠ྽Δ੡ፕխᗼקႨഏا ՛ᖂऱ໢ᘣΕ܅گԵΕሶזඒ塄Ε؆ᤄᄅ୞୮அࢨᖂ฾இႨᖂ࿙ࣚ೭Δቸၷګ ୉।قլ܀ൕࣚ೭ऱመ࿓խΔีᗨԱඒᖂᆖ᧭Ε෻ᓵፖኔ೭ച۩ΔՈԱᇞඒᖂ ۩ਙऱሎ܂Δ່ۖૹ૞ऱਢ࿇෼ৰڍᢰᒴ֏ऱ՛֖ࣛΔߪ֨࿇୶ໂ࠹ᚘԺΔܛ ࠌڕڼΔ৘՗ءߪսԼ։ᣋრᖂ฾Δ׽ਢ෼ኔणउ෡෡ૻࠫԱהଚऱګ९ᖲᄎ ࢨᖂ฾णउΔຍᏁ૞षᄎՕฒԫٵࠐᣂ֊Ζˈˉ ࠡ،ڕعᓮඒߛᚌ٣೴ૠ྽Ε᥋ ֫ૠ྽࿛ΔאኔᎾऱ۩೯ΔᚥܗઌኙஇႨऱᖂسΖ

؄ΕඒߛԳ୉ᚨࠠໂ֘৸ऱ౨Ժ

९ཚאࠐඒஃ೚੡๯ਙएრᢝীኪᖙݫऱՠࠠΔ֗षᄎၸ్٦፹ऱψ٥ح ߡ ۥ ω ۖ լ ۞ व Δ ࣚ ೭ ࣍ ׌ ੌ ၸ ᐋ อ ए ृ ࢬ ৙ ጠ ऱ ࡴ ֱ व ᢝ ΰ official knowledgeαհრᢝীኪآףא֘৸ፖ෡৸Δڂۖᥔ੪ԱஇႨගᆢऱܓ墿Ζࢬ אΔߪ੡ඒߛृլַᚨފዝԫۯψႚอवᢝٝ՗ωऱߡۥΔܛႚሐΕ඄ᄐΕᇞ ༝ऱஃृߡۥΙඒߛृޓᚨࠠໂ֘৸౨ԺΔܛഛ塄᠏֏वᢝऱ౨ԺΔאݼࢴᑨ ៲ڇਙएΕᆖᛎΕ֮֏Εၸ్ΕጟගΕࢤܑհၴऱ᥹ᦞ׌ᆠፖլฤٽֆؓإᆠ ऱ଺ঞΙ౨ഒښ۞ա෻უऱवᢝٝ՗Δ࢘ૣ࣍۞ݺ෻უፖॾ࢚Δլ੹᥈ᦞႨऱ

ˈˉ ʳ խඒ׹ᄅፊᒚΔτඒߛຝီᖄψˌˈ ڣං೯Օᖂஃᇷسኔᔌ׾ᡖୃ壄壀ඒߛࣚ೭ૠ྽ωΔࠀᐣ ໎ᙩࡵՕᖂஃᇷس֗࠹༡ᖂ࿙υΔ˅˃˃ˊ ڣ ˄ ִ ˅ˈ ֲΖʳ

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ౡ૰Δሎش֘ઊޅܒऱኪ৫Δ൶౉ట෻Δ༿࿇լؓ࿛Ιޓ૞ࠠໂᓰ࿓๻ૠऱ౨ ԺΔլ౨ലඒߛ១֏ࠩ׽ਢႚᎠवᢝऱՠ܂Δ૞෡Ե֘ઊ۞աՠ܂ऱሐᐚࡉਙ एრᆠΔᝫᏁ࿨ٽᖂீփ؆ቸ᧯ऱԺၦΔ᠏֏լٽ෻ऱषᄎ࿨ዌΔ੡षᄎՕฒ ֗נߪլܓࠝ࿙ႚᎠլٵऱᜢଃΔאᒷᇞ໎ՠ୮அࠝ࿙٦ڻ؈ຒൾᆵ֮֏٦፹ ऱዡྎΖڕڼթ౨ᆵኔటإඒߛޏ଀ऱ෻࢚Δሒࠩআၞषᄎֆؓإᆠऱ່ึᡉ ऱΖ

ն

նΕڍց֮֏ඒߛᨠរऱᓰ࿓๻ૠ

ڇ؀᨜ඒߛխΔא࢓ᖂீऱᓰ࿓փ୲Δ᜔ਢאዧԳऱ֮֏੡๻ૠऱנ࿇ រΔڕ࣠ඒߛऱփ୲ਢאዧԳऱᏝଖᨠ੡׌૞ࠉᖕΔ߷Ո׽ਢڇඒᖄࠡהගᆢ ګ੡ዧԳۖբΖڶᦹ࣍ڼΔᖂீࢬႚᎠऱᓰ࿓փ୲ᚨᇠץܶڍց֮֏ඒߛऱᨠ រΔᔞᅝऱᘜԵٺගᆢऱ֮֏ፖ௽ۥΔᨃլٵගᆢऱᖂس౨ജൕᓰ࿓փ୲խ઎ ߠ۞աගᆢ֮֏ऱᖵ׾ፖ௽ᔆΔՈᨃ׌ੌ֮֏ऱዧගᖂسڶᖲᄎޓၞԫޡᎁᢝ ڍց֮֏Δࠌᖂس౨ڇᖂ฾ऱመ࿓խഛ塄յઌ༇ૹΕࣲᓾΕ൷౏ऱڍց֮֏ᨠΖ 57 ௽ܑਢ२ԫԲԼڣࠐΔ؀᨜ऱषᄎ؆ᤄ಻ೝ৺ຒᏺףΔᖕඒߛຝอૠΔᄅฝ ا՗Ֆ༉ᦰഏխࡉഏ՛ऱԳᑇٍݶຒᏺףΔ۟ 2007 ᖂڣ৫բሒ 103,600 ԳΔ ࠩԱ 2008 ڣᖂڣ৫༉ᦰഏխ՛Գᑇբ२ 13 ᆄԳΔለছԫᖂڣګ९ 25.4иΔ ڇ 2009 ᖂڣ৫Եᖂ༉ᦰഏխ՛ऱᄅฝا՗Ֆ၌መ 15 ᆄԳΔࠩԱ 2010 ᖂڣ৫Δ ຍଡᑇᖕޓࠐࠩԱ 17 ᆄԳΖ58 ࠐ۞׈੺ٺഏऱᄅฝاࢬسऱᄅ؀᨜հ՗Δ੡ ؀᨜ඒߛ൅ࠐޓ૰֊ऱڍց֮֏ඒߛᓰ࿓ऱᏁޣΖ ڇءᔆՂΔඒߛءߪ༉ᓿڶਬጟ֮֏ႚࢭऱࠌࡎΔ܀ਢΔ֮֏ႚࢭፖ֮֏

ˈˊ ᄘ₣ေΔτ˕̂̈̅˷˼˸̈ʳ ऱ֮֏٦፹რොፖࠡڇᖂீඒߛՂऱඔقυΔπקᗼඒߛρΔ˅˃˃ˌ ڣԲִร քԼքཚʼΖʳ ˈˋ ඒ ߛ ຝ อ ૠ ๠ ΰ ˅˃˃ˌ αΖπ Օ ຬ ֗ ؆ ᤄ ಻ ೝ ՗ Ֆ ༉ ᖂ Գ ᑇ ρΔ ˅˃˄˃ ڣ ˅ ִ ˄ ֲ ࠷ ۞ ˻̇̇̃ˍ˂˂̊̊̊ˁ˸˷̈ˁ̇̊˂̆̇˴̇˼̆̇˼˶̆˂˶̂́̇˸́̇ˁ˴̆̃̋˒̆˼̇˸˲˶̂́̇˸́̇˲̆́ːˋˌˈˉΖא֗ඒߛຝอૠ๠ ˌ˅ˀˌˌʳ ᖂڣ৫؆ᤄ ಻ೝ՗Ֆ༉ᦰഏխ՛ԳᑇอૠΔ˅˃˄˄ʳ ڣ ˌʳ ִ ˅ˈʳ ֲΔ࠷۞ ˻̇̇̃ˍ˂˂̊̊̊ˁ˸˷̈ˁ̇̊˂˹˼˿˸̆˂̆˼̇˸˲˶̂́̇˸́̇˂˵˃˃˄ˆʳ ˂˹̂̀˴̆ˁ̋˿̆

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٦፹ਢࠟڃࠃΔ֮֏ႚࢭਢ֮֏ඒߛृΕ੷۟ਢ๯ඒߛृڶრᢝΕ֘৸৵ऱᙇ ᖗΔ֮ۖ֏٦፹ঞਢ࿨ዌࠌྥΔਢԳଚࢬլ౨ᙇᖗऱΖڂڼΔء֮ᎁ੡Δඒߛ Ꮑ૞֮֏ႚࢭΔ܀լᏁ૞֮֏٦፹Ζ

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ୖԵЎ᝘!

!

խဎاഏֺለඒߛᖂᄎ׌ᒳΰ1998αΖπषᄎ᧢ᔢխऱඒߛᖲᄎ݁࿛ρΖ؀קΚ ཆཕΖʳ ࡌᄅ༄ΰ2005αΖπؒዿ૭֕ᓵᖂீඒߛፖ֮֏٦፹ρΖ؀קΚ֨෻Ζ ؒ૭֕Εဎൈ൓ΰ଺ထαΔޕෳΕޕൈΰ᤟αΰ1998αΖπኔᔌፖ֘৸Κ֘৸षᄎ ᖂᖄ֧ρΖקࠇΚխ؇ᒳ᤟षΖ ್܌৸ΰ1964αΖπᇷءᓵρรԫ࠴Δπ್܌৸஑௑ཎ٤ႃρรԼք࠴ΖקࠇΔ ԳاנठषΖ ஑௑ཎΰ1995αΖπ׬ዿΗ್܌৸τᇷءᓵυรԫ࠴஼ေ——੡τا׌ၜ໴υ܂ρΔ π್܌৸஑௑ཎᙇႃρรԲ࠴ΖקࠇΚԳاנठषΖ ೏৙ཆΰ2002αΖπؒዿ૭֕ρΖ؀קؑΚسཕΖ ௑ዿশཎΗ଩ཎഗΰ଺ထαΔᣂॾؓΰ࿛᤟αΰ˄ˌˋˋαΖπᦞԺፖ௽ᦞΚषᄎ ։ᐋऱ෻ᓵρΖࣜڠΚ௨ۂԳاנठषΖʳ ໃ֛ᅗΗ˖ˁࠅᖵ՞Օΰ଺ထαΔ്ளؓΰ᤟αΰ˅˃˃ˆαΖπ׈ધأषᄎ෻ᓵρΖ Ղ௧ΚՂ௧ԳاנठषΖʳ Ꮹאᔃᒳΰ1992αΖπֱ۫ඒߛषᄎᖂ֮ᙇρΖ؀קΚնতΖʳ խඒ׹ᄅፊᒚΰ2007αΖτඒߛຝီᖄψˌˈ ڣං೯Օᖂஃᇷسኔᔌ׾ᡖୃ壄壀 ඒߛࣚ೭ૠ྽ωΔࠀᐣ໎ᙩࡵՕᖂஃᇷس֗࠹༡ᖂ࿙υΔ˅˃˃ˊ ڣ ˄ ִ ˅ˈ ֲΖ ࡌᐝઆΰ˅˃˃ˉαΖτ୙ࡱᇙऱ٧រʳ խഏຆܺᖂس׀ئ۞ව᙮᜗υΖሉπՕધցρΔ ˅˃˃ˉˁˊˁ˅ˆΖʳ ڹഏဎΰ2004αΖτ฾ࢤፖᇷء:ฃᓵؒ૭֕ऱ׌૞ᄗ࢚ՠࠠ(Ղ)υΖπࣟতՕᖂᖂ ໴ΰୃᖂषᄎઝᖂठαρΔร 6 ࠴ร 1 ཚΖ ڹ೛ऩΰ˅˃˃ˊαΖτψᇷءωऱԫጟॺᆖᛎᖂᇞᦰΫΫؒ૭֕ऱ֮֏ᇷءᄗ࢚υΖ ሉ੍֚πषᄎઝᖂρΔร 3 ཚΖ

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ڹ೛⢮ΰ2006αΖτ၌။षᄎެࡳᓵ--ؒ૭֕ψ֮֏ᇷءωᄗ࢚٦ەυΖሉπত ࠇषᄎઝᖂρΔร 3 ཚΖ ڹ೛⢮Ζτ֮֏ᇷءፖԳԺᇷءΚؒ૭֮֕֏ᇷء෻ᓵऱᆖᛎᖂრᆠυΔ֧۞ jpkc.swu.edu.cn/data/xz2/content/ziyuan/tuozhanyuedu/wenzhang/072 . ڹഏဎΰ2003αΖτؒ૭֕Κԫଡ堚ᙌऱ֮֏ߡ೐ՓυΖπ׈ધխഏρΔ2003 ڣ 3 ִ 17 ֲΖ ဎٻၺΰ2005αΖτ᠏ীழזषᄎᖂऱຂٚፖࠌࡎΚؒ૭֕π׈੺ऱેᣄρ֗ࠡ ඔقυΖπषᄎρ᜔ร 242 ཚΰ2005.4αΖ ඒߛຝอૠ๠ΰ˅˃˃ˌαΖπՕຬ֗؆ᤄ಻ೝ՗Ֆ༉ᖂԳᑇρΔΔ˅˃˄˃ ڣ ˅ ִ ˄ ֲ࠷ ۞ ˻̇̇̃ˍ˂˂̊̊̊ˁ˸˷̈ˁ̇̊˂̆̇˴̇˼̆̇˼˶̆˂˶̂́̇˸́̇ˁ˴̆̃̋˒̆˼̇˸˲˶̂́̇˸́̇˲̆́ːˋˌˈˉΖ ᄘ₣ေΰ2009αΖτBourdieu ऱ֮֏٦፹რොፖࠡڇᖂீඒߛՂऱඔقυΖπק ᗼඒߛρΔรքԼքཚΖ ዧᚨاΰ2008αΖτ࠷௣೏ீ៭ՠ՗Ֆ૾։௽ᦞᅝ࿀Հެ֨υΖπᄅဎ໴ᄐጻρΔ 2008.7.2Ζ ᢅس٤ ⣗دᑗΰ2007αΖτᓰ࿓܂੡֮֏ᇷءऱᇩ፿ዌ৬ᖲࠫ൶ಘυΖπඒߛઔ ߒፖኔ᧭ρΔร 1 ཚΖ ᘕຳᐝΰ2005αΖτඒߛψขᄐ֏ωፖຆᒡ׈᦭֏υΖሉπՂ௧ᢞࠦ໴ρΔ2005.9.29Ζ ᢟ٠ቓΰ1998αΖτषᄎፖ֮֏٦፹෻ᓵհေ࣫υΖπඒߛઔߒႃעρΔڣร 1 ࠴ ΰ40αΖ ᤕקΰ2006αΖτاسऱᇤംυΖπתִᓫρร 15 ཚΖ ᤕ୽՞ΰ2003αΖτπඒߛΕषᄎፖ֮֏խऱ٦፹ρᖄᦰυΖ࿇।࣍ 2003 ڣ 4 ִΔ πรԿࡻψრᢝΕᦞԺፖඒߛ-Bourdieu ඒߛषᄎᖂറᓵωઔಘᄎρΖቯᆠ ՕࣥΚতဎՕᖂΖ

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