媒體組織中上下司溝通行為、承諾取得策略與組織表現之相關性研究

26  Download (0)

全文

(1)

1

: 



An Examination on the Factors Affecting Upward

Communication Strategies



Shu-Chu Sarrina Li

 

Associate Professor

Institute of Communication Studies

National Chiao Tung University

  1001 

Tel: (03) 5712121- 58211

Fax:(03) 5727143

E-mail:

shuchu@cc.nctu.edu.tw

(2)

2

#$%&'()*: +,-./#012)*345678

     !"#$%&'()* + !"#$%&,-./ 0123456789:;<./01=>?  !"#$%&'()* @A !"#$%&'B CDEFG/HI: (J) !"#$%&K LMN (O) !"#$%&K 'LMN (G) !"#$%& K'LMN* PQRST'UV#$ 135 /WXST :;YZ,['UV#$\]' !"#$%&* ^_,['`aD bcJ/HIdefW$gDb'hicO/HIj$gk'hicG /HIjlj $ge'hi*

(3)

3

An Examination on the factors affecting upward communication strategies

Abstract

This study examined the impacts of three variables, relationship quality, leadership style, and status, on the use of upward communication strategies. Based on the literature review, three hypotheses were developed in this study. Intensive interviews were used to collect data for this study and 135 valid interviews were obtained. Data analysis showed that leadership style and subordinate’s status both exerted important inlfuences on the use of upward communication strategies. However, the variable of relationship quality was found not to have any significant impacts on the use of upward communication strategies. More research findings were discussed in the study.

Key Words: relationship quality, leadership style, organizational status, upward communication strategies.

(4)

4

9:; <=

mFbnopq'rstuv tuwx+y,'z{| }~z' €(Superior and subordinate communication)* € '‚P-ƒ„…'†‡ ˆƒwxDbm‰…Š‹Œ} D '01 Ž '€ ƒ'WXNW‘N' ()ˆ< '€ ƒJ4 ’“mp”•–'J—(Daniels & Spiker, 1991˜Jablin & Krone, 1994)*

€™”,ƒ € €‚š € ›œxžœ Ÿx'€ ¡   '€Ž €j¢£M¤ ¥œ xœŸx'€* '€BCmy,}P €ƒ ¦‡§¨'©ª' €BC}¥’“x'«‡FDP>?() €'ˆ¬ƒ­P €®b'()ƒ­Ž¯° €'B CDb’“x '€ ƒ±²W…U1'()³´µ()¶· '·²¸{R¶·'·²Z¹¶··²'XºP¶·'»¼½|¾ (Adams, et al., 1988˜Albrecht & Hall, 1991˜Stewart et al., 1986˜Tjosvold, 1984)* ¿ÀÁ €Âà €#ž'JvÄÅwxÆ6Ç z{¥'«‡= '€ ƒ‚P € È-ƒ € 'É(Jablin, 1979˜Redding, 1985˜Seibold et al., 1994)* wx €ÊDb €'±² W…01'()ËÌ €\$ W¹µ½|ª()’“x\$¶·'Íν|½ÏCЂPWÑ£Ò Ó' €\$½Ô,Õ]Ìr|^Ö×g±²'WXN< Ø €Ù”ÚÛ¶·'·²Ü|ݟ'žÞ|:ßභ'á œº* ’“mp”â?J—(Garko, 1993˜Hunt & Waldron, 1994˜Kipnis & Schmidt, 1988˜Krone, 1992˜Krone, 1994˜Waldron, 1991˜Waldron & Hunt, 1992)*

(5)

5

 €'BCmÌmÄJh  !"#$'%

&(upward compliance- gaining strategies)<ã]­o%&=() 'RK‘ >?()%&ã]'ˆ¬ƒ­P%&\]'©ä Xaƒ­(Krone, 1992˜1994˜Waldron, 1991˜Chaco, 1990˜Wheeless et al.,1983˜ Schilit, 1987˜ Waldron et al., 1993˜Lamude et al., 1987˜Riccillo & Trenholm, 1983)* ¥Ã 'å| ¡pæ¾ !"#$%&çÃè ? ƒ ÌåéN'êëˆ<ì'íîN3Ÿ* @ADb-ï' ()WðÃ!"#$%&'ñòŽ‚šñò¡ @A‹Œ'óÊ' ôõñòJ/•ö/%&=() Ž¯°%&™p÷Ã\ øgéùN ¡ -ï €%&Db„…ˆ¬}µ() !"#$%&'\ ]Ìm ' '' €%&'\ ]Wúy()(Garko, 1993˜Lee, 1998A˜Lee, 1998B˜Lee & Jablin, 1995˜Lim & Bowers, 1991˜Li, 1995˜Krone, 1992˜Waldron & Hunt, 1992˜Waldron et al., 1993)*'û >?P G/ˆ¬ !"#$%&'()ƒ ­*

>:; ?+@

  

@A €%&'BC J4èDb () €%& \]'Ħˆ¬* Ž ƒ­µ() %&̓üýþj= -§“üLeader-exchange theory* -§“üPƒ¥ ÃWÊK^Ö p”½K̂W}DEFŸ'½ ñòàö=²ƒŸDE Ž ñòDEŸ jÃ'·²®b'RK « K M $  'P K WMq'“¾¾* JK DEFŸ'

(6)

6 ÙW Ÿ'…K €'¹µPÊW

yˆ<WŸ' žP¢1«‡=D !"Ìm‹Œ-§“ü#$ €%V”P&'Ì 'Ÿ‰¢()*+F=Fairhurst et al1987˜krone1992˜Graen & Scandura1987˜Lee1998 A˜Lee1998B˜Li1995˜Sias & Jablin1994˜ Waldron1991˜Waldron et al1993*

-§“üÆ,„…-.>/Ì«‡:$gy,D

b‚hiwx Sias  Jablin1994ÌmDb  žP01R=1D YZm‹ŒŽŸj žP¢1«‡=Û2DÃ YZm'‹Œ* Waldron j DEF 51 / €%&+Ì,ƒ.3:P¯°%&\]=>?() | (Waldron1991) * ¯/m Db Ÿ'³4 £\]5rV€%&(personal strateqies)67V€%&(contractual strateqies)45€%&(Direct strateqies)vp8\]9:V€ %&(requlative strateqies) KÌ YZ Waldron m(Waldron 1991˜ Waldron & Hunt1992)5r%&;<Ã<3€%&LŸRYZNŽ €=>?@5r‹A‚P5r%&\]®B‰23C¹µKÌ  YZ67V%&?@D‹EF9‘Ž PG¦HIK ˆŽ¯3%& JÙz¦89'0K(politeness)(Hirqkawa et al1991˜Lim&Bowers1991)9 :V%&'\]j?@\]xLMNOI/rôø'®×PßàKU'Y ZˆŽ¯3%&'\]\K 5Pyyßà* ‚š45%&¡ \]x+Q{R45)ž ®×F=* à  €%&'bS'Db”PTUƒP ./'`üV (1) WŸ'Ùµ23Z)KÌ YZ:()Ì * ¯ °p\]¢V’WKÌ YZ (!)":\]nopqJ¢V

(7)

7 ’WKÌ €ˆƒK 'S'ŸRø‚P¯°:

pXYK YZˆŽ 'YZ'Zº3Ÿ(Hunt & Waldron 1994˜Krone1992˜Lee & Jablin1995˜Lee1998A˜Lee1998B˜Li 1995˜Waldron1991˜Waldron &Hunt1992˜Waldron et al1993)* (2) 45%&ƒíîŸ'%&ˆƒ¯°%& [-y1\éùÀ

ŽWŸÙLWK yˆ< ]Ÿ]ž\]45%&KÌ €(Lee1998A˜Lee1998B˜ Lee & Jablin1995˜Waldron et al1991˜Waldron1992)*

(3) 67V%&^_YZ`UPabcd'UVe<YZ¯3€%&3  Waldron m'5rV%&(Waldron1991˜Waldron & Hunt1992) Pwx Lee m openness strateqies (Lee & Jblin1995˜Lee1998A˜ Lee1998B) * 67V%&\]pv\$P±]J¢VUV=() Ì f\W¹µK ÓTJ·²M‹Œ* -.Db K67V%&WŸR¢M ]Ÿ]ž\ ]<3€%&KÌ YZ (Lee & Jablin, 1995˜Lee, 1998A˜Lee, 1998B˜ Waldron , 1991) *

(4) 89N%& (polite strategies) \]g„×g() qʙ ”+ 1\éùhgĝ* ã]89N%&ÙWi/ J j'ª¸kÌ 1\lm• jR+J/LéùNôõn o-ƒ åépLéùN'ôõ* <3%&3 Waldron (1991) m67V%&• Waldron ¾r 1993 pm compensation 

redefinition'%&@A-§“ü'Ÿ'q

{rÌ 1\lmˆ<³ž\]89N'€%&P×g Ì (Waldron, 1991˜Waldron et al., 1993)*

@A €%&'BC+‚W €%&,ƒ./012 3 (activeness)Ò45 (directness)Ò67 (openness)89 (politeness)* ¥ s

(8)

8 'BC>t”P$u ' €%&LW‰y()ˆ <cJ/HI*+V  !" #$%* & '()* () €%&ˆ¬m f J/¦ˆ¬@A €%&Dbñò€%&P×g() óm µ+%& WXvwxyz{Ž¨wx Lee (1998A) Ìm¡D b|o€%&«}‘WXNK~o%&è\]'ZºWè }‘]WX%&è\]¹µ]ŸˆŽ€%&'WXNKÌè\]Z ºL¢1MN (Canary & Spitzbery, 1987˜Krone & Ludlum, 1990˜Lee,

1998A)* ÀŽ()€%&WXNW„…ˆ¬ÌmĦˆ¬ƒ 

§¨'‘P­o%&K €ÊÙÙ@AQ 'Û=‘­o%&WX­o%&€XŽ ÛmjP ' () €%&'ñòā (Chacko, 1990˜Cobb, 1986)* ³´wx

Chacko (1990) Ìm+ ';·²žrsž,ƒ.o À‚>?' €%& µˆƒ Žƒ„…Ì` ahiÌHIDb €%&(-†' Ž‡ §* ÌDb”P,ƒG‡=ˆ‰(1) ó ƒŸR·² žÊž\]¢1 €%&´PöŠ.A=‹“• Œq ‹JŽˆ (2) ó ƒŸR·²žŸRrsžÊ ³p8]01 €%&´‘ 0'%& (3)ó  ƒR·²žRrsžÊ}ƒÌ ƒ€Xºx: ž\]01 %&K̀´‘ 0’“%&*Žwx Deluga  DbfK Chacko DbJ” ¡ WXº•– '

(9)

9 ¢1YZŽ€Xº•\K —i˜á*Deluga D bKWX'YZ™³€Xºx'YZ=$Zš (Deluga, 1988)* ›ØCheng (1983) fÌmDbµ()\]“N  ()%&•œN ()%&ó ƒ€Xº Ê]œN€%&K YZ* @AP BC>t$uñò €%&ʵxy%&'W XN]WX%&\]Zº]ŸŽž“%&'WXNÊj P =²ƒž“%&WXN'Äy@Aˆ< €%&'ñ òµ; Žpq;<Ÿ DEFcO/HIV &"'()*#$%* +  ,- ›J/() €%&\]ˆ¬¡  (status)* „…M BCDbÃpq-¶Ì €%& W‰ypq* ³´ wx Kipnis  Schmidt (1980) ÌmDbmKÌ\]  €%&o3¡¡MÌmŸ³Ù\] “N%&’“%&ŽóÝ¢Ê (!)"4£\]45%& M) ;ð à* Žwx Schilit(1987)fDbpq,“ Ì ()%&fW£'pqË̝,“pm,“¤)23±]%& ª() Ž,“³pq{ª()íîŸÒ¦y'%¤Žà €¥%q{Z]Ì()|¯ ”½ ˆƒ,“Ì '~zàpq{ª¦§y'¨ˆŽ¦y'%¤ŽÐÌÜ|§yŽp q{ª()* q©)Waldron  Hunt (1992) fDbŸ'K xÌ ()%&W£''„…]ŸÌ\]45%&'Zº¡]Ÿ* ªP 'Db”PTUFi‡ €%&'()

(10)

10

(1) ó]Ÿ‚W^Öå|¡]ŸÌ'~z¡]Ÿ

­‘Ì()¡]yˆ<Ÿ'ÀŽÀ¡µ³' 23«|±] ()%&˜(2) ]Ÿ'̬K%·²' åæxŸˆŽÌ ()%&À¡³4ž?­'%&´ 45•’“'%& (Krone, 1994)* ýÃP WK €%&'BC FcG/HIV + ./,-#$%0

 

 1 23456 ' >? Ò '  !"#$%&'()‡®¯W./b,°ˆ‰´ V (1)  L‡®ƒ !"#$%&:+‚W !"#$%&;./ 0123Ò45Ò6789±P,3÷ï./01´­²³´ 1%&01ʵ±Pˆ‰bˆ‰´­DEF 19 / !"#$%&* ¶·¡bSBCm¸“Fnopq !"#$%&'3µ±P³ TUF 19 / !"#$%&¯°%&Æ,-.>/:Æ.‰ -smÊÙ\]' €%&* ø“ 19 / !"#$%& 'qÊ:BCmCF¹ºJ/%&'‘»¼®ºJ/%&'ö/{\ (Kellerman & Cole, 1994˜Kipnis & Schmidt, 1980˜Schilit, 1987˜Weeless et al, 1983˜Yukl & Falbe, 1990)* @Awx Kellermann  Cole (1994) '«‡© ª'mp’ P½¾•QRST'UV=– } WJ¿'%&³´

(11)

11 ÄÀƒã]'%& Marwell  Schmitt (1967) ' 16 /%&g„Ò45mÒ

Õ mÒÁÂҟ mÒ01ÃÄÒWŐmÒÆǐm¾¾ºJ/%& '‚µvF‘»{\\ÈSx (´]½¾) •Éʶ (´]ST) ËÛºJ %&ƒ­* ¯©ÌͽÎF%&‘»ÙK{\ pMÏЧ¨'¡ conceptualization KѲ‘» (operationalization) pMÒ (Kellemann & Cole, 1994)* ƒÓ¢©ª ‚Fb‘»KѲ‘»pÒ'–‡ÃB Cm¸“F 19 /%&º/%&'‘»ö/¼®º/%&'{\‚·– J/Á+* +¯ 19 /%&̑»{\DÐÔÕÖJ/5×yw tuMwØ 100 /wm (!) "¡ºJ/%&'‘»ËÛ'‚> ?̂Ù'ö/{\¡º/{\Ì ½¼®~%&'‘»ÐÚ,öÛ 9 ,¼®deҍ̑»÷ 1 ,¼®deK̑»pÒ,°Ð,À‚Ü ݺ/{\,ö¡ºJ/%&—´,öğ'{\‚W藴 =' {\ÌMÒ,ö}ŸÃ 7y,} 8 ,P ,<JÁ+j'Ý ¢‘»KѲ‘»'MÒäR* (2) !"  @A-§“ü‚DEF= Scale =±P +N< scale ¯Þß 8 /ή+Ni/01,° e<' €< 8 /ήÆ,,©…K+jÌ=RÆ×MóJ” (Liden & Graen, 1980˜Krone, 1994)* < 8 /ήmÈjx¡ºJήm‚às‹Œ ®‰Ìq{äR* á/ή‚±Ž=,ö]Ÿ®BÌK4 ']£* Ãâã^_d-‚– R'+j< 8 /ή'=J”N3Ÿˆ ƒ Cronbach’s Alpha × 0.88* m' ,ö„˜úyÛ Ä' 10 ,÷ğ' 55 ,äæ,öƒ 37.47 (SD=8.96)* ;äæö+ ‚WÈjx,ƒŸiÈ+x* ƒ(‘Päæö=,  “>?Ÿi'rö:P t-test =>?i'

(12)

12 ,ö W£'„…* ,PåÜ,[‚DbŸi'rö

„p…Ž t-test '`a  3£'„… (t=15.12, N=133, p=.000)* (3) "7'()*

 Õ]æçèèé×yw‚DEF=N®=–

',3 (Bass, 1981˜Chacko, 1990˜Li & Lin, 1998˜Yukl, 1981)* <N®;i/ˆ¬rsž·²ž+,ƒ.3* ‚š·² ž' ›<3 KYZÊ?@·²Xº·²Žrs ž' jz¦K'YZ êëìí¤Žpz·²'d-* P< i/ˆ¬+,ƒrsž·²ž (LL)Ÿrsž·² ž (HL)ŸrsžŸ·²ž (HH)rsžŸ·²ž(LH)* <N®¯W 20 /ήÌm 10 /ήƒrsž'½Î›Ø 10 /ƒ· ²ž'½Î* Ãâã^_'‚ÜÝF·²žrsž'äæö (mean=34.42, SD=4.44˜mean=35.75, SD=5.91)À‚P<O/äæö+Èjx4  ',ƒ.3 ¯#$ 40 / LL18 / HL43 / HH  22/ LH '4 ÌmW 14 /Èjxîïð<JN®* (4)  7./,- ĂJ/‡®ƒ'* +,ƒ ./0ñ,° J’“0ҝ’“xÒm’“xÒŸ’“x*‚š J’“0 ›defWò’' xŽ’“xÞóôÒõô¾ö÷ '’Žm’“xj øôÒ,“ñ’ŽŸ’“xj ù,“Òú ù* PQRST– ‰…ÈSx,pûÒmŸ’“x ',v‚WS¶ÆÈ©üýˆŽÈSx€ÍþûÊS¶µ½ÈSx :¼Ìïð* & 3489:;<=

(13)

13

'!"#$%&'ykã]½¾'UVvF 10 …o!"#$ '%&À‚½ÈSxµ\]¯ 10 …o%&'”½Nƒ­P<=+F%& \]KÌ ‡®'´Kå|…'•%&\]KN°'¾¾ ³´ÄÀƒã]'%& Marwell  Schmitt (1967) ' 16 /%&g„Ò45 mÒÕ mÒÁÂÒéùҟ mÒ01ÃÄÒWŐmÒÆǐm¾¾ ºJ/%&'‚µvF‘»{\* P< 16 /%&mÈSxñÌ\]n/ %&'Zºƒ­* ¯©È²'ø ÈSx\]'%&”½p¯ °vF=%& 1Ž,3 Æ×MY   ÙȲ'ø*b' j³ã]QRST'UVPvzJHI'ôõmÈSxˆ‰< ôõ  ( ) µ´­K ( ) €P#$U'q{À‚ÊÈS xðõ\]“+ÈSx'ð@A¯ 16 /%& (•\]Ì '%&3) ±PÉÊ (Kellemann & Cole, 1994; Seibold et al., 1994)*

@ABC‚Ý'#$fã]JHI'ôõPQRST'UV ½ÈSx´­ˆLS¶-)+ðÊõP coding 'UVPÉ Ê¶ÉÊ !"#$%&'\]* ST'½Î mÈSxï ÄÅðL ‚ÝFm',©Ž¯/m ÈSxpq{Ì'm*  mÈSxsÌ,©Þó­omU´­àsÌmÈS x´­* 'QRSTÞßi/cJƒd-J½¾<½¾Þß  N®J°/r^_´ÒN°¾* ¾d-½ ¾‚–wcOS¶ûmÈSxïð s'ST½Î:Ê*  ¯\] 7 /“²ƒQRST'S¶7 S¶:‹·±PüýP ½¢() ST* º/ST7– 30 ,÷ 1 /ƒݟST{q ÈSxJkö8:PÈSx'·²)‡ƒSTø‚* ñò G/JÕ²ƒST ¯/WG/3'ø1. G/} PõƒÌ:5Ü•DEÆÕ=i'±² 2.¶

(14)

14 ·}ƒÆ r¶:WJ!P W"#w3. yk¶·ƒ“·$%* G/m&cJ/¶·7 200 r'ØÌ'i/¶·}×J(rP * Ã#$G/'q{‚P)*+'UͲSTû¥ÈSx,- r µÈS:+ÈSrö,.n/Pm©…©N* ¯d-155/QRSTŽÌm 135 /STƒWXST* + >?@A d-‚WST'‚0ST½Î¡ÈSx'ð– ÉÊ (coding)* P 19 / !"#$%&²ƒÉÊ'3:Pi “,°ÌÉÊ'·²* ¢VÉÊ'Á·– ÉÊ'üý* ¶·m iÉʶ12¯ 19 /%&'‘»{\:^_Éʶ ü̯ 19 /%& 'ËÛP‰3iÉʶ'4½'‚µÛ 135 /ST†{êF.,'J ²ƒÉÊüý]* iÉʶ·jÌ 10 kSTµ5ð:Kx ü M…'øPׯ6* ,GKüý'‚iÉʶ6Ç¢V– ÉÊ* É Êüý©ämx™…±J/%&de78÷¯ 19 / !"#$% &'m ‚P¯\] 20 / !"#$%&²ƒ,[3* iÉ Ê¶,°d-ÉÊ'‚jP Guetzkow ÷R,[(utilizing

reliability measure) 3R,[ (Categorizing reliability measure) =,[É Ê'R* ‚š÷R,[ ÜÝpqiÉʶ¡JBŠm‚ÉÊF =÷ ×g”R¡Ž¨JkST^_mÉʶ”½ÉÊg J/ÒO/•9÷G/P pq'%&÷R,[”P$uiÉʶ< k Æ×gJ”N* Ž3R,[j ÜÝ&ÉÊgq©ö'%& ØiÉʶ ÉÊq©'3 * ',[3=>,[vÌ - YZ,[ (Interaction Analysis)ˆ<– ÷R,[P3R,[ : (Guetzkow, 1950)* ã]Ÿ' 1%$g÷RÛ 92%÷ 100%p¾ äæöƒ 97.6%* 3Rj Û 73%÷ 100%äæöƒ

(15)

15 89%ix'RúŸ”;ÉʶÆ×MóJ”'¯6* B CD ¡BCmTUF !"#$%&'./0123Ò45Ò67 89* P v'UV=²³ 20 /%&mº/%&Ì./01'$ ,ö* ¡2301Ž¨P½¾UVJ6¡ˆ‰­š23€% & ›\]¯°%&ÊÈjx”P…<=J‡¹µKUW5P>'Ê À‚mÈjx¡' 20 /%&ÛJ‡ p23 (0) ÷JÙ23 (9) %&Ð,* Ì G/%&0145Ò6789f q©'½Í +<J½¾,Ð 99 /ywª?ðÀ‚ÜÝFº/%&./01'äæö* ¡º/01+ 20 /%&'äæö@Aˆ<äæöğx 20ÌKƒ 19µ = 18P<3B;K+ 20 /%&'./01',öÝF*  ,©YZ,[‚Æ+ºÈSx‚\] €%&ÉÊF=À‚µ+¯ °%&en§-23Ò45Ò6789,öˆƒºÈSx‚\] %&öpJW]io%&WG/ƒp\%&ö()./%&0 1,ö+./%&01',öµ&PºÈSx‚\]%&'ö ‚$',öû ºÈSx./%&01',ö*

A:BC

 7EF ¶·+ 20 / !"#$%&\]ZºÜÝF=® 1 û %&'\]Zº^_* Û® 1 ^_$ude78 ‚W%&m\]ÄZ š'%&7WJ!ÈSx\]<J%&µ=¡ Ÿ ž“7W.,'J ÈSxã]<J%&cG/Ù] %&ƒCD¡ K n8J Ec./Ù]%&j Õ m<%&FD 'GH'ÞP\ q

(16)

16 {'mcI/Ù]'%&j F]JB<%&Pd'9‘•K{= \ q{'mÌ '%&Ì\]Zºj JÙ)à}àà 10 r\ ]* G 1 7HI  HI  HI 1.de78 64 11.LM 4 2.Ÿ ž“ 37 12.`N 4 3.CD 26 13.OP 3 4.Õ m 16 14.‘ 0 2 5.F]JB 11 15.ÞU 1 6.Qi 9 16.Á 1 7.ôøm 9 17.Ræ 1 8.45m 7 18.éù 1 9.S3TU 5 19.L„ 0 10./rÆ 4 20.01ÃÄ 0 &.   cJ/HI*+  €%&LM N* ;-§“ü‚DEF=' 'N®=²³ :+'$,ö;äæö,ƒŸiÈS x* ÷à €%&jP./%&012345678 9=²³ €%&'\]* ƒ/VcJ/HI+   €%&'./01P t-test =>‘* ,P./ t-test >‘Ÿ Ì%&'23456789./01 W£''pq* t-test `a£BŸ'Ì./%&01 '$,ö} €åÜ '£'pqˆŽcJ/HI:fW$g`a'hi* +. '()* 

(17)

17 + ;·²žrsži/W¬,ƒ.3c

Joƒrsž·²ž' (LL) cOoƒŸrsž·² ž' (HL)cGoƒŸrsžŸ·²ž' (HH)c.o rsžŸ·²ž' (LH)* – One-way ANOVA =>/pq 'Ì'%&01 µ£'pq* One-way ANOVA '`aDb i / £ ' N ¯ i /£ ' N, ° F b 6 7 (F=2.724, P=0.048) 8 9 (F=3.997, P=0.0096) i/%&01 * ƒX–JEÛ K%& 01m'6789',°™– ‹‚,[* ® 2 ® 3 ƒ‹‚ ,['`a* G 2 '()*CD(JK)7LMNO '()* JK7PQR 1.rs / ·² 10.634 K 2 £'pq 2.Ÿrs / ·² 13.781 K 1,3 £'pq 3.Ÿrs / Ÿ·² 10.154 K 1 £'pq 4.rs / Ÿ·² 12.424 Û® 2 ^_$u.pqmPcOoŸrs/ ·²žÌ67'%&01 $,ğÌKjƒc.o rs/Ÿ·²ž67'$,öĝjƒcJors/·² žcGoŸrs/Ÿ·²* cJof BCmè?ƒ ĀXº'ŽBCmfDb<o€Xº''³4£ 01' €%& ( chacko, 1990; Deluga, 1988; cheng, 1983) * m‚š 67€%& ›ó\]¯°%&Êj'\`UabM:\`Uq {…U€ˆ<67,ö]Ÿ'%&ƒ]¢1'€%&,ö]j 01%&* Db€Xº''4£\]p67'% &KBC'DbMҍ* ® 2 '^_£Brs/·²''

(18)

18 Ì%&'67NKcOoŸrs/·²''W£'„…* Ž cGoŸrs/Ÿ·²žƒBCm}ƒ ÄWXº'Ž <o'4£¢1' €%&vDbÄWXº' Ì‚\]%&'67N ĝ¤Ž m'x´Ÿrs /·²•rs/Ÿ·²'xÌ%&'67Nğ<‡j KB Cpq'ø* G 3 '()*CD(ST)7LMNO '()* ST7PQR 1.rs / ·² 11.273 K 2,4 £'pq 2.Ÿrs / ·² 13.406 K 1 £'pq 3.Ÿrs / Ÿ·² 12.256 4.rs / Ÿ·² 13.030 K 1 £'pq ® 3 ^_K® 2 :€§y„…89N$,ö  PcOo Ÿrs/·²ž'Ì89N%&01$,öğÌKƒc .ors/Ÿ·²ž'ĝxj cJors/ ·²ž'* cJors/·²ž €BCm è?ƒ ĀXº'Ì4£P01UVKÌYZ (chacko,1990; cheng, 1983; Deluga, 1988) Žm‚š89N€%& ›ó\]¯°%& ÊJÙr 1\:PYZ'UVK €‚P89N, ö]Ÿj%&L¢1N* DbĀXº'Ì(-P pL89N'€%&K'YZlj <kDbKBCMÒ* v¡B C ‚šÄWXº'Ÿrs/Ÿ·²žDbÌã]' %&'89N:Jğx PcOoŸrs/·²c.ors/ Ÿ·²'Ì‚]'%&ÄL89N‚P¡<kDbŽ¨K BC:pMҍ*

(19)

19

B. ./,-

cG/HI*+KÌ €%&LMN* +,ƒJ’“x’“xm’“xŸ’“x: *+¯.opq'Ì\]%&'231451671891µ£ 'pq* P./ One-way ANOVA =>/Ì£'N One-way ANOVA ' ` a D b W G / £ ' N  ¯ G / £ ' N , ° F b  2 3 (F=3.332  P=0.0223) 45 (F=3.29P=0.0235) 67 (F=2.651P=0.0524)  ÷Ã8 9¯/01åÜDb./'Ì8901 (F=0.4344P=0.7288) :fW£'pq* ƒXû[Û.o'Ì234567 01 W­„…– ‹‚,[,[`ajvî 4 'm* ® 4 '^_£BmŸ’“0K’“0J’“xÌ% &\] (W‰y'pq¶·¡2301Ž¨0ñ]ŸÌ%&'23 1]Ÿ<KBCm'DbMÒ* Schilit (1987) ÌmDb]Ÿ' Ì]23() '%ŽxÌ() '{q¡‰£h* ® 4'cO/01ƒ45<k'DbK2301ú3mŸ0³

'Ì%&'45äR‰£)ŸF„…´<'DbK Waldron \ Hunt (1992)  Kipns  Schmidt (1980) 'DbMq* ©ªDb]Ÿ' Ì\]'%&]45* ® 4 'cG/Dbƒ67'01* KÁ1i/D b3]Ÿ'Ì%&'67N]Ÿˆ<Db (-K €%&'\]W‰£MN]Ÿ‚\]'%&] 2345:67‚Plj 'cG/HIK € %&'\]LMN$gDb'hi* G 4 ./,-CD7LMNO

(20)

20 UVCD ./,- UV7PQR 1.J’“0 7.259 K 3,4 £'pq 2.’“0 7.984 3.m’“0 11.657 K 1 £'pq 4.Ÿ’“0 13.625 K 1 £'pq WXCD ./,- WX7PQR 1.J’“0 7.560 K 3 £'pq 2.’“0 8.095 K 3 £'pq 3.m’“0 12.294 K 1,2 £'pq 4.Ÿ’“0 11.750 JKCD ./,- JK7PQR 1.J’“0 10.316 K 3,4 £'pq 2.’“0 11.262 3.m’“0 13.814 K 1 £'pq 4.Ÿ’“0 14.375

D. EF

    !"#$%&'()* + !"#$%&,-./ 0123456789:;<./01=>?  !"#$%&'()* @A !"#$%&'B CDEFG/HI: (J) !"#$%&K LMN (O) !"#$%&K 'LMN (G) !"#$%& K'LMN* PQRST'UV#$ 135 /WXST :;YZ,['UV#$\]' !"#$%&* ^_,['`aD bcJ/HIdefW$gDb'hicO/HIj$gk'hicG /HIjlj $ge'hi* ÌmcJ/IdefW$gDb'hi

(21)

21 úFx'{_'Ø* Ë̸/ €'BCm J4 èDb Ä?ŽW|'()ˆ¬]ÀDb^ %&'\]J‡()  fW0<‡ÃP ² ü* K©ª‰pq'øÃ'ST½Î mÈSxï ÄÅJK ÌÝFJÙ_ (!) ƒ`'m:mÈSxˆ‰Ì´­ 1´<m',©* ¡ 135 /WXST'ïðmDbÈSx‚ïð 'm'‰pJ©W K·²M'm´WráœmÈSxaʅ ,¦Jk·²Wj deK·²€´ ƒÌ,-bcY* ŽBCm 'ykµHIJ/ôõÀ‚mÈSxHIÌ<Jôõ'mÌ+´ ­ø“ (Lee & Jablin, 1995; Lee, 1998A; Lee, 1998B; Li, 1995; Hirokawa et al.,

1991)  ŽBCmdDb·²M'mJ·²M'm-¶‚

\]€%&JÙpJ©* :fWe‘Ìm'¯”½ ƒ­ :ƒDb  €%&L£'()* Pƒ+= '”P0<‡µ þû*

(22)

22

References

Allen, M. W., Gotcher, J. M., & Seibert, J. H. (1993). A decade of organizational communication Research: Journal Articles 1980-1991. Communication

Yearbook ,16, 252-330.

Bass, B. M. (1981). Stodgill’s handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. New York: Free Press.

Canary, D. J., & Spitzberg, B. H. (1987). Appropriateness and effectiveness: Perceptions of conflict strategies. Human Communication Research, 14, 93-118. Chacko, H. E. (1990). Methods of upward influence, motivational needs, and

administrators’ perceptions of their supervisors’ leadership styles. Group & Organization Studies, 15(3), 253-265.

Cheng, J. L. (1983). Organizational context and upward influence: An experimental study of the use of power tactics. Group & Organizational Studies, 8, 337-355.

Cobb, A. T. (1986). Informal influence in the formal organization: Psychological and situational correlates. Group & Organization Studies, 11, 229-253.

Fairhurst. G. T., Rogers, L. E., & Sarr, R. A. (1987). Manager-subordinate control patterns and judgments about the relationship. In M. McLaughlin (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 10 (pp. 395-415). Beverly Hills: Sage.

Garko, M. G. (1993). The effect of perceived subordinate communicator style on physician-executives’ choices of compliance-gaining strategies.

Communication Reports, 6(2), 61-70.

Graen, G. & Scandura, T. (1987). Toward a psychology of dyadic organizing. In L. I., Cummings and B. Staw (Ends.). Research in organizational behavior (pp. 175-208). Greenwich, CT: JAI

Guetzkow, H. (1950). Unitizing and categorizing problems in coding qualitative data. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 6, 47-58.

Hirokawa, R. Y., Mickey, J., & Miura, S. (1991). Effects of request of legitimacy on the compliance-gaining tactics of male and female managers.

Communication Monographs, 58, 421-436.

Hunt, M. D., & Waldron, V. R. (1994). The subordinate’s view: A communication inventory of talk between subordinates and their supervisors. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Kellermann, K., & Cole, T. (1994). Classifying compliance-gaining messages: Taxonomic disorder and strategies confusion. Communication Theory, 4(1), 3-60.

(23)

23 Kipnis, D., & Schmidt, S. M. (1980). Intraorganizational influence tactics:

Explorations in getting one’s way. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65 (4), 440-452.

Kipnis, D. (1984). The use of power in organizations and in interpersonal settings. In S. Oskamp (Ed.), Applied social psychology Annual: Vol. 5. Applications in organizational setting (pp.179-210). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Kipnis, D., & Schmidt, S. M. (1988). Upward-influence styles: Relationship with performance evaluations, salary, and stress. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 528-542.

Krone, K. J., & Ludlum, J. T. (1990). An organizational perspective on interpersonal influence. In J. P. Dillard (Ed.), Seeking compliance: The production of interpersonal influence messages ( pp. 123-142). Scottsdale, AZ: Gorsuch Scarisbrick.

Krone, K. J. (1992). A comparison of organizational, structural, and relationship effects on subordinates’ upward influence choices. Communication Quarterly, 40(1), 1-15.

Lee, J., & Jablin, F. M. (1995). Maintenance Communication in Superior- Subordinate Work Relationships. Human Communication Research, 22, 220-257.

Lee, J. (1998A). Effective Maintenance Communication in Superior-Subordinate Relationships. Western Journal of Communication, 62(2), 181-208.

Lee, J. (1998B). Maintenance Communication in Superior-Subordinate Relationships: An Exploratory Investigation of Group Social Context and the “ Pelz Effect” . The Southern Communication Journal, winter, 144-159.

Li, S. S. (1995). Compliance-gaining strategies used by superiors and subordinates in Chinese media organizations. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Li, S. S., & Lin, C. W. (1998). Leadership styles, gender, and leadership effectiveness: A study on sex-role congruence theory. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of The Chinese Communication Society, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Liden, R., & Graen, G. (1980). Generalizability of the vertical dyad linkage model of leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 451-465. Lim, T., & Bowers, J. W. (1991). Facework solidarity, approbation, and tact. Human Communication Research, 17(3), 415-450.

Schilit, W. K. (1987). Upward influence activity in strategic decision making: An examination of organizational differences. Group and Organization Studies, 12, 343-368.

(24)

24 perceptions of fairness, and coworker communication. Paper presented at the

Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association, New Orleans Louisiana.

Waldron, V. R. (1991). Achieving communication goals in superior-subordinate relationships: The multi-functionality of upward maintenance tactics.

Communication Monographs, 58, 289-306.

Waldron, V. R., & Hunt, M. D. (1992). Hierarchical level, length, and quality of supervisory relationship as predictors of subordinates’ use of maintenance tactics. Communication Reports, 5(2), 82-89.

Waldron, V. R., Hunt, M. D., & Dsilva, M. (1993). Towards a threat management model of upward communication: A study of influence and maintenance tactics in the leader-member dyad. Communication Studies, 44, 256-272.

Wheeless, L. R., Barraclough, R., & Stewart, R. (1983). Compliance-gaining and power in persuasion. In R. Bostrom (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 7 (pp. 105-145). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Yukl, G., & Falbe, C. M. (1990). Influence tactics and objectives in upward,

downward, and lateral ifluence attempts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(2), 132-140.

Yukl, G. A. (1981). Leadership in organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall.

GHI

1. YZ[\ FDUGH'ÞP\Uq{fm* ³´Vg !ÄÅÜ|£ yl !hP\ !ðLfm* 2.[]C ;ðX 0’'hiP\Uq{fm*³´VP¢V’W+f« ‡Ýg ! i :#$hiP\ !q{fm* 3.^D_` ²J°Up8'‹4gUq{fm*³´Vp“)j !4 g !ðLfm* 4.ab PnoUÍ=klU– ÌÜ*³´VPmn·²UVkoÌÜ'–  \U²f !²'‹* 5.cd P°rphif󲈏U'UÍq\U=q{f'UÍ*³´V#$q‹

(25)

25 'hi=– fm* 6.ef PrRU'½|•-¡=#$U'Û*³´Vfs !ˆtW  W½|Ì£^* 7.gh žU8E\U ²J°8E:²f !²'‹*³´Vfuvf ,'{;:mU uv,{;* 8.ij ÝwU K !Áfrô\U¯Kq{fm*³´VÝwU K !x`mf ´­h !P\ !q{fm* 9.kl Pˆy•zU'UV\Uq{fm*³´V{=J°“¥\U q{fm* 10. WX[\ fWˆ‰“¥àsQm\Uq{*³´V¢Vµ$mg !f|}* 11. mn Pd'9‘•K{\Uq{fm*³´Vg !@Ad9‘ fWåm !´<²* 12. opqr \].Aҋ-ÒM^_•“ü'UV=\Uq{fm*³´V~ãM .APˆ‰f«‡ * 13. st8 ®bF‰ÞUÕÒøȕÍ\Uq{fm*³´Vg ! f‰ËÛ¯/m+€Ð !„…p* 14. uVvw fW­'«|ª\Uq{fm*³´VHfW¯Œ‹'DFÙ· ²* 15. xy p“)QiQ{;\Uq{fm*³´Vƒ¯/mp“) mKUµ1 ü<‹* 16. z{[\ \UføÈJÙ)Ñ£P\Uq{fm*³´VP‰YZ'UV =ÝFfm* 17. |}~ Pf/r'Æ Ò/r;‚',/•/rƒÑ'ž“½|#$°r'Û*³ ´V›F©ªQ|U1';‚®bP\Uq{fm* 18. €

(26)

26 ݄…_•U'†‡=mU²f !²'‹*³´V´a !²f !²'‹f+ƒ !²Ì '‹* 19. ‚ƒ Péù'UVmUq{fm*³´V !ˆ´apq{f mf+udµ* 20. „…†‡ deEFU'{ˆª²*

數據

Updating...

參考文獻

相關主題 :