Land Use in Hong Kong

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Teaching Kit DAT

Bringing Green and Healthy Living to Harmonious Communities

The Hong Kong Housing Authority's Experience

Ada Y. S. Fung, JP FHKIA, RIBA, ACIArb, FCIOB, MHIREA, Hon FHKIPM, Hon FHKIBIM, Hon FCICES, Registered Architect, APEC Architect, ASC, BEAM Pro, HKIAC Accredited Mediator

Deputy Director of Housing (Development & Construction) Hong Kong Housing Authority



1. Introduction

2. Caring for People

3. Caring for the Environment 4. Conclusion


1. Introduction


Overall Land Area : 1,108 km2 Residential Area :

Private Housing 25 km2

Public Rental Housing 12 km2 Subsidized Sale Housing 4 km2

Rural Settlement 35 km2


Land Use in Hong Kong

Hong Kong is widely known for her high densityand efficient use of land, which is a scarce resource and thus must be optimized in its use.

Depending on districts, the planning brief for land earmarked for public housing development typically dictates aplot ratio of around 5 to 6.

When planned according to statistically predicted flat mix to meet housing demand, thisdensity will roughly translate into about1000 flats per hectare, or 2800 persons per hectare.

We need to buildhigh rise domestic blocks of 30 to 40 storeysin order to accommodate this density.


• About 30% of Hong Kong’s 7 million people

are residing in public rental housing.

• We have an existing stock of about 730,000 public rental flats

• Allocation standard is 7m2 per person. Average living

space is about 12.8 m2 per person.

Density in Hong Kong (2)

Permitted Plot Ratio

Hong Kong Island : 8 to 10

Kowloon : 6 to 7.5

New Territories : Not more than 5


Upper Ngau Tau Kok Estate

Plot Ratio : 7



Shui Chuen O PRH Development

Plot Ratio : 5


Hung Shui Kiu

PRH Development

Plot Ratio : 4



Compact City –

High-Rise, High Density Urban Living Environment

Calls for innovation in creating a comfortable living environment …..

….. In particular for low income families.


The Hong Kong Housing Authority

• The Hong Kong Housing Authority (HA) was established in 1973 under the Housing Ordinance

• The Housing Department (HD) is HA’s executive arm

• The HA develops and implements a public housing programme to provide subsidized housing for people who cannot afford private


• The HA plans, builds, manages and maintains different types of public housing

• The HA has an existing stock of about 730,000 public housing flats and builds an average of about 15,000 flats a year with a rolling 5-year

programme until 2016/17, and we shall build 100,000 flats in the five year period from 2018 onwards.

• In the coming years, the HA will build 17,000 subsidized sale flats from 2016/17 to 2019/20, and thereafter build 5,000 flats each year under the Home Ownership Scheme



To help low-income families with housing need to gain access to affordable housing

To provide affordable quality housing, management, maintenance and other housing related services in a proactive and caring manner

Cost-effective and rational use of public resources

Competent, dedicated and performance-oriented


People-centric approach

HA’s Vision, Mission & Core Values


To meet present social, economic and environmental needs but NOT at the expense of future generations.

Balance the development potential

Integrate green landscape planning Vitalize local economy

Economical Environmental

Encourage outdoor family activities

Enhance environmental awareness

Enhance health &

exercise awareness for all ages

Promote renewable energy Minimize construction waste

Enhance accessibility &


Enhance environmental comfort by considering microclimate in planning Minimize environmental impact to the



Optimize use of social welfare and communal facilities

Effective use of resources

Enhance social interaction Strengthen community Identity

Building a Sustainable Community



2. Caring for People


On My Way Home …..…….

….. close to public transport terminus and pick-up areas and shops …..

linked up with covered walkways and lift towers …..

….. Tactile Guide Path System with

Multi-sensory Map installed at strategic locations of housing estates to lead

people to domestic blocks and major estate facilities …..

Living Experience



Play areas, leisure and greening

• Community play area for all ages and abilities

• Provide planting at grade and slope areas as far as possible.

• Plant at least one tree for every 15 flats.

• Greening Ratio: at least 20% (30%

for large sites)


Before Greening

After greening

• Grow plants on roof tops

• Install vertical green panels on the external walls of public facilities.

• Introduce community planting to enhance neighbourliness.


Green Roof , Vertical Greening and Community Farm

to reduce urban heat island effect


Comfortable Environment …..…….

….. a comfortable and functional external environment - an essential facility in

housing estate…..

….. seats provided in rest areas …..


Social Cohesion

….. seats provided inside and outside G/F lobby and other communal areas ..….

….. free WiFi provided at G/F lobby ….


….. domestic block

entrance protected

from the weather with

security door phone

system …..


….. 24-hour security patrol, passenger lifts with Closed Circuit TV , mail boxes with

secure front panels and mail delivered from the rear via a locked mail delivery room …..

In safe hands …..…….

….. Barrier Free Access provided to all lobbies, corridors and lifts …..

uninterrupted lift service …..

and 2-level Lighting System in corridors….

……. floor directional plan and colour

identification to individual corridor for

user-friendliness ….


…… self contained flat with basic provisions include flat entrance gateset, window grilles, kitchen sink, cooking bench, wash basin, sunken shower, laundry rack to meet essential needs …..

Home Sweet Home …..…….

….. no bedroom partitions, no floor finish to allow flexibility and choice of furniture layout and partitioning by tenants …….



We mitigate noise to create comfortable living environment for residents.

At Receiver End At Source At Propagation Path

Low noise road surfacing

Noise Enclosure

Noise Barrier

Non noise sensitive building

Building setback

Acoustic Windows Acoustic Balcony

Flat configuration & Disposition

•Construction of Development at Ex-Cheung Sha Wan Police Quarters

•Block 2

•Block 1


Micro climate study and passive design

Energy Saving

Low Carbon Emission

Reduce Electricity Bill

We make best use of natural lighting and ventilation to create comfortable external environment.

Disposition, design and orientation of buildings

Harness the natural

characteristics of the site, such as local wind

direction for natural

ventilation, solar path for natural lighting

Create wind corridor

Reduce solar heat gain



We make best use of natural lighting and ventilation to create comfortable internal environment.

Domestic Flat -

• Additional and enlarged windows for better natural

lighting and cross-ventilation in living areas, bathroom and


Corridors and Lobbies -

• Enhance natural lighting

and cross ventilation


• Incorporate Common W- Trap System in drainage system to prevent dry up floor drain trap.

• Twin Tank System for uninterrupted supply of

fresh / flush water. • Mail box type collection system for sorted recycling materials


We innovate to create healthier, more hygienic, and

convenient living environment


We endeavour to reduce nuisance in the neighbourhood for harmonious living.

• Minimize overlooking problem in modular flat design.

• Keep the flat entrance away from lift lobby.

• Locate the refuse storage and material recovery room and refuse chute away from domestic flats

To domestic flats

Away from domestic flats


Determination of prevailing wind by Wind Tunnel Test

Ventilation conditions of mid, high and low zones of domestic blocks are studied

Enhancement to immediate neighbourhood

Wind Tunnel Test

Before Redevelopment

After Redevelopment

Wind Environment CFD simulations

Microclimate Studies

Site Aspects

Wind Corridor Design


Verification of simulation results with measurement data Correlation of Measurement Data and Simulation

Results of Daylight Performance

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Measured (VDF, %) Simulation (VDF, %) Simulation = Measurement


Velocity (m/s) 1.1 m/s

1.1 m/s

1.8 m/s 1.1 m/s

Microclimate Studies

– simulations and on-site measurement

Ventilation Bay

Wind Permeability at Pedestrian Level

No podium

Ventilation bays at pedestrian levels:

up to 1.8m/s (summer) per on site measurement

Residents’ response:

91% very satisfactory

Site Aspects


Proposed Development with cross- ventilated corridor

Proposed Development withoutcross- ventilated corridor

Better Ventilation














98% 0.44m/s





0.19 0.38








Building Permeability

To enhance building permeability towards prevailing wind, we apply cross ventilated corridor design by providing openings on each floor. With more permeable building, wind passes through even high-rise buildings.

Upper Ngau Tau Kok Estate Phase 2 & 3


Tensile cover as wind deflector to enhance wind environment of Entrance Plaza


Children Play Area 3 1.2m/s < 5.5m/s Children Play Area 2

& Mini-Botanical Garden 1.5m/s < 5.5m/s

Bird Watch Terrace 0.4m/s < 2m/s

Recreational Basketball Court

0.5m/s < 5.5m/s

Community Farm and Nursery 0.4m/s < 2m/s

Summer E-wind

Ravine Garden 1.5m/s < 5.5m/s Children Play Area 1 1.5m/s < 5.5m/s Foot Massage Walk 0.4m/s <5.5m/s

Entrance Plaza 1.0/s < 5.5m/s


Resident survey result:

up to 99% very satisfactory on wind environment in external public areas

Thermal Comfort at External Environment Site Aspects


Ventilated corridors with natural daylight achieve energy saving up to 15%

Daylight Enhancement

Daylight Energy Saving at Corridors

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6

% Saving by Daylighting

Low Level Mid Level High Level

Me an saving of 13% of total Lighting Cost for Corridors or Cost Saving of $42,500/Month

Maximize view and daylight penetration for domestic flats and common areas

Mean saving of 13% of total Lighting Cost for Corridors or Cost Saving of $42,500/ Month Average Vertical Daylight Factor for Living Room - Block 4

Daylight Energy Saving at Corridors

Energy Aspects



Design Detailed Design



Heritage Exhibition

Partnering with Residents

– Community Engagement

Contributes to quality improvement


Shuttle Lift stops on Levels 1 and 2 to meet the need of the elderly and the disabled.

Tenants’ Participation in Design


Handrails, guided paths and seats were added along the main covered walkways.

Tenants’ Participation in Design


Exercise Areas for the


Heritage Gallery – design was based on local café

in Lower NTK Estate

Leisure Sitting-out



「物以情聚 物以情聚 物以情聚 物以情聚」 」 」 」 懷舊展覽會 懷舊展覽會 懷舊展覽會 懷舊展覽會


Exhibition in 2002

Artifacts donated by tenants are transformed into displays in 2009.

Heritage Conservation

Corporate governance and social responsibility delivery

Upper Ngau Tau Kok Estate


In designing our projects, we carry out Community Engagement to collect stakeholders’ views and

aspirations, and incorporate them.

We also carry out surveys of residents’ views after the occupation of new

estates to gauge our

success and identify areas for improvement.



Prevent Heat Stroke

First Aid Facilities & Equipment

Sheltered Rest Area Drinking Facility

Free Distribution of Watermelon on every Wednesday in Summer

Health Checking

Pre-work Health Check

Securing and Monitoring Wages Payment to Workers


We care not only for our tenants, but also for our

construction workers



We change the culture of the Construction Industry


• Clean & tidy

• Safe

• Satisfying

• Sustainable

• Dirty

• Dangerous

• Demanding

• Disruptive




Our SAFETY achievements are encouraging!

New Works Site Safety Performance


54.6 52.1 49.7 60.6 61.4

59.9 64.3 68.1 60.3

85.2 114.6 150

198 248 220 227

236 275 302 295

353 364 374


8.1 9.0 9.4 9.9

11.9 16.1 21.0 11.5

29.2 32.8 37.8 55.8 86.0 109 129

77 82 90

88 160 195 206 221


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012#

香建造業 房委會工程

# 根據截至2012年上半年資料推算

資料來源: 勞工處, 政府統計處及房委會地

盤報告表 備註 : 由2001年起工地意外數字分類為房委會新工程及




Construction Industry (HK)

HKHA New Works


Customer Survey Results

Customer Satisfaction Index of the past five years

(from > 74% in 2007/08 to about 90% in 2010/11, 2011/12)

42 0

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12




Society Results

High achievement in HKQAA-HSBC CSR Index (ISO 26000) assessment

Since 2006

Since 2000

7 Core Subjects of ISO 26000

2010 2011 2012 HA (DCD) 4.90 4.97


HK average 4.57 4.62 4.64 Maximum score = 5.00


3. Caring for the Environment


Using Modular Flat Design

Regulated standards

Enhanced buildability , consistency &

economies of scale

1 Bedroom Flat

1-2 Person Flat

2 Bedrooms Flat 2-3 Person Flat


Using Prefabricated Elements …..

• Production under factory environment

• Less material wastage

• 30%

less C&D wastes on-site, safer

• Staircases

• Facades

• Semi-precast slabs

• Volumetric precast- bathrooms/ Kitchens

• beams



….. Including Volumetric Precast Elements


Using Large Panel Formwork, etc.

• Metal large panel formwork / Metal hoarding

• Mechanised construction/precasting

• Less material wastage

• Repeated use, recycle

• Timber from sustainable sources for temporary works



tonnes of timber in




Using recycled materials

• Cement–stabilised marine mud recycled for backfilling and making masonry blocks, pavers and roof tiles.

• Paving Blocks with Recycled Glass & Aggregates

• Use bore-logs as planter kerbs.

• Use GGBS to partially replace cement in precast concrete construction.

• Recycled excavated rock materials for construction of ‘footing’ of site hoarding and for constructing Gabion structures


Carbon Emission Estimation (CEE)

To realize green and low carbon building designs, a straight and pragmatic

methodology is necessary to give a direct indication of the holistic environmental impacts from residential buildings .

Potential to reduce carbon emission is high if decision is made at building design stage.

An effective design verification tool to

holistically gauge the net carbon emission of domestic buildings.

Focusing on the CO2 emission associated with major construction materials and

building operations from cradle to grave for a building life of 100 years.



I + II + III – IV – V + VI = Total CO2 Emission Total CO2


I : Materials Consumed During Construction

II : Materials for Structure

III : Communal

BS Installations IV : Renewable Energy

V : Trees Planting VI : Demolition

Methodology for Carbon Emission Estimation

Two “Green” aspects, i.e. Aspect IV and Aspect V are included to take stock of the provisions with “carbon-reduction” and

“carbon-absorption” effect.

Total CO




Lighting -

• Optimizing daylight through employment of photo sensors and time switches

• Adoption of energy efficient electronic ballasts and T-5 fluorescent tubes

• Optimization of illumination levels by means of 2-level lighting system for lift lobbies, corridors and staircases on typical floors

Lifts -

• Optimization of lift provision and design

• Light weight lift car decoration design

• Adoption of variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) lift driving system Water Pumps -

• Electronic variable speed drive control

systems coupled with stamped stainless steel pumps in the fresh water booster pump system

• High efficiency motors

Reduction of Energy Consumption

Certified to ISO 50001 in June 2012, the first organization in Hong Kong for residential building design.


Use of Renewable Energy

New Buildings – How Are We Doing ?

14.4 KWh / m


GFA / year


The sum of all the above

= Contented Tenants!



Economic Environmental


Caring Creative



Staff Stakeholder



System We buy

We learn We deliver

We listen We share

We innovate

We have holistic vision and effective operation through Total Quality Management, involving both internal and external parties.


This is our DNA.

Our “Big Picture”: We walk the talk.



A Compact City is NOT

a City “Without Ground”

• It is grounded in people’s needs

• It is grounded in people’s way of life

• It is grounded in its natural environmental characteristics

• It is a city with its ground intelligently and optimally freed up and greened to support community building


We serve, we excel through a people-centric approach, applying our Core Values of 4Cs,

plus Total Quality Management to assure -

Green and Healthy Living in a

High-Rise, High Density, Subtropical Urban Environment




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