中一級

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中一級 中國歷史科 教學設計示例

(供收錄非華語學生的學校參考使用)

胡人內徙與北魏孝文帝漢化 一.建議教節:4 節

二.預期學習成果:

完成本課題後,學生能:

1. 認識胡人內徙的經過。(知識內容)

2. 認識孝文帝遷都及他所推行的漢化措施內容。(知識內容) 3. 認識漢化措施的影響(如民族融和)。(知識內容)

4. 透過閱讀文字資料及圖像等,分析史事。(知識內容、技能) 5. 欣賞北魏孝文帝的開拓與創新精神。(情意、態度)

6. 學習尊重不同的文化。(情意、態度)

三.教學建議:

1. 因應非華語學生的中文能力,工作紙較多圖像,部分題目輔以英文,協 助學生理解內容。

2. 題型包括填充、圈示、配對等,學生可以透過口語回答。

3. 教師可按學生學習情況加入討論環節,以增加學生之間的互動。

4. 教師教授課題時,除教授相關史實外,亦須指導學生認識中國的文明和 文化,促進他們認識並尊重中國的文化特色。

5. 教師可因應學生的程度而選取適合的部分或教學活動施教。

四.教學方案:

內容重點 流程

課節一至二 (2 節):

胡人內徙的經過

1. 講解關鍵詞;

2. 透過地圖、歷史文物及其他資料等,帶出 以下重點:

2.a. 北方的環境;

2.b. 胡人的文化;

2.c. 胡人內徙的經過。

課節三至四 (2 節):

孝文帝遷都及他所推行的漢化 措施內容及影響

透過地圖、歷史文物及圖像等,帶出以下重點:

1. 遷都洛陽

2. 改胡姓為漢姓;

3. 鼓勵漢胡通婚;

4. 禁歸葬平城;

5. 禁胡服;

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6. 漢化措施的影響。

備註:

1. 學校可參考本教材,並按學生的需要,以調適課程;

2. 可因應學生的中文程度減少或刪去當中的英文句子或詞彙;

3. 可同時參考課程發展處所出版的其他教材或為本調適課綱準備的其他示 例;

4. 可考慮向學生提供更多全方位學習的經驗如到內地考察、參觀博物館等 等。

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XXX 中學

中一級 中國歷史科課堂工作紙 胡人內徙與北魏孝文帝漢化

(Sinicization Measures by Emperor Xiaowen in the Northern Wei Dynasty) 姓名 Name:

_________________________

成績 Grade:

_________________________

班別 Class:

__________________( )

批改日期 Date of Marking:

____________

學習重點(Learning Objectives)

1. 胡人內徙的經過(Southern migration of nomadic tribes)

2. 認識孝文帝遷都及他所推行的漢化措施內容(Movement of imperial capital and implementation of Sinicization measures by Emperor Xiaowen) 3. 漢化措施的影響(如民族融和)(The impact of the Sinicization measures

(such as ethnic integration))

一. 本節關鍵詞 (Key Terms)

英文詞彙 中文詞彙/粵語拼音 中文詞彙/普通話拼音

1 nomadic tribes 胡人(wu4 jan4) 胡人(hú rén) 2 Southern migration 內徙(noi6 saai2) 內徙(nèi xǐ) 3 Northern Wei

Dynasty 北魏(bak1 ngai6) 北魏(Běi Wèi)

4 Emperor Xiaowen 孝文帝(haau3 man4 dai3) 孝文帝(Xiàowén Dì) 5 Xianbei ethnic

group 鮮卑人(sin1 bei1 jan4) 鮮卑人(Xiānbēi rén) 6 Sinicization 漢化(hon3 faa3) 漢化(hàn huà)

7 Farming Livestock 畜牧(cuk1 muk6) 畜牧(xù mù) 8 Farming Crops 耕種(gaang1 zung3) 耕種(gēng zhòng) 9 Han Surname 漢姓(hon3 sing3) 漢姓(hàn xìng) 10 intermarriage

between Han and Hu

漢胡通婚(hon3 wu4

tung1 fan1) 漢胡通婚(hàn hú tōng hūn)

11 Burials 歸葬(gwai1 zong3) 歸葬(guī zàng) 12 Hu Clothing 胡服(wu4 fuk6) 胡服(hú fú) 13 Han Clothing 漢服(hon3 fuk6) 漢服(hàn fú)

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二. 本節概要 (Key Points of the Chapter) 1. 魏晉南北朝(220-589 年)是中

國歷史上民族交往最頻繁,亦是 民族融合的主要時期。

The Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties (220-589) was the period with the most frequent contacts between ethnic groups in Chinese history. As such, it was the main period of ethnic integration.

2. 這個時期,中國北方的鮮卑人,

進入中原地區,建立北魏王朝。

During this period, the Xianbei ethnic group migrated to northern China and established the Northern Wei Dynasty.

3. 孝文帝(在位 471-499 年)為了 讓鮮卑人與漢人可以和平共處,

不單把首都從平城遷至洛陽,更 要求鮮卑族人進行了一系列的漢 化措施。

To ensure the Xianbei and Han people would live together peacefully, Emperor Xiaowen (reigned 471-499) not only moved the capital from Pingcheng to Luoyang, but also carried out a series of Sinicization measures.

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課節一至二:胡人內徙的經過(Southern migration of nomadic tribes)

引言:種族共融(Introduction: Ethnic Harmony)

資料一:「穆斯林文化節」活動相片 (Source A: Photos of Muslim Cultural Festival)

2016 年,香港中文大學的穆斯林學生,舉辦了一個穆斯林文化節,向其他 同學介紹他們的文化。(In 2016, Muslim students of the Chinese University of Hong Kong held a Muslim Cultural Festival. There, they introduced their culture to other students.)

1. 課堂活動(Classroom activity):

請不同族裔同學的代表向班中同學簡介所屬族裔的衣飾、宗教和生活習慣 等。(NCS students may introduce to their classmates the clothing, decoration, religion, and living habits of their ethnic groups.)

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畜牧(Farming Livestock) 耕種(Farming Crops) I.北方的環境 (The Northern Environment)

2. 活動(Activities):北方地方,天氣寒冷,適合什麼的經濟活動?試把圖片和文字與下面地圖中啡色和綠色的位置進行配對。

(In cold climate of the north, what kind of economic activities were suitable? Try to match the pictures and text in the brown and green parts on the map below.)

黃河以北啡色的位置(brown parts located north of the Yellow River) 耕種(Farming Crops) 黃河以南綠色的位置(green parts located south of the Yellow River) 畜牧(Farming Livestock)

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3. 活動(Activities):住在北方的人,會把一些當地的動物牧養,作為食物或交通工具,請你把牠們圈出來。(People who lived in the north raised local animals for food or transport. Please circle them.)

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II. 胡人的文化(The Culture Of the Northern Nomadic Tribes) 資料二:胡人(Source B: Hu people)

居住在中國北方人們的面貌,與南方人相比,不一定有很大的差別,但文 化上很不同。(The appearance of people living in northern China might not have been very different from that of people living in southern China. But, they were different in their respective cultures.)

對於南方的漢人來說,不管這些居住在北方的人,是什麼民族或者部落,

一律稱呼他們為胡人。(For the Han people in the south, no matter what ethnicity or tribe people living in the north belonged to, these northern people were all called Hu people.)

簡單來說,所謂「胡人」,就是非漢人。(Simply put, who they called "Hu People" were simply non-Han people.)

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9 Ceramic pot made in the 6th century(Northern Qi Dynasty, in

Henan Museum)

最能表現胡人的文化,便是他們的音樂。(Music was the best expression of the culture of the Hu people.)

左圖是一個在北齊(550-577 年)年代燒製的陶壺,生動地刻畫了五個胡人一邊彈奏樂器,一邊唱歌跳舞的情景。(The ceramic pot on the left was made in the Northern Qi Dynasty (550-577). It vividly shows five Hu people playing musical instruments while singing and dancing.)

4. 活動(Activity):請把圖中顯示的胡人樂器圈起來。(Please circle the images of the musical instruments that belonged to the Hu people.)

黃釉陶樂舞紋扁 壺(北齊,河南博 物院藏)

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A C B

5. 活動(Activity):圖中都是胡人的交通工具,請用英文字母將它們分別標 示。(Below means of transportation in the picture were used by the Hu people.

Please use the letters to identify them.)

A. 牛車(短距離交通工具,南方漢人也常使用)(Ox cart (short distance transportation, also frequently used by the Southern Han people))

B. 馬(長距離交通工具,快速,但須懂得騎馬)(Horse (long-distance transportation, fast, but the user must learn to ride))

C. 駱駝(是沙漠或絲綢之路的最佳交通工具)(Camel (the best means of transportation in the desert or on the Silk Road))

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資料三:北周彩繪騎馬女俑(Source C: Horse-riding lady, Northern Zhou Dynasty)

在漢人社會,有教養的婦女不能隨便到處走動;但胡人婦女騎馬出遊,卻 是正常不過的事情。(In Han society, well-educated women could not walk around casually. However, it was normal for Hu women to travel by horse.)

資料來源:陝西考古研究所(Source: Collection of Shaanxi Academy of Archaeology)

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鮮卑 Xianbei III. 胡人內徙(The Southern Migration of the Hu people)

公元4 世紀左右,居住在中國北方 的遊牧民族,憑著優良的騎兵裝 備,向比較溫暖的南方遷徙,並且 逐漸在黃河流域一帶定居下來。

(Around the 4th century AD, the nomadic ethnic groups living in northern China, relying on excellent cavalry equipment, migrated to the warmer south. They gradually settled in the Yellow River valley.) 他們大概可以分為五大族—匈 奴、鮮卑、羯、氐和羌,統稱為「五 胡」。(They can be roughly divided into five big ethnic groups-Xiongnu, Xianbei, Jie, Di and Qiang,

collectively called "Five Hus.") 公元386 年,其中一「胡」在內徙 的聚落範圍內,建立起北魏政權。

(In 386 AD, an ethnic group

established the Northern Wei regime in northern China.)

6. 請你在地圖上填上這個族群的名稱。(Please fill in the name of this ethnic group on the map.)

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公元390 年,兒子 已經結婚,太太是 當地的漢人,剛剛 生了孩子。兩父子 在耕田,太太將當 時的情境畫了下 來。

In 390 AD, the son was married. His wife was a local Han person who had just given birth to a child. The father and son were plowing the fields, and his wife draw a picture for them.

7. 活動(Activity):胡人遷徙到黃河流域,如何適應新的生活?(How did the Hu people adapt to their new lives after migrating to the Yellow River valley?) 各位同學:試想想這兩父子從 380 年到 390 年的生活會有什麼改變?

(Imagine how did the lives of the father and son differ from 380 to 390?) 是非題(True or false):(請刪一 please delete one)

天氣較以前寒冷,只能繼續狩獵為生。(是/非)(The weather was colder than before, so they could only continue hunting to survive. (True/False))

天氣暖和了,可以耕種,並在農田附近建立房子居住。(是/非)(The weather was warmer, so they could build houses near the farmland to live in.

(True/False))

兒子與漢人通婚。(是/非) (The son intermarried with the Han Chinese.

(True/False))

公元380 年,一直以 打獵為生的鮮卑兩 父子來到了黃河邊 上,計劃過新生活。

找了朋友繪下作為 紀錄。(In 380 AD, a Xianbei hunter, together with his son, came to the bank of the Yellow River and planned to start a new life there.

They found a friend to draw a picture of the place where they settled as record.)

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8. 活動(Activity):北魏小資料(Facts about Northern Wei) 民族:胡(鮮卑)(Ethnicity: Hu (Xianbei))

朝代年份:

386-534

(請填上)(Time period:386-534 (Please fill in))

屬中國分裂狀態中的:

南朝/北朝?(請刪一)(

Belongs to which half of China:

Southern Dynasty/Northern Dynasty?(Please delete one))

領土:中國北方/中國南方?(請刪一)(Territory: Northern China/ Southern

China? (Please delete one))

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課節三至四: 北魏孝文帝漢化措施及影響(Sinicization Measures and impact of Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty)

I. 遷都洛陽 (Move the capital to Luoyang)

公元 493 年,北魏孝文帝從平城(今山西大同)遷都洛陽。(In 493 AD, Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty moved the capital to Luoyang from Pingcheng (now Datong, Shanxi).)

1. 同學請利用提供的詞語,完成以下平城與洛陽的比較表。

(Please use the phrases provided to complete the following comparison table between Pingcheng and Luoyang.)

寒冷(Cold) 溫暖(Warm) 困難(Inconvenient) 方便(Convenient) 貧瘠(Barren) 肥沃(Fertile) 充足(Abundant) 短缺(Shortage)

平城(Pingcheng) 洛陽(Luoyang) 溫度(Temperature)

寒冷 (Cold) 溫暖 (Warm)

土地(Land)

貧瘠 (Barren) 肥沃 (Fertile)

糧食(Food)

短缺 (Shortage) 充足 (Abundant)

交通(Transport)

困難 (Inconvenient) 方便 (Convenient)

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1. 洛陽是東漢和魏晉首都,洛陽人都是很有文化的,都害怕被胡人統治。

勉強把胡人和漢人混雜在一起,雙方都不會快樂!(Luoyang was the capital of the Eastern Han Dynasty and the Wei-Jin Dynasties. Luoyang people are very educated and they are afraid of being ruled by the Hu people. By placing the Hu people with the Han people, neither side will be happy!)

2. 不用擔心,我會命令胡人進行漢化。文化 分歧減少了,彼此便可以融洽相處。(Do not worry. I will order the Hu people to become more Chinese in their culture. Cultural

differences will be reduced, and everyone can live happily together.)

3. 太好了!

我們洛陽人 也放心,將誠 心地向皇上 效忠!(Great!

We of

Luoyang are relieved. We will be loyal to the

emperor!)

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II. 改胡姓為漢姓 (Turning Hu Surnames into Han Surnames)

胡人姓氏(Hu Surname) 漢姓(Han Surname) 拓跋(Tuoba) 元(Yuan)

步六孤(Buliugu) 陸(Lu)

獨孤(Dugu) 劉(Liu)

丘穆稜(Qiumuleng) 穆(Mu)

賀賴(Helai) 賀(He)

賀樓(Helou) 樓(Lou)

2. 請為鮮卑人填上新的漢姓。(Please help to fill in the new Han surname for these Xiangbei people.)

拓跋(Tuoba)

元( Yuan)

獨孤(Dugu)

劉( Liu)

步六孤(Buliugu)

陸( Lu)

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3. 活動(Activity):請表列班中少數族裔同學的中文姓氏(Please list the Chinese surnames of the ethnic minority students in the class.)

原本外文姓氏

(Surname in your native language)

中文姓氏 (Chinese Surname)

III. 鼓勵漢胡通婚 (Promoting intermarriage between Han and Hu) 孝文帝自己,弟弟和兒子,都娶了漢人女子為妻,又把公主嫁給漢人。

(Emperor Xiaowen himself, his younger brother, and his son all married Han women as their wives and married their princesses to Han men.)

例如孝文帝次女蘭陵公主,便是嫁給來自南方的貴族劉輝。(For example, Princess Lanling, the second daughter of Emperor Xiaowen, was married to Liu Hui, a southern nobleman.)

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資料一:漢化了的鮮卑人(Source A: Sinicized Xianbei people)

(資料來源(Source):《長城歷史與文物》,香港歷史博物館,2002 年,頁 90)

資料二:在香港居住的混血兒 (Source B: Multiracial people in Hong Kong)

企業家何東 (Businessman Sir Robert Ho Tung)

(1862-1956)

中國和猶太混血兒 (Chinese and Jewish)

著名女演員羅蘭 (Actress Law Lan) (1934-)

中印混血兒(Chinese and Indian)

著名男演員黃秋生(Actor Anthony Wong Chau-sang)

(1961-)

中英混血兒(Chinese and English)

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4. 請多舉一個你熟悉的例子(Please give one more example):

IV. 禁歸葬平城 (Banning Burials in Pingcheng)

香港小姐 2020 (Miss Hong Kong Pageant 2020) 謝嘉怡( Lisa-Marie Tse)

中國和蘇格蘭混血兒 (Chinese and Scottish)

鮮卑人來到洛陽,便要努力學做漢人,不要總是想回到 平城,死了也不要!(When Xianbei people come to

Luoyang, they should work hard to learn to be a Han person.

They should not think about returning to Pingcheng in their old age, not even to die!)

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22 資料來源:北京中國國家 博物館藏(Source:

Collection of National Museum of China, Beijing)

資料三:北朝石棺(Source C: Stone Coffin from the Northern Dynasties) 這是一個石棺材。石棺像一座大宅,除了門口,每個角落都有衛士把守。(This is a stone coffin. It is like a big house. Apart from the door, every corner is

protected by guards.)

這些衛士,都身穿翻領長袍、腳穿長靴、手持不同兵器。容貌方面則是高 鼻深目、卷髮、濃鬚的胡人形象。估計石棺主人是胡人,可能就是那些定 居洛陽,不能歸葬平城的鮮卑人。(These guards are all wearing lapels, long boots, and holding different weapons. In terms of appearance, the statues have the high nose, deep eyes, curly hair and thick beard of the Hu people. We may therefore guess that the owner of this coffin was a Hu person. It may perhaps even belong to the Xianbei people living in Luoyang who did not return to Pingcheng in the north.)

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5. 請你把這兩位門衛的頭像描畫下來。(Please draw the heads of these two guards.)

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石棺的外貌(屋頂)是漢式,雕像則屬胡人,反映這個事情的文化交流與 融合。(The roof of the stone coffin is in Han style but the statue shows a Hu person. This reflects the cultural exchange and integration between these two cultures.)

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資料四:文化融和的例子(Source D:Examples of Cultural Assimilation) 這是在山東的一所具有幾百年歷史的清真寺,但建築風格完全是中國式。

(This is a mosque with a history of several hundred years in Shandong province.

But, the architectural style of the mosque is completely Chinese. )

6. 在香港是否有類似表現出文化融和的建築物?請拍照,貼在以下方格。

(Are there similar buildings that show cultural harmony among the minorities in Hong Kong? Please take a photo and paste it in the box below.)

聖馬利亞堂( HKSKH St. Mary’s Church)

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V. 禁胡服(Banning Hu Clothing)

鮮卑人是馬上民族,服裝是適應北方草原生活的--束褲、窄袖,方便騎馬。

(The Xianbei people were an ethnic group of horse riders. As such, their clothes, ankle banded pants and narrow sleeves, were adapted to life and horse riding in the northern grasslands.)

按道理,這些戰士,也可成為文 官,在朝廷上討論政事。只是他 們這套服裝,與其他漢人大臣的 寬袍大袖服裝相比,便有點不大 斯文。解決的辦法,還是要他們 把上朝的服裝改成漢人式樣 吧?(Technically, these warriors could also become civilian officials and discuss political affairs in the court. But, their clothes, compared with the robes and sleeves of other Han

ministers, are not so elegant. The solution is to change their clothes to the Han Chinese style, right?)

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資料五:孝文帝禮佛圖(Source E: A ceremony for the Emperor Xiaowen and Buddha)

這原本是洛陽賓陽中洞內的石雕—孝文帝禮佛圖,現時收藏在紐約的大都 會博物館。(This was originally a stone sculpture in the middle cave of Binyang, Luoyang. It shows an image of a ceremony for the Emperor Xiaowen and

Buddha. It is now in the Metropolitan Museum of New York.)

石雕描繪了孝文帝率領羣臣前來禮佛,這就是漢化後的官員服裝式樣(留 意高高的官帽和寬闊的長袖)。(The stone sculpture depicts Emperor Xiaowen leading a group of officials to come to worship the Buddha. This is the style of official clothing after Sinicization (note the tall official hat and long wide sleeves).

單從服飾,已經分不出誰是漢大臣,誰是鮮卑大臣,這正是孝文帝的目的。

(From the clothing alone, it is no longer possible to tell who is the official of Han and who is the official of Xianbei. This was exactly what Emperor Xiaowen had intended.)

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資料六:鮮卑服(Source F: Xianbei clothing)

孝文帝推廣漢服,影響之下,鮮卑婦女的服飾也開始改變。這是原來的鮮 卑服。(Emperor Xiaowen promoted Han clothing. As a result, the clothing fashions of Xianbei women began to change. The below shows the original Xianbei clothing.)

胡服是適應北方草原生活的服 裝,束褲、窄袖,方便騎馬。(Hu clothing was adapted to life in the northern grasslands—ankle

banded pants and narrow sleeves made horse riding more

convenient.)

遇上寒冷天氣,便戴上風帽 和披上風衣。(In cold weather, they wore hoods and cloaks.)

北魏陶俑(1948 年河北景封縣出土,

中國國家博物館藏)(Collection of National Museum of China, Beijing.)

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29 資料來源:劉俊喜,《大同雁北師院北

魏墓羣》,北京:文物出版社,2008 年。

資料七:漢服(Source G: Traditional Han Clothing) 漢服很華麗,由於是寬袍大袖,所以跳舞

時特別好看。(Performances while wearing Han clothing, with large sleeves and robes, are especially beautiful when dancing.)

資料八:漢化胡服(Source H:Sinicized Hu Clothing) 在孝文帝的推動下,北魏侍女跳舞

時也是穿上了漢服。(With the promotion of Emperor Xiaowen, the maids of the Northern Wei Dynasty wore Han clothing when dancing.) 不過她們還保留了鮮卑的風帽,以 及沒有認真看待「左襟」和「右襟」

的設計,於是形成了一種漢化的胡 服。(However, they still retained the Xianbei hood and did not take the

"left front" and "right front" of gown seriously. So they formed a

Chinese-style Hu outfit.)

中國國家博物館藏(Collection of the National Museum of China, Beijing)

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資料九:左襟 / 右襟(Source I:Left fronted/ Right fronted) 左襟:左襟壓右襟(Left fronted: Left front covered right front);

右襟:右襟壓左襟(Right fronted: Right front covered left front)。

7. 問題(Question):(請刪一)(Please delete one)

漢服是左襟/右襟?The Han clothing is left-fronted /right-fronted?

胡服是左襟/右襟?Hu clothing is left-fronted /right-fronted?

資料十:中華民族(Source J:Chinese Ethnic Group Members)

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8. 請在下框中,繪畫居住香港的非華裔人士的民族服裝或貼上你穿上民族 服飾的照片。(In the below box, please draw the traditional clothing of

non-Chinese people living in Hong Kong or paste a photo of yourself in traditional clothing.)

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9. 以下是宣傳“民族共融”的海報,請同學也設計一張。(Please design an advertisement like that of the below for "Ethnic Harmony".)

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如對本教材有任何意見,可聯絡課程發展處個人、社會及人文教育組:

黃浩明先生(

erichmwong@edb.gov.hk; 35406829)或

羅嘉恩女士(

lokayan@edb.gov.hk; 28925882)

發佈日期:18/1/2022

Figure

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