大學生感恩特質及其與社會支持、因應型態及幸福感之關係 - 政大學術集成

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(1)國立政治大學教育學系教育心理與輔導組博士論文. 指導教授:葉玉珠. 博士. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. 政 治 大 立 大學生感恩特質及其與社會支持、 因應型態及幸福感之關係. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. 研究生:林志哲. i Un. v. 撰. 中華民國一○○年一月.

(2) 中文摘要 本研究旨在探討大學生的感恩特質、社會支持、因應型態及幸福感之相 互關係,從而建構各變項間可能的影響路徑。研究採問卷調查法,以台灣地 區公、私立大學750位大學生為研究對象。研究工具則包含感恩特質量表、 社會支持量表、因應型態量表、幸福感量表、GQ-6量表及負向情緒量表等 六份量表。本研究採用描述統計、單因子多變量變異數分析及結構方程模式 分析資料,研究結果陳述如下: 一、人口變項與感恩特質、社會支持、因應型態、幸福感之關係 (一)不同地區(北、中、南)大學生在感恩特質、社會支持、因應型態及. 政 治 大. 幸福感表現上並無顯著差異存在。. 立. (二)公立學校大學生在感恩特質及社會支持表現上顯著優於私立學校,但. ‧ 國. 學. 在因應型態及幸福感表現上則無顯著差異存在。. (三)不同學院(文、商、理、工、社科、教育、藝術)大學生在感恩特質、. ‧. 社會支持、因應型態及幸福感表現上皆有差異存在。. sit. y. Nat. (四)女大學生在感恩特質、社會支持及因應型態之「情緒取向積極因應」. 消極因應」得分高於女大學生。 a. er. io. 及幸福感得分皆高於男大學生。惟男學大生在因應型態之「問題取向. n. iv l C n (五)一年級大學生在社會支持之「訊息與實質性支持」得分高於二年級大 hengchi U 學生,但在感恩特質、因應型態及幸福感表現上則無顯著的年級差異 存在。 (六)不同宗教信仰(無、佛、道、基督/天主、其他)的大學生在感恩特 質及社會支持表現上有差異存在,但在因應型態及幸福感表現上則無 顯著差異存在。 二、感恩特質與社會支持、因應型態、幸福感之關係 (一)不同感恩特質之大學生在社會支持表現上有差異存在;感恩特質程度 較高者,其知覺到「情緒與陪伴性支持」及「訊息與實質性支持」的 程度較高。 I.

(3) (二)不同感恩特質之大學生在因應型態表現上有差異存在;感恩特質程度 較高者,除較能採取「問題取向積極因應」及「情緒取向積極因應」, 亦會較少採取「情緒取向消極因應」。 (三)不同感恩特質之大學生在幸福感表現上有差異存在;感恩特質程度較 高者,其知覺到「生活滿意」及「正向情緒」的程度較高。 (四)感恩特質、社會支持及因應型態除對幸福感具正向直接效果,感恩特 質也會透過社會支持及因應型態對幸福感產生正向間接效果。此外, 社會支持除透過因應型態對幸福感具正向間接效果,因應型態也會透 過社會支持對幸福感產生正向間接效果。. 政 治 大. 最後,根據上述研究結果提出若干意見,以供相關單位與人員在教育及 未來研究上之參考。. 學. ‧ 國. 立. 關鍵字:感恩、社會支持、因應、幸福感. ‧. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. II. i Un. v.

(4) The Relationships among Undergraduates’ Gratitude, Social Support, Coping Style, and Subjective Well-being Abstract The main purposes of this study were to explore the interactive relationships of undergraduates’ gratitude, social support, coping style, and subjective well-being, and further to examine a path model of these variables. The participants in this study were 750 undergraduate students in Taiwan. Moreover, the employed instruments included the Inventory of Gratitude, the Inventory of Social Support, the Inventory of Coping Style, the Inventory of Subjective Well-being, the gratitude questionnaire-6, and the Inventory of Negative Emotion. The collected data was analyzed by descriptive statistics, one-way MANOVA and SEM. The main findings of this study were as follows: 1. The relationships among demographic variables, gratitude, social support, coping style, and subjective well-being. (1) Areas had no effects on the undergraduates’ gratitude, social support, coping style, and subjective well-being. (2) Undergraduate students from public universities had a higher degree of gratitude and social support than those from private universities. However, no differences were found on coping style and subjective well-being between these two groups. al i v degree of gratitude, (3) College majors had effects n C h on the undergraduates’ U e subjective social support, coping style, and n g c h i well-being. (4) While the females had a higher degree of gratitude, social support, and emotion-focused positive coping than the males, the males had a higher degree of problem-focused negative coping than the females. (5) The freshmen had a higher level of informational-tangible social support than the sophomores. However, no differences were found on gratitude, coping style, and subjective well-being among the four grade levels. (6) Religious beliefs had effects on the undergraduates’ gratitude and social support, but did not have effects on their coping style and subjective well-being. 2. The relationships among gratitude, social support, coping style, and subjective well-being. (1) Grateful people had a higher degree of emotional-accompanied and. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. III.

(5) informational-tangible social support than less grateful ones. (2) Grateful people tended to utilize more problem-focused positive coping and emotion-focused positive coping than less grateful ones. However, less grateful people tended to utilize more emotion-focused negative coping than more grateful ones. (3) Grateful people had a higher level of life satisfaction and positive emotion than less grateful ones. (4) While gratitude, social support, and coping style positively influenced the undergraduates’ subjective well-being, gratitude positively influenced their subjective well-being via social support and coping style. In addition, while social support positively influenced their subjective well-being via coping style, coping style also positively influenced subjective well-being via social support. Finally, the researcher proposed some suggestions for education and future research.. 立. 政 治 大. ‧ 國. 學. Key words: gratitude, social support, coping, subjective well-being.. ‧. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. IV. i Un. v.

(6) 目. 次. 第一章 緒論 第一節 第二節 第三節. 研究動機 ············································································· 1 研究目的 ··········································································· 11 名詞釋義 ··········································································· 11. 第二章 文獻探討 第一節 感恩··················································································· 16 第二節 社會支持 ··········································································· 31 第三節 因應型態 ··········································································· 39 第四節 幸福感··············································································· 53 第五節 感恩影響幸福感之模式 ··················································· 61 第六節 研究假設 ··········································································· 78. 立. 政 治 大. ‧ 國. ‧. 研究架構 ··········································································· 79 研究對象 ··········································································· 80 研究工具 ··········································································· 82 實施程序 ··········································································· 91 資料分析 ··········································································· 92. n. al. er. io. sit. y. Nat. 第一節 第二節 第三節 第四節 第五節. 學. 第三章 研究方法. 第四章 研究結果 第一節 第二節 第三節. i Un. Ch. v. engchi 初步資料分析 ··································································· 98 感恩特質與社會支持、因應型態、幸福感·················· 113 感恩影響幸福感之模式驗證 ········································· 116. 第五章 討論、結論與建議 第一節 第二節 第三節. 討論················································································· 133 結論················································································· 152 建議················································································· 154. V.

(7) 參考書目 一、中文部分················································································· 160 二、英文部分················································································· 164. 附錄 預試問卷 ················································································· 178 感恩特質量表之發展 ····························································· 184 社會支持量表之發展 ····························································· 195 因應型態量表之發展 ····························································· 203 幸福感量表之修訂·································································· 213 GQ-6 量表之修訂···································································· 221 負向情緒量表之修訂 ····························································· 227 正式問卷 ················································································· 235 感恩特質量表擬題雙向細目表(面向X成份) ················· 240. 立. 政 治 大. 學 ‧. ‧ 國 io. sit. y. Nat. n. al. er. 附錄 A 附錄 B 附錄 C 附錄 D 附錄 E 附錄 F 附錄 G 附錄 H 附錄 I. Ch. engchi. VI. i Un. v.

(8) 表目次 表 1 Pine 和 Aronson 因應分類表··································································48 表2. Justice 因應矩陣表··················································································49. 表 3 預試有效樣本的分佈情形(N=214) ···················································80 表 4 正式施測有效樣本的分佈情形(N=750) ···········································81 表 5 整體適配度之各類指標及理想標準······················································96 表 7 大學生在各量表及分量表之平均數及標準差(N =750)························99 表 8 不同地區大學生在各量表之平均數、標準差及多變量變異數分析 (N = 750)·······························································································100. 政 治 大 分析(N = 750)·······················································································101 立. 表 9 不同學校屬性大學生在各量表之平均數、標準差及多變量變異數. ‧ 國. 學. 表 10 學校屬性在感恩特質分量表之單變量變異數分析摘要表 ··············102 表 11 學校屬性在社會支持分量表之單變量變異數分析摘要表 ··············102. ‧. 表 12 不同學院大學生在各量表之平均數、標準差及多變量變異數分析. y. Nat. (N = 750)·····························································································104. sit. 表 13 學院在感恩特質分量表之單變量變異數分析摘要表 ······················105. er. io. 表 14 學院在社會支持分量表之單變量變異數分析摘要表 ······················105. n. a. v. l C 表 15 學院在因應型態分量表之單變量變異數分析摘要表 ······················105 ni. hengchi U. 表 16 學院在幸福感分量表之單變量變異數分析摘要表 ··························106 表 17 不同性別大學生在各量表之平均數、標準差及多變量變異數分析 (N = 750)·····························································································107 表 18 性別在感恩特質分量表之單變量變異數分析摘要表 ······················108 表 19 性別在社會支持分量表之單變量變異數分析摘要表 ······················108 表 20 性別在因應型態分量表之單變量變異數分析摘要表 ······················108 表 21 性別在幸福感分量表之單變量變異數分析摘要表 ··························108 表 22 不同年級大學生在各量表之平均數、標準差及多變量變異數分析 (N = 750)·····························································································109 表 23 年級在社會支持分量表之單變量變異數分析摘要表 ······················110 VII.

(9) 表 24 不同宗教信仰大學生在各量表之平均數、標準差及多變量變異數 分析(N = 750)·····················································································111 表 25 宗教信仰在感恩特質分量表之單變量變異數分析摘要表 ··············112 表 26 宗教信仰在社會支持分量表之單變量變異數分析摘要表 ··············112 表 27 不同感恩特質之大學生在社會支持量表之變量變異數分析摘要表 (N = 750)·····························································································113 表 28 不同感恩特質之大學生在因應型態量表之變量變異數分析摘要表 (N = 750)·····························································································114 表 29 不同感恩特質之大學生在幸福感量表之變量變異數分析摘要表 (N = 750)·····························································································116. 政 治 大. 表 30 多變項的常態分配檢定(N=750)···················································117. 立. 表 31 各觀察變項之平均數、標準差、偏態、峰度及相關係數(N=750). ‧ 國. 學. ············································································································117 表 32 競爭模式一之參數估計表··································································119. ‧. 表 33 競爭模式一之整體適配度··································································120. sit. y. Nat. 表 34 競爭模式一之個別項目信度、潛在變項組合信度與變異數平均. er. io. 解釋量 ································································································121. n. a 表 35 競爭模式一之直接、間接及整體效果與顯著性考驗 ······················123 iv 表 36. l C hengchi Un 各觀察變項之平均數、標準差、偏態、峰度及相關係數(N=750). ············································································································124 表 37 競爭模式二之參數估計表··································································125 表 38 競爭模式二之整體適配度··································································126 表 39 競爭模式二之個別項目信度、潛在變項組合信度與變異數平均 解釋量 ································································································127 表 40 競爭模式二之直接、間接及整體效果與顯著性考驗 ······················129 表 41 二競爭模式之整體適配評鑑表··························································130 表 42 二個競爭模式之效果量比較······························································132. VIII.

(10) 圖目次 圖1. 壓力因應認知歷程模式·············································································42. 圖 2 個體、環境互動壓力因應模式······························································45 圖 3 本研究初步建構之大學生感恩影響幸福感模式一 ······························77 圖 4 本研究初步建構之大學生感恩影響幸福感模式二 ······························77 圖 5 研究架構 ·································································································79 圖 6 大學生感恩影響幸福感模式一······························································94 圖 7 大學生感恩影響幸福感模式二······························································95 圖 8 大學生感恩影響幸福感競爭模式一之路徑關係 ································118. 政 治 大. 圖 9 大學生感恩影響幸福感競爭模式二之路徑關係 ································124. 立. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. IX. i Un. v.

(11) 附錄表目次 表 B1 感恩特質量表的因素矩陣(N=214) ······················ 185 表 B2 感恩特質量表各因素題目與命名 ·····················································187 表 B3 感恩特質量表的信度分析(N=214) ··············································188 表 B4 感恩特質量表之效標關聯效度(N=214) ······································189 表 B5 感恩特質量表因素模式之參數估計表 ·············································190 表 B6 感恩特質量表之整體適配度 ·····························································191 表 B7 感恩特質量表之個別項目信度、組合信度與變異數平均解釋量 摘要表 ································································································192. 政 治 大 社會支持量表各因素題目與命名 ·····················································197 立. 表 C1 社會支持量表的因素矩陣(N=214) ··············································196 表 C2. ‧ 國. 學. 表 C3 社會支持量表的信度分析(N=214) ··············································198 表 C4 社會支持量表因素模式之參數估計表 ·············································199. ‧. 表 C5 社會支持量表之整體適配度 ·····························································200. y. Nat. 表 C6 社會支持量表之個別項目信度、組合信度與變異數平均解釋量. er. io. sit. 摘要表 ································································································201 表 D1 因應型態量表的因素矩陣(N=214) ··············································204. n. al. iv. C 表 D2 因應型態量表各因素題目與命名·····················································206 Un hengchi. 表 D3 因應型態量表的信度分析(N=214) ··············································207 表 D4 因應型態量表因素模式之參數估計表 ·············································208 表 D5 因應型態量表之整體適配度·····························································209 表 D6 因應型態量表之個別項目信度、組合信度與變異數平均解釋量 摘要表 ································································································210 表 E1 幸福感量表的因素矩陣(N=214) ··················································214 表 E2 幸福感量表各因素題目與命名 ·························································214 表 E3 幸福感量表的信度分析(N=214) ··················································215 表 E4 幸福感量表之效標關聯效度(N=214)···········································216 X.

(12) 表 E5 幸福感量表因素模式之參數估計表 ·················································217 表 E6 幸福感量表之整體適配度 ·································································218 表 E7 幸福感量表之個別項目信度、組合信度與變異數平均解釋量 摘要表 ································································································219 表 F1 GQ-6 量表的因素矩陣(N=214)·····················································222 表 F2 GQ-6 量表各因素題目與命名 ···························································222 表 F3 GQ-6 量表的信度分析(N=214)·····················································223 表 F4 GQ-6 量表因素模式之參數估計表 ···················································224 表 F5 GQ-6 量表之整體適配度 ···································································225. 政 治 大 ············································································································226 立 負向情緒量表的因素矩陣(N=214) ··············································228. 表 F6 GQ-6 量表之個別項目信度、組合信度與變異數平均解釋量摘要表. 學. ‧ 國. 表 G1. 表 G2 負向情緒量表各因素題目與命名·····················································229. ‧. 表 G3 負向情緒量表的信度分析(N=214) ··············································229 表 G4 負向情緒量表因素模式之參數估計表 ·············································230. y. Nat. sit. 表 G5 負向情緒量表之整體適配度·····························································232. n. a. er. io. 表 G6 負向情緒量表之個別項目信度、組合信度與變異數平均解釋量. v. l 摘要表 ································································································233 ni. Ch. engchi U. XI.

(13) 附錄圖目次 圖 B1 感恩特質量表之驗證性因素分析模式 ························ 194 圖 C1 社會支持量表之驗證性因素分析模式 ·············································202 圖 D1 因應型態量表之驗證性因素分析模式 ·············································212 圖 E1 幸福感量表之驗證性因素分析模式 ·················································220 圖 F1 GQ-6 量表之驗證性因素分析模式 ···················································226 圖 G1 負向情緒量表之驗證性因素分析模式 ·············································234. 立. 政 治 大. ‧. ‧ 國. 學. n. er. io. sit. y. Nat. al. Ch. engchi. XII. i Un. v.

(14) 第一章. 緒論. 本研究旨在探討大學生的感恩特質與社會支持、因應型態及幸福感之相 互關係,從而建構各變項間可能的影響路徑。全章共分三節,第一節為研究 動機、第二節為研究目的、第三節為名詞釋義,茲分述如後。. 第一節. 研究動機. 以往心理學的研究著重在如何治療疾病(例如:焦慮、憂鬱症等)的負 向人類功能上,直到20世紀後期,開始轉向正視促進人們的正向心理狀態。 其 中 「 幸 福 感 」 ( well-being ) 是 一 個 很 重 要 的 議 題 ( Seligman &. 政 治 大. Csikszentmihalyi, 2000),它意味著心理健康和國民生活品質指標的衡量(陸. 立. 洛,1996;Keyes, 2006)。有人認為幸福是一種順應環境、降低物欲、追求. ‧ 國. 學. 內心平靜的狀態(施建彬,1995);有人以愉悅或快樂的心情代表著幸福 (Diener, Smith, & Fujita, 1995; Kahneman, Diener, & Schwarz, 1999);有人. ‧. 指出幸福是探求自我意義、發揮潛能之實現(Ryff, 1989);有人主張與社. sit. y. Nat. 會良好的適應亦為幸福(Keyes, 1998)。儘管每個人對「幸福」的界定各有. er. io. 不同,但不可否認的,一直以來,古今中外每個人都在追求「幸福」:一種. n. a 正向、美好的理想境界,並且每個人也都有追求幸福的權利(施建彬、陸洛 v 譯,1997)。. i l C n U hengchi. 換言之,人人追求幸福,沒有人抗拒得了幸福的魅力,但每個人心中的 幸福樣貌不一定一樣,有人的幸福是親情,有人的幸福是愛情;有人三餐溫 飽即幸福,有人需要山珍海味才幸福。不可否認的是,如果有幸福的因子, 一定是人人亟欲獲得的。因此,1950年代後期開始,許多學者開始研究幸福 感,將幸福感作為探討生活品質的指標,並以此檢視社會變遷與改善社會政 策(Keyes, Shmotkin, & Ryff, 2002)。楊國樞(1980)也認為,由於幸福感 可以評估出個人目前生活的滿意度,因此成為個體生活品質的重要指標。近 年來,人們也開始注意到,光是找出憂鬱、焦慮等心理疾病的負面因子或許 不夠,如果能找出幸福的因子,提升人們的幸福感,便能提升個人生活品質, 1.

(15) 也為整個社會帶來福祉。因此,本研究嘗試從正向心理學角度切入,期以提 升個人幸福感為研究最終目的。 然欲探究幸福感,首先想到,什麼身份的人最幸福?常有人說,學生最 幸福,因為不用工作賺錢、煩惱家計、養育小孩……等等,殊不知,由於國 內現在仍然是升學主義及文憑主義掛帥,國、高中的孩子被讀不完的書、考 不完的試所壓榨,很難感受到孩子們是「幸福」的在準備升學考試的。也由 於父母常說「等你大學就可以……」,因此,孩子們常把追求夢想、追求屬 於自己心目中幸福的日期延後至大學,認為上了大學就可以做自己想做的 事,就可以勇於追求自己心目中不論是哪一方面的幸福。但孩子們上了大. 政 治 大 可以盡情揮灑青春的年紀,外表也看似光鮮亮麗快樂幸福的大學生,比起兒 立. 學,就真正幸福了嗎?實則不然。上大學是人生的一個新階段,雖然進入了. 童或青少年時期有家人的照料,對許多大學生來說,卻是一個獨當一面承擔. ‧ 國. 學. 種種生活變化衝擊的開始(曾文志,2008),舉凡在外地租屋或打工、與班. ‧. 上同學或室友的相處、專業科目和報告繳交、男女朋友交往或分手、畢業即. io. sit. Nat. 人般面臨屬於自己的重大轉變或生活事件。. y. 失業等經濟、人際、課業、異性交往及未來前途等層面,大學生也必須像成. er. 根據董氏基金會2008年運用專為大專學生編製的「董氏憂鬱量表-大專. n. a. v. l C 生版」所進行之「大學生主觀壓力源與憂鬱情緒之相關性調查」結果顯示, ni. hengchi U. 22.2%的大學生(約30萬人)有明顯憂鬱情緒,幾乎每四人就有一人有憂鬱 情緒困擾,需專業協助(董氏基金會,2008)。雖然約四分之三的學生沒有 明顯的憂鬱情緒,但並不表示這些學生都有高程度幸福的感受。如此現象, 在經濟不景氣、多元社會競爭的大環境中,大學生的憂鬱指數呈現逐漸上升 的趨勢,似相對隱含幸福感受益趨下滑的危機,因此,本研究選擇以大學生 作為研究對象,據此了解大學生幸福感之課題。. 壹、物質名品財富,獲取幸福標的 那麼,大學生如何追求幸福?由於環境的變遷,導致價值觀的改變,追 求虛榮心的滿足已成蔚為大學生的特性,他們以物質累積的多寡來判個人的. 2.

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