Over 100 days: The Moderating Effect of Foreign Language Communication Anxiety on the Relationship between Depth of Cultural Exposure and Cultural Intelligence among Overseas Students

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(1)Over 100 Days: The Moderating Effect of Foreign Language Communication Anxiety on the Relationship between Depth of Cultural Exposure and Cultural Intelligence among Overseas Students. by Marta Małgorzata Grabowska. A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Major: International Human Resource Development. Advisor: Yi-Chun Lin, Ph.D.. National Taiwan Normal University Taipei, Taiwan June 2020.

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(3) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT To begin with, I would express my sincere gratitude to my advisor – Dr. Yi-Chun Lin without who the whole process of writing this Master’s thesis would not have happened, who also was very helpful and patient towards me when I decided to postpone my graduation for a year. Her knowledge and expertise together with her encouragement contributed significantly to concluding my journey as an IHRD student. Secondly, I am also very grateful to my committee members, Dr. Chen and Dr. Chang for providing me with lots of clues as well as advice to improve my research as much as I can. I am also honored to have had a chance to meet my wonderful classmates who found their time to assist me when I encountered difficulties all the way not only in completing the thesis but also during the times when I was having a hard time living in a foreign country – Taiwan. Here, I would like to give my thanks especially to Jasmine, Karen and Sarah who were always there for me extending their hands to help. Last but not least, I would like to express my gratitude to Taiwan National Normal University and the Government of Taiwan for giving me an opportunity to live and study here, collect unforgettable memories, have a chance to promote my own culture. I also owe my parents sincere thank-you for letting leave Poland and go to a country which is so far away..

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(5) ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between depth of cultural exposure and cultural intelligence and foreign language communication anxiety as a moderator of that relationship. The target population consisted of Taiwanese international students who had been abroad for the purpose of studying for at least five months. The sample population consisted of 213 responses. This study adopted quantitative research and online- based questionnaires to examine proposed hypotheses. SPSS 23.0 as well as AMOS 22.0 were used for the data analysis. The hypotheses in this study expected that depth of cultural exposure has a positive effect on cultural intelligence and foreign language communication anxiety negatively moderates the relationship between depth of cultural exposure and cultural intelligence. The Hypothesis 1 stating depth of cultural exposure has a positive effect on cultural intelligence was supported. However, the Hypothesis 2 claiming foreign language communication anxiety negatively moderates the relationship between depth of exposure and cultural intelligence was rejected. In fact, the results showed foreign language communication anxiety negatively moderates the aforementioned relationship.. Keyword: depth of cultural exposure, cultural intelligence, foreign language communication anxiety, Taiwanese international students.

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(7) TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………..I TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………….II LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………...VI LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………….VII CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION…………..………….………………………1 Background of the Study…………………………………..…………………………..1 Statement of the Problem……………………………….……………………………..3 Research Purpose……………………………………………………………………... 5 Research Questions……………………………………………………………………5 Significance of the Study……………………………………………………………...5 Definitions of the Key Terms…………………………………………...…………….6. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW…………..…………..……………..9 Taiwanese International Students…………………….………………….……………9 U-Curve of Cross-Cultural Adjustment………………………………………………12 Depth of Cultural Exposure………………………………………….…….…………13 Cultural Intelligence………………………………………………….…….…………15 Foreign Language Communication Anxiety……………………………….…………17 The Relationship between Depth of Cultural Exposure And Cultural Intelligence……………………………………………………...……...………......……19 The Moderating Effect of FLCA on the Relationship between Depth of Cultural Exposure and Cultural Intelligence ….………………………………...…….………….23 Control Variables……………………………………………………….…………….….24. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY…………………….……………………….25 Research Framework……………………………………….……………………………25 Research Hypotheses……………………………………….……………………………26 Research Procedure……………………………………….……………………………..26 Target Population and Sample…………………………………………………………..27 Questionnaire Design……………………………………………………………………27 Back Translation…………………………………………….…………………………...27 Pilot Test…………………………………………………….…………………………...28 Data Collection……………………………………………….………………………….28. II.

(8) Measurement………………………………..……………………………………………29 Control Variables………………………..……………………………………………….34 Validity and Reliability……………..……………………………………………………34. CHAPTER IV FINDINGS………………..……………………………………43 Descriptive Analysis……………………………………..………………………………43 Pearson’s Correlation Analysis…………………………..………………………………46 Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)………………….………………………………...47 Hierarchical Regression Analysis……………………………….……………………….51. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS…….………………...55 Conclusions………………………………………………………………………………55 Theoretical Contributions………………………………………………………………..55 Practical Implications……………………………………………………………………59 Limitations and Future Research Suggestions…………………………………………..58. REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………61 APPENDIX A………………………………………………………………….69 APPENDIX B………………………………………………………………….75. III.

(9) LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1.. Distribution of Taiwanese Students Worldwide in 2017………………..……11. Table 3.1.. Cronbach’s α Coefficient of the Measurement in Pilot Test (N = 40)………..28. Table 3.2.. Items of Depth of Cultural Exposure………………………………………….29. Table 3.3.. Items of Cultural Intelligence…………………………………………………30. Table 3.4.. Items of Foreign Language Communication Anxiety………………………...32. Table 3.5.. Cronbach’s α Coefficient of the Present Research (N = 213)………...………35. Table 3.6.. The Values of Good Fit Indices……………………………………………….36. Table 3.7.. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Depth of Cultural Exposure (N = 213)….…37. Table 3.8.. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Cultural Intelligence (N = 213) ........……...38. Table 3.9.. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Foreign Language Communication Anxiety………………………………………………………………………..40. Table 4.1.. Demographic Information (N = 213)…………...…………………………….44. Table 4.2.. Mean, Standard Deviations, Correlations, and Reliability (N = 213)…...……46. Table 4.3.. Summary of Confirmatory Factor Analysis …………………………..……...47. Table 4.4.. Summary of Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Theoretical Model Fit…...…48. Table 4.4.. Regression results of Hypotheses Test for H1 and H2 (N= 213)…...………...52. Table 4.5.. Summary of Hypotheses Testing……………………………………………...53.

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(11) LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1.. Percentage of Taiwanese International Students Abroad in 2016…….………10. Figure 2.2.. U-curve of Cross Cultural Adjustments……….………..……….……………12. Figure 2.3.. Possible Antecedents of Cultural Intelligence…………………….…………..20. Figure 2.4.. Theoretical Model of How Cultural Exposure and Individual Characteristics Influence Experimental Learning to Produce CQ…………….21. Figure 3.1.. Research Framework………………………………………………………….25. Figure 3.2.. Research Procedure…………………………………………………………...26. Figure 3.3.. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Depth of Cultural Exposure……...………..37. Figure 3.4.. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Cultural Intelligence………………….……39. Figure 3.5.. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Foreign Language Communication Anxiety……………………………………………………………...………...41. Figure 4.1.. Measurement Model of One-Factor Model……………..……………….……50. Figure 4.2.. Measurement Model of Two-Factor Model.………………………………….51. Figure 4.3.. Measurement Model of Three-Factor Model……………………………........52. Figure 4.4.. The Interaction of Depth of Cultural Exposure and Cultural Intelligence on Foreign Language Communication Anxiety………………………………53.

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(13) CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In the first chapter, there are a few components to be described. They include background of the research, statement of the problem, research purpose, research questions, definition of the key terms and finally delimitations of the study.. Background of the Study Because of the era of globalization, where the world has become flat, everything started to lose its distinctiveness. Looking from a business perspective, more and more companies started to emerge. In recent years they have been springing up like mushrooms after the rain which gives the heads of various businesses a headache to create something brand-new and so original that would allow their companies to gain a competitive advantage over the others. Expatriation that is one of the examples of in-depth exposure to a culture (Crowne, 2013) that can be a source of competitive advantage for an organization (Carpenter, Sanders, & Gregersen, 2000, 2001). It is really challenging to come up with something unique since people have seen almost everything in their lives already. On the one side of a coin there are employers, on the other there is a huge number of people who want to find a source of income. It takes a lot of trouble and hard work to become a person who is being looked for by employers in the job market. Globalization and internalization increased the need for globally-minded managers and leaders (Deardoff, De Wit, Heyl, & Adams, 2012). That is why gaining an international experience has become so important in recent years. Institutions of higher education have started to respond to that need by reinforcing experiences that can be obtained abroad by pursuing academic knowledge in another country (Barbuto, Beenen, & Tran, 2015). Currently, on the market there is a huge need for people who possess high levels of cultural intelligence (CQ) since its faucets have been proved to predict cultural judgement, decision-making, adaptation to a culture, as well as task performance (Ang et al., 2007), and because of the fact 1.

(14) which states that one can learn culture (Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2010), it is better to invest in learning and experiencing various cultures as fast as possible, that is also why using exchange, degree or visiting programs abroad is a good way to obtain and broaden the knowledge which may increase CQ and in consequence makes finding an ideal job easier (Ang & Van Dyne, 2008). Many branches of business are looking for leaders who are able to work effectively across borders, those people have to have a great variety of abilities and competencies. Bartlett and Goshal (2003) said it is required for an individual to adopt to a multicultural perspective instead of one perspective that is unique only to one country, that person also ought to balance global and local interests that may be conflicting, last but not least, has to cooperate with number of cultures at the same time than just with one that predominates. That is why, it is crucial to be able to function in culturally different contexts in order to be a good and effective leader (Van Dyne, Ang, & Livermore, 2010). According to Social Learning Theory proposed by Bandura (1977), cultural intelligence may lead to different work behaviors. At this point, in a foreign language ability cannot be omitted. In order to communicate effectively and successfully across cultures, one very often needs at least some basic knowledge how to use a language with the locals. Not infrequently, a good command of foreign language facilitates or allows obtaining information on a culture. Alon and others (2018) reported that number of languages an individual speaks highly contribute to the higher levels of CQ. Accordingly, Ng, Van Dyne, and Ang (2009) prove that the ability to communicate in a foreign language can predict higher CQ. “A rationale is that language skills are a fundamental instrument for acquiring cultural knowledge” (Lee, Crawford, Weber, & Dennison, 2018, p. 169). The previous articles concerning cross-cultural topics often mention foreign language ability as a key factor leading to a faster adaptation or deeper understanding of an environment. 2.

(15) an individual happened to be found himself or herself (Froese, Peltokorpi, & Ko, 2012; Trice, 2003). However, if the communication is impeded by the anxiety, it is harder to obtain crucial information. Guntzviller, Yale, and Jensen (2016) said that foreign language communication anxiety is a very significant construct to be taken into consideration while communicating across cultures. They also pointed out that the role of foreign language communication anxiety (FLCA) in daily life may vary depending on linguistic or cultural setting. Interestingly, it has been reported that international students from Asia are thought to encounter more problems and obstacles while experiencing cross-national processes than international students from Europe. Asian students seem to be more prone to run into high levels of anxiety, lower foreign language self-efficacy, especially in English, less assistance coming from the society. Those individuals perceive themselves as a group which is more discriminated as well (Chataway & Berry, 1989).. Statement of the Problem Previously researchers described cultural exposure in numerous but at the same time overly simplistic ways. Reuber and Fischer (1997) focused on the fact whether an individual has had experience working aboard or not, others took into consideration how many times a person has been aboard (Takeuchi, Tesluk, Yun, & Lepak, 2005; Tarique & Takeuchi, 2008; Tay, Westman, & Chia, 2015). Carpenter and others (2001) tried to look at the duration of being in a foreign country. Because all of those were measured separately, it was impossible to show cultural exposure as a variable that is multifaceted. Crowne (2008, 2013) was the first one who attempted to demonstrate cultural exposure as a complex construct dividing the variable into two facets: breadth and depth. Researchers who embarked on investigating that particular variable used to combine it with acculturation (Tadmore & Tetlock, 2016) or racial identity (Lee & Quintana, 2005), which means that a huge knowledge gap on the topic of cultural exposure exists.. 3.

(16) The research on cultural intelligence looks similar. CQ is a rather new concept. Although "research on CQ is leaving its adolescence" (Ott & Michailova, 2016, p.16) because in the recent years researchers have been studying the variable passionately, the elements which facilitate or cause higher levels of CQ are yet unknown or not proven empirically. There are many types of anxiety, however, the present research is focused only on the anxiety related to foreign language communication. Up to today, researchers attached a lot of attention to the foreign language anxiety that occurs in a specific setting. The center of attraction in the first one is FLA which happens in a classroom while learning a foreign language (Horwitz, Hoewitz, & Cope, 1986; MacIntyre & Gardner, 1991, 1994). The researchers who tried to measure FLA outside the classroom for non-limited environment always had to either come up with their own scale or modify the existing ones for the purpose of their research (Cheng & Erben, 2012; Humphries, 2011). That shows that researchers focused on foreign language anxiety in the context of learning a foreign or second language, the levels of apprehensiveness in communicating in a foreign language in a non-specific environment have not been broadly discussed so far (Dewaele, 2007; Horwitz, 2010). Only at the end of the year 2017 the scale that measures foreign language communication anxiety outside of a classroom was validated and published (Guntzviller, Yale, & Jensen, 2016).. 4.

(17) Research Purpose The focal points of this research were to: . Investigate the effects of depth of exposure on cultural intelligence of Taiwanese students who have had the experience of studying abroad.. . Examine the moderating effect of foreign language anxiety on the relationship between depth of cultural exposure and cultural intelligence of Taiwanese students who have had the experience of studying abroad.. Research Questions Based on the purpose of this research, the following questions were posed: . Is depth of cultural exposure positively related to cultural intelligence?. . Does foreign language anxiety negatively moderate the relationship between depth of cultural exposure and cultural intelligence?. Significance of the Study This research attempted to investigate foreign language communication anxiety as a moderator between depth of cultural exposure and cultural intelligence. Since little research exists on this specific topic, this study contributes significantly to what has been done already. in terms of the relationship between depth of cultural exposure and CQ. Furthermore, due to the fact that researchers still are not able to find out what exactly leads to higher levels of CQ, this study increases the amount of literature which proves that the positive relationship between depth of cultural exposure and CQ is present. Moreover, given the study’s focus was directed at specific group of people, that is, Taiwanese, the literature on that nationality has slightly been enriched. This research was undertaken in the interest of providing a generic understanding of whether those Taiwanese's cultural intelligence increased after being exposed to a different culture for a specific period of time. Little research has been conducted on topic which attempts to measure cultural 5.

(18) intelligence of Taiwanese people. However, as the CQ is rather a new one, this research contributes significantly to the data that has already been collected. Apart from those possible contributions mentioned above, the results of this research may also help the government to assess whether studying abroad brings hoped outcomes in the shape of better command of a foreign language, broadened and increased knowledge on the issues regarding different cultures that may also contribute to development and future internationalization of Taiwan based on the fact that it has been found that people who study in a different country expand sophisticated cognitive and communication abilities. They develop intercultural awareness as well as they start to highly value topics that are connected to global matters, people having experienced studying abroad may also manifest their self-confidence easier (Sailsbury, Paulsen, & Pascarella, 2009). All of those idiosyncrasies could be of benefits to an individual and their mother country. Last but not least, the study used a recently validated scale for FLCA which makes this research one of the first where the scale was used. Obtained results contribute to another research idea in the future which will embark upon getting to know more about FLCA in nonspecific settings.. Definition of Key Terms There are three key terms used in this research, which are depth of cultural exposure, cultural intelligence (CQ) as well as foreign language communication anxiety (FLCA) and Taiwanese international students.. Depth of Cultural Exposure Cultural exposure is a type of exposure to a culture other than an individual's own by means of direct human interactions (Reigeluth, 2013). Cultural exposures can take place in different ways, for instance, meetings with people from different cultural backgrounds, short trips to other countries (Li, 2017) or even having parents from different cultures (Bell & 6.

(19) Harrison, 1996). Crowne (2008, 2013) divided it into breadth and depth of cultural exposure. In her opinion breadth of exposure refers to the number of places and times travelled or visited abroad whereas depth of cultural exposure measures frequency in which an individual participated in cultural experiences and interacted with local culture.. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) For the purpose of this study cultural intelligence was characterized as a person's ability to adapt to living in a new, unknown environment as well as capability to function within a society that has a different cultural background from the one an individual comes from (Earley & Mosakowski, 2004). In other words, it’s "an individual's competence to function and manage effectively in culturally diverse settings" (Ang & Van Dyne, 2008, p.3). CQ consists of metacognitive CQ, cognitive CQ, motivational CQ and lastly behavioral CQ.. Foreign Language Communication Anxiety (FLCA) Foreign language communication anxiety is "the feeling of tension and apprehension specifically associated with second [or third, or fourth language, etc.] contexts, including speaking, listening, and learning" (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1994, p.284). FLCA happens when shortage of words and incapability of expressing clearly and cogently in a non-native language give rise to the feelings of frustration and anxiety (Guntzviller et al., 2016).. Taiwanese International Students For the purpose of this study Taiwanese international students are characterized as current students or graduates who have had an experience of pursuing studies overseas regardless of program studied or type, for example, an exchange student, a degree-seeking student, visiting student.. 7.

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(21) CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter aims at reviewing and encapsulating the literature that has been written on the topics concerning Taiwanese international students, depth of cultural exposure, cultural intelligence (CQ), and foreign language anxiety (FLA). Then, the relationship between the variables are explained. The end of the chapter elaborates on the moderating effect of foreign language communication anxiety on the relationship between depth of cultural exposure and cultural intelligence.. Taiwanese International Students Rapid globalization has opened a huge array of doors for people to choose from in terms of traveling, studying, working, to name a few. The number of students pursuing higher education abroad has increased substantially in recent years, students from Taiwan are not an exception to that phenomenon. As stated by the data on the number of Taiwanese students going abroad for the purpose of studying on the Ministry of Education (MOE) webpage, it shows that the total of Taiwanese doing exchange or degree programs overseas has been rising year by year.. 9.

(22) Percentage of Taiwanese International Students Abroad in 2016. 17%. 29%. 39% Australia and Oceania. 15% Europe. Americas. Asia. Figure 2.1. The percentage of Taiwanese international students abroad in 2016. The report that was released in the first six months of 2017 declared that 63,270 Taiwanese left the island with the intention of obtaining knowledge overseas in 2016. In 2017 this number increased to 67,688. The Envision Recruit webpage (envisionrecruit.com) created a report on the most frequent destination Taiwanese students chose to study based on the data obtained from the Ministry of Education. It stated that the United States of America was given priority to and in 2017 more than 21,500 Taiwan nationals selected to go. Australia was positioned on the second place with the number of 18,227 Taiwanese flying there. It is clear to say that Taiwanese people often go to the places where English is the formal language. For more specific results, see Table 1.2.. 10.

(23) Table 2.1. Distribution of Taiwanese Students Worldwide in 2017 Continent. Country. Taiwanese. Continent. Country. students Europe. UK. Taiwanese Students. 3,775. St.. 1. Christopher & Nevis France. 1,079. Germany. 2,013. Poland. 758. The. Subtotal. 26,856. Japan. 10,347. 408. South Korea. 123. Austria. 400. Thailand. 199. Russia. 146. Malaysia. 498. Sweden. 133. Vietnam. 60. Belgium. 156. Singapore. 2. Finland. 71. Indonesia. 25. Norway. 20. India. 18. Denmark. 16. Israel. 29. Ireland. 18. Myanmar. 1. Turkey. 30. Kuwait. 9. Czech. 26. Saudi. 22. Asia. Netherlands. Arabia. Americas. Hungary. 53. Bahrain. 1. Subtotal. 9,197. Dubai. 4. Subtotal. 11,338. Canada. 5,330. Australia. Australia. 18,227. USA. 21,516. and Oceania. New. 2,070. Zealand Chile. 1. Subtotal. 20,297. (continued). 11.

(24) Table 2.1. (continued) Continent. Country. Taiwanese. Continent. Country. students St. Lucia. 7. Colombia. 1. Subtotal. 26,855. Taiwanese Students. Grand total. 67,688. Note. Created on basis of the data from “The number of Taiwanese students studying abroad for 2018”, by Envision Recruit, 2019, In the public domain.. U- Curve of Cross-Cultural Adjustment. Figure 2.2. U-curve of cross- cultural adjustment. Adapted from “The U-Curve Adjustment Hypothesis Revisited: A Review and Theoretical Framework,” by J. S. Black, & M. Mendenhall. 1991, Journal of International Business Studies, 22(2), p.227.. 12.

(25) The Figure 2.3 represents the process of the cross-cultural adjustment which consists of four different stages. The initial stage is called “honeymoon stage” in which an individual just got to another environment and notices a lot of similarities between the place they are familiar with or come from and the new one. This period is usually a happy one, full of fascination, excitement and cultural infatuation (Black & Mendenhall, 1991). This phase, however, does not last a long time. Next in the order is “culture shock stage” also known as “disillusionment”. This phase is imbued with frustration and hardships. An individual realizes that the host place has a lot of differences from the home place and the individuals have to accept that fact and live with it every day. The apex of this phase falls on 4 th to 6th month of being in the new place. Up next, there is the “adjustment stage” during which a person starts to accept and get fully used to the new settings by learning how to apply appropriate behaviors to communicate with the local people. The last phase is called “mastery” which as its name suggests an individual improves their knowledge and abilities bit by bit to function even better in the host country.. Depth of Cultural Exposure There has not been done much research on culture exposure itself so far. Each of the papers elaborating on that topic used different definitions of cultural exposure (Crowne, 2013). After having read some literature on that variable, it seems that the definition proposed by Crowne (2013) is the most appropriate for this research. She says, “cultural exposure is defined in the literature as experiences related to a region that aid in developing a familiarity or understanding of the norms, values, and beliefs of that region” (p. 7). In this paper the cultural exposure is defined as having an active contact and becoming knowledgeable about various aspects concerning a region. Those include beliefs, norms, objects, values and assumptions related to the region's culture (Crowne, 2008). International experiences for work or non-work purposes are thought to be one of the means that allows people to have a greater exposure to another culture. Meeting people from various cultural backgrounds, trips. 13.

(26) abroad and immersing oneself in a new cultural environment are examples of cultural exposures (Li, 2017). Cultural exposure, however, can provoke but also hinder cultural learning, the decision which way it gravitates towards is determined by the particular cultural context (Mosakowski, Calic, & Early, 2013). Other research described cultural exposure as a person's individual's exposure history to the circumstantial conditions that contributed to disadvantage in the job market thereafter, such an exposure focuses on circumstantial as well as factual conditions during the period of childhood until maturity, it also has to pertain to environmental element which is vocationally significant (Droege & Hawk, 1969). Sufficient cultural exposure can help people notice differences in cultures faster. It can also trigger better adjustment to unknown educational settings as in the example of Chinese students pursuing their academic degrees in the United Kingdom (Wang, Harding, & Mai, 2012). Reading books or watching fiction films can be other examples of exposing oneself to a culture (Xu, Mar, & Peterson, 2013). Stephan (1991, 1992) stated that ethnic as well as racial identification might be affected by more intense cultural exposure. Bicultural life experiences, for instance, having parents from culturally diverse backgrounds can also be a source of cultural exposure (Bell & Harrison, 1996). Dias, Zhu, and Samaratunge (2020) stated that cultural exposure can be a possible means for a company to establish intercultural competencies in workers in the way that cultural distinctiveness in a company may develop itself into a resource from the perspective of HRM. Bell and Harrison (1996) pointed out that having parents from different cultures is a type of cultural exposure as well. Crowne (2008, 2013) distinguished two kinds of exposure: breadth of cultural exposure and depth of cultural exposure. Because the research is not well developed, only depth of cultural exposure was used in this research. Measuring that variable seemed to be more reliable. Depth of cultural exposure refers to the intensity with which a person immersed in another culturally different setting (Crowne, 2008). There are different types of activities that. 14.

(27) facilitate depth of exposure. Participating in local events related to culture, visiting shops in the neighborhood as well as reaching out to local people are some of the examples that can increase the amount of cultural exposure (Crowne, 2013).. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) In theory, cultural intelligence is an expanded current view to understanding intelligence (Earley & Ang, 2003). Cultural intelligence is coherent to Schmidt and Hunter’s (2000) explanation of general intelligence as the capacity to catch and analyze correctly using perception and solve problems successfully. At the outset, researchers attached their attention primary to cognitive or academic factor intelligence, however, recently people became more curious about the intelligences that are not connected to academic area. This desire to find out something new gave birth to the discovery of new types of intelligence that are focused on certain content as social intelligence (Thorndike & Stein, 1937), practical intelligence (Sternberg, 2000), and emotional intelligence (Mayer & Salovey, 1993). The cross-cultural setting is taken as a domain in cultural intelligence (Earley & Ang, 2003). The difference between CQ (cultural intelligence) and IQ (cognitive ability), EQ (emotional intelligence) or SQ (social intelligence) is that the first one takes intercultural environment for its target. Earley and Ang (2003) pointed out that since numerous patters of social interactions happen within cultures, other kinds of intelligence do rather not transfer naturally into successful intercultural adjustment and adaptation. Ang and others (2007) stated that cultural intelligence cannot be perceived as an autonomous intelligence since it is the application of various capabilities of IQ, SQ and EQ. Not until 2002 was the concept of cultural intelligence presented, Earley (2002) formed it into a concept of a feature of intelligence. The theory of multiple intelligences is known as the basis for the expansion and division of CQ (Gardner, 1993). Somewhat later, in the book entitled “Cultural Intelligence: Individual Interactions across Cultures”(Earley & Ang, 2003). 15.

(28) the concept was described as a capability of an individual to receive and interpret information successfully in a culturally diverse environment which leads to making justified reaction to new cultural surroundings (Early & Ang, 2003). Thomas and Inkson (2004) described CQ as competency which incorporates knowledge about cultures, a diverse range of behavioral skills and last but not least the application of mindfulness. Cultural intelligence is built on four pillars: cognitive CQ, meta-cognitive CQ, motivational CQ and behavioral CQ (Ang et al., 2007; Ang, Van Dyne, & Koh, 2006). All of them are described below: Cognitive CQ refers to general knowledge and knowledge structures about culture. It has been obtained from an individual's experience (Ang & Van Dyne, 2008) and education which engages particular ways of behaving or doing things, practices, codes. Furthermore, it also encompasses universal cultural aspects along with the culture-specific ones. This dimension is also referred to as CQ – knowledge. Meta-cognitive CQ also known as CQ – strategy is described as a person's knowledge or control over cognitive mental processes which facilitate a deep understanding of the conveyed message (Ang & Van Dyne, 2008; Earley & Ang, 2003). This facet is employed while a person is being thrown into a cross-cultural setting and has to react to it (Huff, 2013). Motivational CQ (CQ – motivation) is linked to the individual's interest in acquiring knowledge and functioning within various cultural contexts (Ang, Van Dyne, & Koh, 2006; Ang et al., 2007). It is also important to mention that motivational CQ is a key component that contributes to a successful cultural adaptation. The adaptation does not take place if a person does not possess motivational CQ (Earley & Peterson, 2004). Behavioral CQ is thought to be most visible one out of all the parts while communicating between different cultures (Ang & Van Dyne, 2008). Behavioral CQ refers to. 16.

(29) the individual's ability to express the suitable verbal and non-verbal behaviors when having contact with the people from various cultural environments (Ang et al., 2006).. Foreign Language Communication Anxiety (FLCA) Abundance of literature on second or foreign language anxiety can be found since the topic was discovered and has been being developed and elaborated on for more than two past decades. The definition of anxiety varies depending on a purpose of research. Taking into consideration psychology, anxiety is described as a state of apprehension, a faint fear which is obliquely linked to an object (Scovel, 1978). In recent past, researchers started to look at anxiety more deeply in the field of education. The relationship between foreign language learning and anxiety has been established. Spielberger (1983) described anxiety as “the subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry associated with an arousal of the autonomic nervous system” (p.1). There are three types of anxiety from the psychological point of view. They are usually categorized as trait, state or situation specific anxiety. The first one is a rather stable feature of an individual's character while the other one is an impermanent condition that is experienced at a specific point of time (Woodrow, 2006). However, the last one called situation specific anxiety is the category where learning language is most suitable to falls into (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1991). This type of anxiety demonstrates a trait that reappears in specific circumstances (Spielberger, Anton, & Bedell, 2015). It might be stable for a period of time, however, the level of it may differ depending on a certain situation. Taking part in a class, giving a speech in front of an audience, sitting for a test or having a conversation with a person in a foreign language may give rise to situation specific anxiety. Woodrow (2006) believes that living in a place where the target language and the language of daily life is the same language can have an effect on anxiety.. 17.

(30) There are two ways in which language anxiety can be defined. Scovel (1978) stated that it is a transfer of other kinds of anxiety, while the other way shows it as a kind of anxiety that leads to fear and adverse emotional behaviors (Bailey, Daley, & Onwuegbuzie, 1999). Foreign Language Anxiety in most of the research takes into consideration classroom setting which presents a type of anxiety that occurs while learning a language as a second or foreign language. Second language performance is influenced by the language anxiety (Horwitz et al., 1986; MacIntyre & Gardner, 1991). Horwitz and others (1986) said that foreign language anxiety is “a distinct complex of self-perceptions, beliefs, feelings, and behaviors related to classroom language learning arising from the uniqueness of the language learning process” (p.128). In their article they continued that foreign language anxiety is compiled of three components that appear in a foreign language classroom setting regardless of a type of a language being thought or learned. They are communication apprehension, test anxiety as well as fear of negative evaluation. Horwitz and others (1986) stated that all of those factors make destructive impact on the acquisition of foreign language. Communication apprehension concerns the fear that is created when a person has to communicate with other individuals whereas test anxiety represents the fear that is caused by the thought of having to take any types of language assessment, for example, exams. The last type of fear is given rise to because of the anxiety of being evaluated negatively by others. This type of anxiety, however, is used almost always in relation to a classroom scenario. There are not many researchers who have tried to take into consideration foreign language communication anxiety in a non-specific setting when an individual has used a non-native tongue to convey messages with people from different countries (Guntzviller et al., 2016).. 18.

(31) The Relationship between Depth of Cultural Exposure and Cultural Intelligence Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (2011) in their book entitled Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Global Business compared culture to an onion. In order to understand a culture, one has to take off the outer layers gradually, bit by bit, like peeling an onion. In their opinion onion’s most external layers stand for explicit products of the culture, like skyscrapers with streets full of vehicles around them. These are examples of deeper values and norms, for instance, “the more, the better” that are hard to be noticed at the first glance and those are located closer and closer to the core which represents the assumptions about existence. Even though it is not clear how a person develops or strengthens his or her cultural intelligence, it has been proved by Earley and Ang (2003) that CQ is given rise from the knowledge obtained from various cultural social settings and Thomas and others (2008) agreed saying that CQ is developed by means of experiences which are culturally different from the ones an individual knows. Hence, cultural intelligence is thought to naturally emerge from experiencing other cultures. According to Crowne (2008), exposure to culture is a phenomenon where numerous national cultures let an individual to familiarize with the products, norm, patterns, values that are pillars of that culture. While depth of that exposure is described as various experiences connected to a new place or setting that stimulates broadening the knowledge and facilitates deeper understanding of new beliefs, norms and traditions, it is likely to assist in increasing and improving the level of cultural intelligence. Lately, some researchers have linked exposure and CQ in theory. Tay and others (2015) also found some evidence proving that multicultural experiences have some effect on aspects of CQ. Johnson, Lenartowicz, and Apud (2006) believed that exposure not only lets a person to choose and utilize the right tools while having an interaction in a new culture, but also helps to 19.

(32) modify the way a person behaves when it is necessary. Thus, Crowne (2013) concluded that thanks to exposure to a certain culture one can learn and experience emotional and cultural behavior. Owing to interaction in a culture, a person becomes affected by that culture which, in consequence, leads to changes in the degree of knowledge and comprehension. Earley and Peterson (2004) pointed out that intercultural encounters are different from local ones, experiencing them an individual's way of thinking as well as assumptions he or she is following are challenged and questioned.. Figure 2.3. Possible antecedents of cultural intelligence. Adapted from "What leads to cultural intelligence?," by K. A. Crowne, 2008, Business Horizons (51), p. 394. Copyright 2008 by Kelley School of Business, Indiana University.. Crowne (2008) proved in her exploratory research what she had anticipated beforehand. Figure 2.3 presents that numerous kinds of exposures were predicted to have an effect on a person’s CQ. The graphic representation of possible antecedents shows that all four facets of cultural intelligence are influenced by different experiences abroad. She found out that people 20.

(33) who had gone abroad for the purposes of work or study exhibit higher degree of CQ. Depth of cultural exposure also leads to higher levels of meta-cognitive faucet of cultural intelligence. Education abroad was proved to be a type of exposure which increases all the CQ aspects.. Figure 2.4. Theoretical model of how cultural exposure and individual characteristics influence experimental learning to produce CQ. Adapted from “Developing cultural intelligence through autonomous learning from cultural exposure,” by M. Li, 2017, Autonomous Learning in the Work Place, New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, p.90.. Figure 2.4. explains that cultural exposure together with certain individual characteristics can lead to cultural intelligence through four experimental learning modes developed by Kolb and published in 1984. The aforementioned learning cycle consists of CE, RO, AC and AE taking place one after another. According to Kolb (2014) experimental learning theory (ELT) is a procedure where knowledge is developed by means of a complete change of experience, that is it is allowed by the its transformation. Knowledge obtained from a particular cultural experience (CE) works as the foundation for observation and reflection (RO). RO lets an individual to investigate culture from numerous angles. Abstract conceptualization (AC) assimilates the experience into a new cultural knowledge that makes it possible for the individual to understand what is appropriate and what is not while having an interaction in a 21.

(34) culturally different setting. Later, all the knowledge gained is used by means of behaving properly in a culture as well as taking risk performing other manners of conduct to check those which end the cycle with active experiment (AE). Moreover, according to social learning theory proposed by Bandura (1977), a person’s learning happens when knowledge or information flows. While visiting a foreign country, an individual interacts and talks with people from different cultural backgrounds, and by means of observation he or she obtains skills and knowledge on those backgrounds (Black et al., 1991). Depth of cultural exposure in the shape of international experiences facilitate people’s understanding of various cultural settings and it also gives them information on a country by assisting the process of the social learning (Lee & Sukoco, 2010). H1: Depth of cultural exposure is positively related to cultural intelligence.. 22.

(35) The Moderating Effect of Foreign Language Anxiety on the Relationship Between Depth of Cultural Exposure and Cultural Intelligence Using a foreign language is always a challenge for learners, whether a person is at the initial stage or intermediate, this truth does not change. Personality also matters as well while interacting with other people in a different language environment than a native one. A person who is more open and enjoys being put into a test is likely to experience less trouble with going out of the comfort zone and speak out in a non-native language. Looking at foreign language courses it seems that students are under a lot of stress while trying to convey some messages in another language, communication creates some levels of anxiety and apprehension. Good communication is a key to successful interaction while a feeling of apprehension about giving and exchanging ideas across different cultural societies can decrease those interactions or can make their quality lower (Cavanaugh, 2015). Being abroad regardless of reasons can be an experience imbued with the feelings of novelty, unfamiliarity, uneasiness or unpredictability. Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) reported that those can be responsible for anxiety about communicating when being faced with them. It has been explained that this kind of anxiety can lower the drive to interact with the locals in a foreign country (Lin & Rancer, 2003). Neuliep (2012) suggests it may be a stumbling block affecting communication between cultures, its satisfaction it may also hamper the adaptation to a new cultural setting. It is reasonable to claim that communication in a foreign language makes anxiety level even higher and in consequence an individual may exhibit even higher levels of avoidance and disengagement towards encounters with a new culture. Thus, foreign language communication anxiety may have some connection to benefiting culturally from an exposure to another culture. One is not able to learn properly from a cross-cultural encounter if the communication process is impeded, since as Tung (1993) stated, communication is the bedrock of mutual understanding.. 23.

(36) For those reasons, it is feasible to claim that foreign language communication anxiety can negatively moderate the relationship between depth of cultural exposure and cultural intelligence. In other words, if an individual exhibits lower levels of FLCA, the relationship between depth of cultural exposure and cultural intelligence with be strengthened while higher levels of FLCA will weaken the relationship. H2: Foreign language communication anxiety negatively moderates the relationship between cultural exposure: depth of cultural exposure and cultural intelligence.. Control variables Education Ang and Dyne (2008) reported that cultural knowledge, which is cognitive CQ is a part of, can be obtained by education and experience. Cultural intelligence was also previously associated with education (Ang et al., 2007; Tay et al., 2015). Education can also change beliefs, and which are a part of cognitive CQ (Chao, Takeuchi, & Farh, 2017; Dweck, 2006).. Number of countries visited According to Alon and others (2016) research, it shows that number of countries an individual visited has a positive influence on some of the faucets of CQ in one of the population samples tested. Also, Engle and Crowne (2014) mentioned short term international visits contributed to growth of CQ in 79% of the subjects tested in the research, which may signify trips to foreign countries have positive influence on CQ increasement.. 24.

(37) CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter elaborates on the methodology of the research. It includes the explanation of the framework, research hypothesis, research procedure, the methods applied, target population and sample. This study made use of quantitative research approach to examine the relationships between depth of cultural exposure, cultural intelligence (CQ) and foreign language communication anxiety (FLCA).. Research Framework The research framework was developed in the accordance with the review of the literature. Based on the literature review, it has been shown that there is a strong relationship between depth of cultural exposure and cultural intelligence which are the independent and dependent variable respectively in this study. The framework also utilized foreign language communication anxiety as its moderator. The other crucial information to the framework is education and number of countries visited are used as control variables.. Figure 3.1. Research framework.. 25.

(38) Research Hypotheses Based on the proposed questions and literature review, the hypotheses below were examined: Hypothesis 1: Depth of cultural exposure is positively related to cultural intelligence. Hypothesis 2: Foreign language anxiety significantly and negatively moderates the relationship between depth of cultural exposure and cultural intelligence.. Research Procedure The procedure of this research is shown below. Please see the Figure 3.2.. Figure 3.2. Research procedure.. 26.

(39) Target Population and Sample The target population of this research are Taiwanese students who have had an experience of studying abroad regardless of the program and target country, except for Mainland China where the main official language is Chinese. The type (exchange, degreeseeking, visiting students, etc.) was not considered. The students who graduated from any type of school were applicable too, however, the duration of staying abroad for pursuing education could not be less than one semester which is around five months, the length of one academic term may differ depending on a country or level of study, for example, high school, university. The data obtained from the Ministry of Education presented there were 63,270 Taiwanese who went abroad for receiving education in 2016 and 67,688 in 2017.. Questionnaire Design The original language of the scales used in the questionnaire was English, however, due to the fact that the target population in this study were Taiwanese students whose mother tongue is Mandarin Chinese, the questionnaire was translated into Chinese as the main language. The questionnaire was designed in two forms; paper-based copies and online which was created by Google forms. The questionnaire consisted of four sections: depth of cultural exposure, cultural intelligence, foreign language communication anxiety and demographics.. Back Translation The original scales were in English. Since the target population was Taiwanese people, the survey was created in English and then translated into Chinese to avoid misunderstandings. In order to ensure the quality and accurateness of the translation in Chinese, the version in Mandarin was checked and corrected by classmates and a professor fluent in both languages.. 27.

(40) Pilot test This research was a quantitative one. Before the data collection the pilot test had been conducted. From the survey online 40 valid samples were obtained. The period for data collection was about a month. The Cronbach’s alpha (α) coefficient values of the variables are as follows depth of cultural exposure .63, cultural intelligence .93 and foreign language communication anxiety .96. Table 3.1 shows Cronbach’s α coefficient value was measured to check the internal consistency of a measurement. The Cronbach’s α coefficient of cultural intelligence and foreign language communication turned to be very high presenting a great internal consistency. When it comes to depth of cultural exposure, its α value did not exceed .70, however, it might have been caused by the fact that the sample used to the pilot test was not big enough. Table 3.1. Cronbach’s α Coefficient of the Measurement in Pilot Test (N = 40) Cronbach’s α. Variables 1. Depth of cultural exposure. .63. 2. Cultural intelligence. .93. 3. Foreign language communication. .96. anxiety. Data collection The data was obtained by the distribution of a self-reported questionnaire, it was compiled by using Google forms and sent to the Facebook groups which gather Taiwanese people studying abroad. Also, the link to the survey was distributed to friends of the researcher and the researcher’s friends who had the experience of studying abroad. The researcher got 213 valid responses.. 28.

(41) Measurement Depth of Cultural Exposure The literature review reveals that studies on cultural exposure in the past do not determine this variable in great details. International exposure measurement differs a lot from one research to another and it is frequently simplified, that is also why in order to collect information on the complex character of depth of cultural exposure, this research utilized the items developed by Crowne (2013). The depth of CE was measured by indicating how frequent the participants interacted with the local people while studying abroad. I was calculated on the 5-point Likert scale starting from 1 (never) and ending at 5 (always). Table 3.2. Items of Depth of Cultural Exposure No. Items. 1. How often did you visit local shops?. 2. How often did you visit local food markets?. 3. How often did you visit local restaurants?. 4. How often did you meet local residents?. Note. Adopted from “Cultural exposure, emotional intelligence, and cultural intelligence: an exploratory study,” by K. A. Crowne. 2013, International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 13(1), p. 5-22.. Cultural Intelligence (CQ) Cultural intelligence (CQ) indicates a person’s capability to handle culturally different situations (Earley, 2002). This study made use of the cultural intelligence scale (CQS) that was compiled by Ang and the colleagues (2007). The very scale consists of twenty items that are grouped into four dimensions: meta-cognitive CQ, cognitive CQ, motivational CQ as well as behavioral CQ. There are four items measuring meta-cognitive CQ, for instance, “I adjust my. 29.

(42) cultural knowledge as I interact with people from a culture that is unfamiliar to me”; cognitive CQ has six items and one of its question included is “I know the cultural values and religious beliefs of other cultures”; there are five items found in motivational CQ, “I enjoy living in cultures that are unfamiliar to me”; and behavioral CQ involves five items, for example “I use pause and silence differently to suit different cross-cultural situations”. The questionnaire was filled in by the respondents on the basis of their honest opinions while living abroad. This part of the questionnaire was measured by means of a 5-point Likert scale starting from 1 (strongly disagree) and ending at 5 (strongly agree). The lowest score means that an individual has problems with adapting to a new cultural environment, while the highest sore shows that the very person easily adjusts to an unknown culture, understands its values and norms and at the same time is able to express proper verbal and nonverbal responses. Table 3.3. Items of Cultural Intelligence Dimension No Metacognitive. 1. CQ. Items. I am conscious of the cultural knowledge I use when interacting with people with different cultural backgrounds.. 2. I adjust my cultural knowledge as I interact with people from a culture that is unfamiliar to me.. 3. I am conscious of the cultural knowledge I apply to cross-cultural interactions.. 4. I check the accuracy of my cultural knowledge as I interact with people from different cultures. (continued). 30.

(43) Table 3.3. (continued) Dimension. No. Items. Cognitive. 5. I know the legal and economic systems of other cultures.. CQ. 6. I know the rules (e.g., vocabulary, grammar) of other languages.. 7. I know the cultural values and religious beliefs of other cultures.. 8. I know the marriage systems of other cultures.. 9. I know the arts and crafts of other cultures.. 10. I know the rules for expressing nonverbal behaviors in other cultures.. Motivational. 11. I enjoy interacting with people from different cultures.. CQ. 12. I am confident that I can socialize with locals in a culture that is unfamiliar to me.. 13. I am sure I can deal with the stresses of adjusting to a culture that is new to me.. 14. I enjoy living in cultures that are unfamiliar to me.. 15. I am confident that I can get accustomed to the shopping conditions in a different culture.. Behavioral. 16. CQ. I change my verbal behavior (e.g. accent, tone) when a crosscultural interaction requires it.. 17. I use pause and silence differently to suit different cross-cultural situations.. 18. I am conscious of the cultural knowledge I use when interacting with people with different cultural backgrounds.. 19. I adjust my cultural knowledge as I interact with people from a culture that is unfamiliar to me.. 20. I am conscious of the cultural knowledge I apply to cross-cultural interactions.. Note. Adopted from “Cultural intelligence: its measurement and effects on cultural judgement and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance,” by S. Ang et al. 2007, Management and Organization Review, 3(3), p. 335-371.. 31.

(44) Foreign Language Communication Anxiety (FLCA) In this research in order to measure foreign language communication anxiety which is “the feeling of tension and apprehension specifically associated with second language [or third, or fourth, etc.] contexts, including speaking, listening, and learning” (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1994, p.284) a measure developed by Guntzviller and colleagues (2016) was applied. It is suitable for various settings where a foreign language may be used to communicate. Even though, the measure is suggested as a new one, it strongly avails itself of the concepts and wording introduced in the measure of FLCA to a classroom context developed by Horwitz and others (1986), a medical setting by Guntzviller, Jensen, King and Davis (2011). The questionnaire questions were adapted by Guntzviller and others (2016) to match to settings that are not related to a specific context, but to a general one and it consists of twenty-two items. The responses were fitted into a 7-point Likert scale beginning at 1 (strongly disagree) and ending at 7 (strongly agree). The lowest number means that an individual’s scores low on foreign language communication anxiety while a person suffers from high levels of foreign language communication anxiety if he or she ends up choosing the highest number. Table 3.4. Items of Foreign Language Communication Anxiety Dimension Physical. No. Item. 1. I start to panic when I have to speak in the language without. Anxiety (P). preparation. 2. When speaking to a native speaker, I can get so nervous I forget things I know.. 4. I get nervous and confused when I speak in the language.. 9. I can feel my heart pounding when I have to talk to in the language.. 10. I feel very self-conscious when I speak the language in front of other people.. 11. I do not feel confident when I speak in the language. (continued). 32.

(45) Table 3.4. (continued) Fear of making. 3. mistakes (M). I worry about speaking in the language, even if I am well prepared for it.. 7. I get nervous when I am asked questions in the language that I have not prepared in advance.. 18. I am afraid native speakers are ready to correct every mistake I make.. 19. I worry about making mistakes when speaking the language.. Anxiety about. 5. I get nervous when I do not understand every work in the language.. understanding. 12. It frightens me when I do not understand what the other person is. (U). saying in the language. 13. I feel anxious if I cannot understand everything the other person is saying in the language.. 14. I get embarrassed when I do not understand what a native speaker is saying in the language.. Feeling of. 6. I fear that people will laugh at me when I speak the language.. incompetence. 15. I keep thinking that other people are better at languages than I am.. (I). 16. I always feel that other people who also learned the language speak it better than I do.. Distinctions. 17. It embarrasses me to voluntarily speak in the language.. 8. I am overwhelmed by the number of rules I have to learn to speak this language.. from general 20 communication. language than when speaking my native language in the same situation.. Apprehension (CA). I am more tense and nervous when speaking in this non-native. 21. Even though I do not usually get anxious when communicating with others, I do if I have to speak in the non-native language.. 22. Speaking in the language makes me unusually anxious.. Note. Adapted from “Foreign language communication anxiety outside of a classroom: scale validation and curvilinear relationship with foreign language use,” by L. M. Guntzviller, R. N. Yale & D. J. Jensen. 2016, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(4), p. 605-625.. 33.

(46) Control Variables Education and number of places visited abroad According to Alon and others (2018) ones of the most important factors contributing to rising of CQ levels are number of countries a person has spent in for more than a half of a year (McNulty & Tharenou, 2004) as well as their education (Crowne, 2008) .. Validity and Reliability The validity and reliability were tested by internal consistency and stability. The Cronbach’s alpha was made use for to examine the internal consistency. Construct validity was manipulated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Average variances extracted (AVE) was evaluated as well. The construct validity was estimated by means of the average variance extracted (AVE) and composite reliability (CR). The AVE is a measure of the variance amount that is shown by a construct with regard to the amount of variance caused by measurement error. It is said that the measurement expresses a sufficient convergent validity when the AVE score is above .50 (Fornell & Larker,1981). The CR value is comparable to the Cronbach’s α coefficient in terms of the general item reliability in the model. Its value should be above .60 (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988).. Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient Test Cronbach’s α coefficient is often used to show the consistency or interrelations between the items in a measurement. It is said for Cronbach’s α value to be higher than .70 to indicate high consistency. Table 3.5 presents the values of variables used in the present study. The Cronbach’s α coefficient of the depth of exposure was the lowest scoring .44. The values of Cronbach’s α coefficient of the last two variables shows a great consistency .85 and .96 for cultural intelligence and foreign language communication anxiety, respectively.. 34.

(47) Table 3.5. Cronbach’s α Coefficient of the Present Research (N = 213) Cronbach’s α. Variables 1. Cultural Exposure: Depth of. .44 Exposure 2. Cultural Intelligence. .85. 3. Foreign Language Communication .96 Anxiety. Composite reliability (CR) Composite Reliability (CR) measures the consistency of the items. According to Bagozzi and Yi (1988), the value of CR ought to be more than .60. All of the dimensions of cultural intelligence as well as foreign language communication anxiety met the threshold level of CR. Metacognitive CQ scored .83, cognitive CQ .82, motivational CQ .84 and behavioral CQ .78. Look at Table 3.8 for the reference. The CR values for foreign language communication anxiety were as follow: .92 physical anxiety .78 for fear of making mistakes, .91 for anxiety about understanding, .82 for feelings of incompetence and finally .85 for distinctions from general communication apprehension. For the results, check the Table 3.9. For the results of CR for depth of cultural exposure look at Table 3.7 which shows that the variable did not exceed the necessary threshold. Average Variances Extracted (AVE) Average Variances Extracted shows the values of the variances of a construct. Fornell and Larker (1981) suggested that its value should not be less than .50. Except for fear of making mistakes (.48) all the dimension of FLCA met the AVE threshold scoring .65, .72, .53 and .59 for physical anxiety, anxiety about understanding, feelings of incompetence and distinctions. 35.

(48) from general communication apprehension, respectively. Look, Table 3.9. When it comes to the dimensions of CQ the lowest values were noted for behavioral CQ which was .41 and cognitive CQ (.44), both of them did not meet the criterion, however, the rest of them did. Metacognitive CQ scored .56 and motivational CQ had the value of .52. For the reference, look at Table 3.8. AVE for depth of cultural exposure did not exceed the value of .50. Table. 3.7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) Before the hypotheses testing, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out. CFA is a statistical tool to examine the relationships among latent variables. In this research, the latent independent variable was depth of cultural exposure; the latent dependent variable was cultural intelligence; the moderating variable was foreign language communication anxiety. The CFA results of 𝑥 2 /df, root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA), goodness-of-fit index (GFI), the comparative fit index (CFI), Tucker-Lewis non-normed index (TLI), incremental fit index (IFI) as well as NFI are thought to show the rightness of fit in the measurement models. The model fit is good when RMSEA is below or equal to .08 (Hu & Bentler, 1999). Table 3.6. shows the criterion of goodness fit indices and its references. Table 3.6. The Values of Good Fit Indices Fit indices. Criteria Required. References. χ²/df. <3. Carmines & Mclver, 1981; Kline, 2005; Ullman, 2006. RMSEA. < .80. Hu & Bentler, 1999; Schumacker & Lomax, 2004. GFI. > .80. Bollen, 1990. CFI. > .90. Fan, Thompson, & Wang, 1999. IFI. > .90. Bentler & Bonnet, 1980. NFI. > .90. Bentler & Bonnet, 1980. 36.

(49) CFA results of depth of cultural exposure. From the outset, the four items measuring the x variable were examined by confirmatory factor analysis in AMOS. CR and AVE were presented in the following Table. 3.7. Table 3.7. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Depth of Cultural Exposure (N=213) Error Factor Variable No. T value variance loading 1. 0.28. 0.69. 2.90*. 2. 1.39. 0.38. 8.56***. CR. AVE. 0.49. 0.21. Depth of Cultural 3. 0.93. 0.37. 8.55***. 4. 0.55. 0.30. 9.42***. Exposure. Note. *p < .05, ***p < .001. Figure 3.3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Depth of Cultural Exposure.. 37.

(50) Table 3.8. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Foreign Language Communication Anxiety (N=213) Variable. Dimensions. Error. Factor. variance. loading. 1. 0.22. 2. T value. CR. AVE. 0.76. 8.03***. 0.83. 0.56. 0.21. 0.76. 8.05***. 3. 0.11. 0.88. 4.88***. 4. 0.44. 0.55. 9.54***. 5. 0.63. 0.53. 9.53***. 0.82. 0.44. 6. 0.67. 0.58. 9.27***. Cognitive. 7. 0.31. 0.76. 7.61***. CQ. 8. 0.45. 0.77. 7.25***. 9. 0.64. 0.64. 8.88***. Cultural. 10. 0.53. 0.66. 8.67***. Intelligence. 11. 0.26. 0.69. 8.60***. 0.84. 0.52. 12. 0.35. 0.77. 7.58***. 13. 0.23. 0.81. 6.85***. 14. 0.25. 0.76. 7.74***. 15. 0.26. 0.53. 9.57***. 16. 1.03. 0.52. 9.27***. 0.78. 0.41. 17. 0.57. 0.56. 9.17***. 18. 0.35. 0.80. 5.84***. 19. 0.59. 0.63. 8.50***. 20. 0.67. 0.67. 8.12***. Metacognitive CQ. Motivational CQ. Behavioral CQ. No.. Note. ***p < .001. 38.

(51) Figure 3.4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Cultural Intelligence.. 39.

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