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(1)國立高雄大學經營管理研究所 碩士論文. 訊息提示、產品涉入與置入型態 對於部落格置入效果之影響 Do Priming, Product Involvement, and Placement Characteristics Matter in Blog Product Placement?. 研究生:陳亭廷 撰 指導教授:張純端 博士 吳毓麒 博士. 中華民國九十八年六月.

(2) 謝辭. 時光飛逝,一眨眼兩年的時光就這麼從我眼前走過,感謝兩字,不足以道盡現在我此刻波 濤洶湧的心情,許許多多積累下來的經歷開啟了我人生的另外一扇窗。要感謝的人真的好多 好多,首先,要感謝的是最辛苦的論文指導教授張純端老師,能夠成為老師的學生真的是一 件相當幸運的事,讓我能夠開心的做自己喜歡的行銷議題,老師所給予我們的不僅有知識的 傳授,更教導了許多人生上的哲理與智慧,並給予學生遠赴美國開拓視野的機會,這讓我看 到了不一樣的世界,也打開了我的視野,也謝謝老師允許我的任性,英文能力不強還硬是要 寫英文論文,謝謝你不厭其煩的修改與建議讓我能夠順利畢業,老師,謝謝您!您辛苦了! 感謝李揚所長一年級給予我的當頭棒喝,謝謝您當掉我,給予我調整心態的機會,讓我 成長很多,縱使我還是相當害怕研究方法這一門課! 感謝鄭育仁老師,讓我從您身上學習到 許多做人處事上的道理。謝謝吳毓麒老師,若不是從您的課堂報告開始得到自信,那麼現在 的我或許還是得過且過的渾渾噩噩過日子,感謝所上三位老師所給我的協助。 感謝經管所同學及學弟妹們,因為你們讓我的生活多采多姿,謝謝小豪及湘旻一路上的 伴隨,互相學習互相督促,讓我們三人都能順利的完成畢業論文。雅婷,謝謝妳的捧場讓我 帶東西來一定有人吃;怡嬛、逸涵謝謝妳們的熱心服務;謝謝美怡、柏齊,增進我橋牌的技 巧;感謝研究室五人幫:熱心幫忙的孟熙室長兼班代、好人代表智傑,帥氣可愛小台,以及 淑娟寶貝陪我度過苦悶的研究所生涯,讓生活中充滿笑聲,感謝施畊孙同學,總是熱心的幫 助我許多大小事,讓我對於新環境不會感到害怕,甚至颱風天不用騎腳踏車迎風上學。另外 感謝冠婷姐的細心協助辦理繁瑣的行政事務,讓我們這些小蘿蔔頭能夠順順利利一步步邁向 畢業之路。謝謝你們。 感謝我的家人,謝謝爸爸媽媽給予我很大的發展空間,謝謝你們的支持讓我無後顧之憂 的順利完成研究所學業,謝謝你們。也謝謝我兩個搗蛋的雙胞胎弟弟,能夠適時傾聽我的聲 音協助我度過我人生中的最低潮,你們也要開始加油囉. 最後特別感謝兩個人,謝謝中興大學企管系邱奕嘉老師,在我遇到困境時能夠給予我適時 的建議,引領我走向光明的道路,因為有老師做為榜樣讓我能夠勉勵自己以您為目標邁進謝 謝老師! 謝同學,謝謝你,陪我度過許多灰暗的日子,也祝福你往後的日子順順利利。. 謝謝幫助過我的人,謝謝您們成就了今日的我,我會繼續努力加油! 亭廷 敬上 於高雄大學經營管理研究所 民國九十八年八月.

(3) 訊息提示、產品涉入與置入情境對於部落格置入效果之影響. 指導教授:張純端 博士 國立中山大學企業管理學系 指導教授:吳毓麒 博士 國立高雄大學經營管理研究所. 學生:陳亭廷 國立高雄大學經營管理研究所. 摘要 置入性行銷是一種相較於傳統廣告的另一種行銷決策,透過不經意的置入影響消費者決 策。過去相關的研究結果顯示,置入性行銷能夠讓消費者產生正向效果(ex:購買意願提高、 品牌態度良好等),但在傳統廣告式微後,置入性行銷如雨後春筍般的頻繁出現,導致置入性 行銷之效果與以往研究產生矛盾現象,並非置入性行銷皆能產生正向影響。本文透過部落格 來了解置入性行銷在部落格上之應用及結果,選擇「旅遊」作為部落格討論議題,透過實驗 設計來檢視訊息提示、置入情境以及產品涉入程度來了解部落格置入性行銷效果之影響,實 驗為 2x2x2 三因子設計,分別為訊息提示有無(有 vs.無)、置入情境(顯性 vs.隱性)及產品涉 入(高 vs.低),其中產品涉入為測量變數,因此共分為四組實驗情境,研究對象來自 MSN 台 灣交友圈 889 位成員,應用多變量分析進行驗證與分析。結果顯示,瀏覽人產品涉入程度高 之置入效果較好;有訊息提示較無訊息提示效果好;顯性置入較隱性置入效果佳;當顯性置 入時,高產品涉入的瀏覽人受到影響較大。而三個變數之間確實存在交互作用。當部落格使 用顯性產品置入時,對於產品涉入程度低的瀏覽人而言,無訊息提示相對於有訊息提示較能 產生較好的廣告效果,但對於產品涉入程度高的瀏覽人而言,有訊息提示則效果較好。當部 落格使用隱性產品置入時則得到和上述完全相反的結果。本研究之結果除了擴展置入性行銷 的理論基礎,亦提供行銷人員在實務面執行之重要參考依據。. 關鍵詞: 置入性行銷、置入情境、產品涉入、訊息提示、部落格 I.

(4) Do Priming and Product Involvement Matter in Blog Product Placement? Advisor: Dr. Chun-Tuan Chang Department of Business Management National Sun Yat-sen University Advisor: Dr. Yu-Chi Wu Institute of Business and Management National University of Kaohsiung, Taiwan Student: Ting-Ting Chen Institute of Economics and Management National University of Kaohsiung. ABSTRACT Product placement is one enduring issue in the study of marketing. Researchers of product placement have often suggested that affect positively to viewers. Although previous research suggests the influences of placement priming, placement characteristics and product involvement, the links among these three effects remained unexplored. Using the blogs as the context, this study attempts to investigate how to optimize the effects of placement priming and placement characteristics when facing consumers with different levels of product involvement. An experiment of 2 (product involvement: high v.s. low) x 2 (placement priming: priming v.s. no priming) x 2 (placement characteristics: prominent placement v.s. subtle placement) factorial design is conducted. 889 participants were distinguished into two involvement groups based on a median split from Windows Live groups took part in this research. The results indicate that product placement is more effective to viewers with high product involvement than those with low product involvement. Participants are more significantly affected by placement priming than by no priming. Prominent placement is more effective to participants than subtle placement. More importantly, the three-way interaction is observed. When a blog product placement is presented prominently, no priming before II.

(5) viewing the product placement ad is more effective to participants with low involvement. Conversely, priming before viewing the product placement ad is more effective to those with high involvement. When a blog product placement is presented subtlety, opposite results are found. To conclude, this research may be of importance in explaining the interrelationship among three variables, as well as in providing marketers with a better understanding of how to use product placement in blogs.. Key Words: product placement, placement characteristics, product involvement, placement priming, blogs.. III.

(6) Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................................................... IV CHAPTER ONE: AN INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 PREAMBLE ................................................................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 RESEARCH BACKGROUND AND MOTIVES .................................................................................................................. 1 1.3 RESEARCH PURPOSE AND QUESTIONS ....................................................................................................................... 4 1.4 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS ....................................................................................................................................... 5 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................... 7 2.1 PREAMBLE ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 2.2 PRODUCT PLACEMENT .............................................................................................................................................. 7 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCT PLACEMENT ............................................................................................................. 7 2.2.2 THE CHARACTERISTICS TO PRODUCT PLACEMENT................................................................................................. 8 2.3 INVOLVEMENT ........................................................................................................................................................ 12 2.3.1 INTRODUCTION TO INVOLVEMENT........................................................................................................................ 12 2.3.2 THE CLASSIFICATION OF INVOLVEMENT .............................................................................................................. 13 2.3.3 INFLUENCE OF PRODUCT INVOLVEMENT ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PRODUCT PLACEMENT ............................... 14 2.4 INFLUENCE OF PLACEMENT PRIMING ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PRODUCT PLACEMENT ....................................... 15 2.5 PERSUASION KNOWLEDGE ...................................................................................................................................... 17 2.6 ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL ....................................................................................................................... 19 2.7 DEVELOPMENT OF BLOGS AND IMPLICATION OF PRODUCT PLACEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF BLOGS ..................... 20 2.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS ......................................................................................................................................... 22 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD................................................................................23 3.1 PREAMBLE .............................................................................................................................................................. 23 3.2 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES ......................................................................................................................................... 24 3.2.1 Influences of Product Involvement on the Effectiveness of Product Placement ............................................. 24 3.2.2 Influences of Placement Priming on the Effectiveness of Product Placement ................................................ 25 3.2.3 Influences of Placement Characteristics on the Effectiveness of Product Placement .................................... 26 3.2.4 Relationship between Placement Priming and Product Involvement on the Effectiveness of Product Placement ................................................................................................................................................................ 26 3.2.5 Relationship between Placement Characteristics and Product Involvement on the Effectiveness of Product Placement ................................................................................................................................................................ 28 3.2.6 Interrelationship among Placement Priming, Placement Characteristics, and Product Involvement on the Effectiveness of Product Placement ........................................................................................................................ 29 3.3 EXPERIMENT DESIGN .............................................................................................................................................. 33 3.3.1. Overview ....................................................................................................................................................... 33 3.3.2. Participants ................................................................................................................................................... 33. IV.

(7) 3.3.3 Research Variables ......................................................................................................................................... 34 3.3.3.1 Independent Variables and Manipulation.................................................................................................... 34 3.3.3.2 Dependent Variables.................................................................................................................................... 38 3.4 QUESTIONNAIRE AND BLOGS .................................................................................................................................. 39 3.5 ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES .............................................................................................................................. 40 3.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS ......................................................................................................................................... 40 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS .........................................................................................41 4.1 PREAMBLE .............................................................................................................................................................. 41 4.2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION .................................................................................................................................. 41 4.3 CHECKING THE DESIGN ........................................................................................................................................... 42 4.3.1 Manipulation Checks...................................................................................................................................... 42 4.3.2 Reliability of Measures ................................................................................................................................... 43 4.3.3 Preliminary Analyses...................................................................................................................................... 45 4.4 HYPOTHESIS TESTING ............................................................................................................................................. 45 4.4.1 Overview of the Results .................................................................................................................................. 45 4.4.2 Influences of Product Involvement on the Effectiveness of Product Placement ............................................. 47 4.4.3 Influences of Placement Priming on the Effectiveness of Product Placement ............................................... 48 4.4.4 Influences of Placement Characteristics on the Effectiveness of Product Placement .................................... 49 4.4.5 Interaction between Placement Priming and Product Involvement on the Effectiveness of Product Placement ................................................................................................................................................................................. 50 4.4.6 Interaction between Placement Characteristics and Product Involvement on the Effectiveness of Product Placement ................................................................................................................................................................ 50 4.4.7 Interrelationship among Product Involvement, Placement Priming, and Placement Characteristic on the effectiveness of Product Placement ......................................................................................................................... 52 4.5 RESULTS OF HYPOTHESES ....................................................................................................................................... 56 4.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS ......................................................................................................................................... 57 5.1 PREAMBLE .......................................................................................................................................................58 5.2 DISCUSSION ON THE FINDINGS ................................................................................................................................ 58 5.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH.............................................................................................................................. 63 5.3.1 Experimental Design ...................................................................................................................................... 63 5.3.2 Different Photos Presented ............................................................................................................................. 63 5.3.3 Tourist-Oriented Blog ..................................................................................................................................... 63 5.3.4 Placement Types ............................................................................................................................................. 64 5.4 CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY .............................................................................................................................. 64 5.4.1 Theoretical Contributions .............................................................................................................................. 64 5.4.2 Managerial Contributions .............................................................................................................................. 65 5.5 PROPOSALS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH....................................................................................................................... 66 5.5.1 Dimensions of product placement .................................................................................................................. 66 5.5.2 Dimensions of product classification ............................................................................................................. 66 V.

(8) 5.5.3 The synergy of bloggers and product placement in blogs .............................................................................. 67 5.6 CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................................................... 67 REFERENCE ...........................................................................................................................................................68 APPENDIX: FOUR VERSION OF QUESTIONNAIRE ....................................................................................... 77. VI.

(9) List of Figures Figure 2.1 A three-dimensional construct of product placement ................................................ 10 Figure 2. 2 the route from Involvement ...................................................................................... 14 Figure 2. 3 The Persuasion Knowledge Model ........................................................................... 17 Figure 2.4 Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of Persuasion ................................................ 20 Figure 2. 5 The types of blog ...................................................................................................... 21 Figure 3. 1 The Stages of Research of the Study ........................................................................ 23 Figure 3. 2 The conceptual framework and hypotheses.............................................................. 32 Figure 3. 3 Prominent Placement in blog.................................................................................... 35 Figure 3. 4 Subtle Placement in blog .......................................................................................... 36 Figure 3. 5 The Design of Placement Priming ............................................................................ 37 Figure 4. 1 Influences of Different Product Involvement and Placement Characteristics on Purchase Intention and Product Attitudes ........................................................................... 51 Figure 4. 2 Interaction Effect of Product Involvement, Placement Priming, and Placement Characteristics on Effectiveness of Product Placement ...................................................... 54. List of Tables Table 3. 1 Four Versions of Questionnaire .................................................................................. 38 Table 4. 1Demographic Data for the Sample .............................................................................. 42 Table 4. 2 Manipulation Check on Product Characteristics ........................................................ 43 Table 4. 3 Reliability Analysis .................................................................................................... 44 Table 4. 4 MANOVA Results of Product Involvement, Placement Priming, and Placement Characteristics on the Effectiveness of Product Placement ........................................................ 46 Table 4. 5 Means and Standard Deviations of Participants’ Attitudes toward a Company and Purchase Intention ....................................................................................................................... 47 Table 4. 6 Comparing Product Involvement on Purchase Intention and Product Attitudes........ 48 Table 4. 7 Comparing Placement Priming on Purchase Intention and Product Attitudes ........... 49 Table 4. 8 Influences of Different Placement Characteristics on Purchase Intention and Product Attitudes ...................................................................................................................................... 50 Table 4. 9 Means and Standard Deviations of Participants’ Purchase Intention and Attitudes toward a Product ......................................................................................................................... 53 Table 4. 10 Summary Table for Hypotheses ............................................................................... 56. VII.

(10) CHAPTER ONE: An Introduction 1.1 Preamble This research attempts to use an experimental research design to probe an optimal ways for product placement in blogs. The primary objective of this study is to examine interrelationships among product involvement, placement priming and placement characteristics that influence the effectiveness of the article with tourism- oriented placement in web blogs. According to prior research, we will address these varieties to examine the effect of tourism advertisement placed characteristics and placement priming to find out an optimal combination of product placement in blogs strategy for using by marketing campaigners to promote their products. This chapter traces the research background and motivation, and introduces the research questions and research design. It also provides an outline of the remaining chapters.. 1.2 Research Background and Motives Product placement has gathered great importance in recent years. It is a new tendency to integrated marketing tactics. In this radical competitive environment and oversaturated media landscape, marketers have improved more innovatively by catching the concentration of prudent customers. Using a more unobtrusive way to influence customers has become more commonplace for marketers. Product placement is one of those ways (Weaver, 2007). Why did product placement can engage marketers’ attention? We can trace back to the marvelous success of the Reese’s Candy Pieces increased abruptly by 65% following placement in the movie E.T. (The Extra-Terrestrial, 1982) (Tsai et al., 2007). Then, a noteworthy expansion has occurred large amounts of brands placed in movies (Segrave, 2004). For a latest example, Patrick Olsen (2007) noted that General Motors went all out to promote its cars in “Trandformers.” All of the Autobots were manufactured by GM. The gratuitous lingering on brands and logos turned the action flick into a two-hour-long GM advertisement. The “Transformers” sure plays like a brilliant. 1.

(11) piece of advertising. To GM, that product placement caused the consumers to receive the brand messages actively and could exposure worldwide through the movie. Product placement is like a form of “stealth advertising” (Considine, 2008). Now, product placement has been seen a useful tool with miraculous power to attract customers to that products placed in any mass media by marketers. Karrh (1998) proposed the effectiveness of product placement offers an alternative as a “paid inclusion of branded products or identifiers through audio-visual means within mass media programming”. In recent years, product placement has been noticeable and widespread in marketing field, especially while the popularity and impact of traditional television advertising have been in decline in recent years (Rosemary, 2000). Compared to traditional advertising, the most important advantage of product placement is that viewers cannot avoid exposure to the placements (Cowley and Barron, 2008). For instance, the latest famous US television show-American Idol, Coca-Cola’s marketers believe it’s worth spending millions of dollars to have their logo during programs, so they have placed laughably large Coke drinks on the judges’ desks. Audience watched the program may unwittingly see that Coke bottle. However, that would increase the brand memory and great attitude to Coca-Cola’s. This marketing phenomenon has been not a special case. Product placement has been applied in many media vehicles such as novels (Friedman, 1985), popular music (Friedman, 1986), computer video games (Nelson, 2002), and website (Shamdasani et al., 2001) and those tools have been investigate by many previous studies (Balasubramanian et al, 2006; Galician, 2005; Hudson and Hudson, 2006; La Ferle and Edwards, 2006; Maynard and Scala, 2006). Under Internet vigorous development and Web2.0 comes, website brings a new market and business. As the number of Internet users increases daily, the World Wide Web is a two-way broadcast model of media forums. Now, using Website to communicate with people globally and sharing market news is common to those prudent consumers. Web log (Blog) is that type of website communication tools. A blog is a website, usually maintained by an individual regular entry of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. People can easily record the trace of life, and share individuals story, creation, belief and so forth to friends through 2.

(12) blogs. Some sharp-eyed readers have token notice of many blogs articles placed brands and that brand advertisements can be read on the side of the blog. The popular web blog originally was used to make a memorandum of events or share thoughts to others by bloggers. Nevertheless, when advertisers (like Google AdSense, Blogger AD, PayPerPost and ReviewME) discovered the influence of blogs on readers, they paid to bloggers to be professional writers to write some sentiments on the sample product, food, travel and so on those companies paid to them to acquire those faithful readers’ trust. Unlike movies, it is hard to understand the true purpose through those fake blogs in which a company will create a fictional blog as a marketing tool to promote a product. Now more and more bloggers use blogs to record their own real experiments and feeling and attract viewers who have the same interests and hobbies to read their articles. This phenomenon let some of those bloggers being well-known, even become opinion leaders. When a blog can attract many readers and high flow rate, that blog will become an idea promotion channel for companies. There is an old saying: "You take the money, you do the job.” Whether the articles with brands were paid to be wrote or actively by bloggers, readers cannot really understand on the instant unless the prominent placement. Does product placement really work? This is worthy to think deeply. Numerous studies (Boone, 2004; Gupta and Lord, 1998; Law and Braun, 2000; Roehm, Roehm, and Boone, 2004; and Russell, 2002) examining product placements explore effects that are positive for memory, and choice (Law and Braun, 2000). Cowley and Barron (2008) indicated that it is not surprising that expose to a product placement increases accessibility of the brand or product in memory, as it is difficult to imaging a situation where the accessibility of a brand decreases after exposure to the brand name or brand logo. However, there is potential for a negative shift in brand attitude after forcing a consumer to view brand information. Friestad and Wright (1994) reported that a prominent placement may activate persuasion knowledge such that viewers realize the persuasive intention of product placement. Media specialist, David Fletcher said “Product placement works best when it’s subtle (Considine, 2008).” In addition, people will be affected by their likes or dislikes level. Viewers’ involvement with a program’s content influences the effectiveness of its embedded 3.

(13) placements (Bhatnagar, Aksoy, and Malkoc, 2004). People with different product involvement will make different thoughts about product placement. Thus, product placement could not always do well. In some special situation, no matter person themselves or different type placement probably influence the effectiveness. The aim of this research is to examine whether the appearance of placement priming will cause a negative shift in brand attitude for viewers who have higher product involvement. According to Pollster Technology Marketing, Blog use investigation in 2009 in Taiwan, pointed out that viewers most read blogs ordered from Interpersonal/friendship (32.0%), Love/ bisexual relationship (30.9%), food (28.6%), travel (26.8%) and life (23.7%). Tourism is a neuter issue. With increasing amounts of travel-related online information, tourists have an enormous number of choices as to where they travel and what they do. Thus, this research selects tourism-oriented blogs to examine the effectiveness of product placement.. 1.3 Research Purpose and Questions In this thesis, influence of product involvement, placement characteristics and placement priming on the effectiveness will be focused. This research project investigates situations in which people have varying degrees of product involvement (i.e., high and low involvement) on product placement. This study also ascertains the effects of the placement characteristics on product placement. In light of the aforementioned objectives, three major sets of research questions to be addressed in this article are provided as follows: I.. main effects of product involvement, placement priming and placement characteristics on product placement. 1.. Will product involvement (high or low) have any impact on the effectiveness of product placement?. 2.. Will effects of placement priming (with priming or not) have any impact on the effectiveness of product placement?. 3.. Will effects of placement characteristics (subtle or prominent) influence the effectiveness of 4.

(14) product placement? II. moderating effects of placement priming and placement characteristics on product placement 4.. Will advertisement priming moderate the effects of product involvement on the effectiveness of product placement?. 5.. Will different placement characteristics influence the effectiveness of product placement? Will placement characteristics moderate the effects of product involvement on the effectiveness of product placement?. III. the interaction among product involvement, placement priming and placement characteristics on the effectiveness of product placement 6.. Will the interaction effect of product involvement and placement characteristics moderate the relationship between advertising priming and the effectiveness of product placement?. These research issues above are important to understand because they contributes to the growing literature of product placement and tourism-oriented advertisers develop appropriate marketing strategy by assessing the impacts of (1) product involvement on product placement effectiveness when viewers read placement blogs, (2) placement characteristics affecting product placement effectiveness when prompting the brands or products, (3) placement priming (with priming or not) affecting product placement when prompting the brands or products, (4) how the placement priming, product involvement and placement characteristics interact to determine the effectiveness of product placement when prompting the brands or products.. 1.4 Structure of the Thesis This chapter provided an introduction to product placement and presented the justification as to the need for research in this emerging area. This thesis comprises five chapters. The next chapter is the literature review. Chapter Two will outline the theoretical foundations that underpin this research. At first, a review of product placement will be presented. Secondly, relevant literature. 5.

(15) from the areas of product involvement, product placement characteristics, and influences of placement priming will be also identified. In Chapter Three, hypotheses will be developed and the method for testing the model will be elaborated, along with the process of experimental procedures. In Chapter Four, data analysis methods and the results of the hypothesis will be presented. The last part, Chapter Five will discuss the conclusions of this research and implications and contributions of the findings. Limitation of this thesis and suggestions for future research will be proposed.. 6.

(16) CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review 2.1 Preamble The first section of this chapter begins by introducing relevant product placement research and effectiveness in current practice and how consumers to respond product placement. Next section will focus on the various concepts of placement characteristics, placement priming, product involvement and blogs. In addition, it discusses the placement priming between two types of placement characteristics based on a review of the related literature. The relevant research on the influences of product involvement on product placement is also discussed. Finally, it summarizes these applications of product placement in the context of blogs. These concepts and findings are important in offering the theoretically grounded foundation for the present research.. 2.2 Product Placement 2.2.1 Introduction to Product Placement Historically, product placement has been the promotional technique of placing consumer products or services in motion pictures in return for money or promotional exposure (Clark, 1991). The appearance of product placement can be traced to as early as the 1920s product placements were used in radio programs. The practice of product placement within the feature film industry traces its origins to the 1930s when U.S. tobacco companies paid movie star and athletes to endorse their brands (McKechnie and Zhou, 2003). In 1945, Joan Crawford noticeably drank Jack Daniels whiskey in the film, Mildred Pierce (Reed, 1989). Reed (1989) illustrated that product placement in movies became an important element of marketing programs when the sales of Reese’s Pieces grew 66% within three months of being prominently shown in Steven Spielberg’s 1982 hit, E.T. An early definition of product placement was often used as the planned entries of products into movies or television shows that may influence viewers’ product beliefs and/ or behaviors favorably. Product placement is a combination of advertising and publicity designed to influence the audience. 7.

(17) by unobtrusively inserting branded products in entertainment programs such that the viewers is unlikely to be aware of the persuasive intent (Balasubramanian, 1994). Academic research has described the impact of product placement on brand attitudes (Babin and Carder, 1996; Nebenzahl and Secunda, 1993), brand recall (d’Astous and Chartier, 2000; Gupta and Lord, 1998; Ong and Meri, 1994; Vollmers and Mizerski, 1994), and brand salience (Babin and Carder, 1996), as well as on consumer attitudes and experiences toward products placed in movies (DeLorme and Reid, 1999; Gupta, Balasub-ramanian, and Klassen 2000; Gupta and Gould 1997; Karrh, Frith, and Callison 2001;. Nebenzahl. and. Secunda 1993). Findings across these studies indicate that viewers are. able to correctly recognize brands placed in films and that consumers do not really mind seeing products placed in motion pictures. However, the successful applications in movies made marketers see the benefits of product placement, consequently largely placed brands or products in many instruments such as feature films (D’Orio, 1999), cable television (Fitzergrald, 2002), broadcast television (Vagnoni, 2001), 2001), popular novels (Nelson, 2004), music CDs/videos (Maclean’s, 2005), computer/video games (Nelson, Keum and Yaros, 2004), and blogs (Maclean’s, 2005).. 2.2.2 The Characteristics to Product Placement Cowley’s (2008) study pointed that much of the research on placement has focused on explanatory variables describing the characteristics of the placement itself, such as modality (Law and Braun, 2000; Russell, 2002), congruity with the plot (Russell, 2002), type of program (d’ Astous and Seguin, 1999; Roehm, Roehm, and Boone, 2004) and placement prominent (Gupta and Lord, 1998). According to MacInnis et al. (1999), there are three ingredient of brand information processing: motivation, opportunity and ability. Opportunity is the extent to which distractions or limited exposure time affect consumer attention to brand information in an advertisement. This concept was extended to product placement (Karrh, 2003; Balasubramanian et al., 2006). Opportunity is influenced by both a placement’s prominence and the duration of its exposure (Balasubramanian et al., 2006). Gupta and Lord (1998) used a two-dimensional approach to categorize different types of 8.

(18) product placements. One dimension was the mode of presentation (the senses activated by the stimulus) and the other was level of prominence (the extent to which the product placement possesses characteristics designed to make it a central focus of audience attention). Moreover, they used three modes to represent the subtlety or prominence of presentation: visual only, audio only and combined audio-visual. Prominent placements are those in which the product (or other brand identifier) is made highly visible by virtue of size and/or position on the screen or its centrality to the action in the scene. Subtle placements are those in which the brand is not shown prominently (e.g., small in size, a background prop outside of the main field of visual focus, lost in an array of multiple products or subjects, low time of exposure)(Gupta and Lord, 1998). The research revealed that more prominent placements generated higher brand recall (Gupta and Lord, 1998). It is not unique, but has its counterpart. According to the modality and relevance, Russell (1998) categorized the prominence of a brand appearance along three dimensions: visual, auditory, and level of plot connection. Figure 1 graphically illustrates this three-dimensional framework, composed of screen placement (Visual component), script placement (audio component), and plot placement (connection to the plot). As illustrated in Figure 1, pure screen placement would initiate visual processing, whereas pure script placement would require only verbal processing. Nevertheless defined, prominence appears to be a multidimensional variable with important implications for the individual audience member’s opportunity to process.. 9.

(19) Figure 2.1 A three-dimensional construct of product placement Visual Appearance. Screen Placement. Script Placement Plot Placement. Auditory Presence. Degree of Connection to the Plot Adapted from Russell (1998), “Toward A Framework of Product Placement: Theoretical Propositions,” Advance in Consumer Research, 25, p. 357. Differed from previous researchers’ viewpoint from dimensions of product placement, d’Astous and S’egun (1999) sorted three main types (implicit product placement, integrated explicit product placement and non-integrated explicit product placement) by the case of television sponsorship product placement strategies. Implicit product placement An implicit placement is when brand, product or service is maintaining a passive role meaning that it is presented within the program without being formally expressed. Integrated explicit product placement When a placement is integrated explicit the brand or the firm is formally expressed within the program, in other word, it plays an active role. Non-integrated explicit product placement The brand or the firm is formally expressed but not integrated within the program. The brand or the firm’s name may be presented in the beginning, during or after the program.. 10.

(20) Implicit product placement often is comparable to a visual placement of a product, while integrated explicit product placements are more connectable to auditory placements or placements where a product is used and mentioned by a main star of the television show (d’Astous and S’egun, 1999). This viewpoint is similar to Gupta and Lord (1998) claimed the dimension about level of prominence. An implicit product placement is one where the brand is present within the program without being formally expressed: it plays a passive contextual role, and is considered low in obtrusiveness (d;Astous and S’egum, 1999). For example, a character in a movie may be drinking a can of Pepsi, but the brand is not relevant to the story (Hudson et al., 2007). Explicit product placement refers to product placement that is tightly integrated into the story or entertainment content (d’Astous and S’egum, 1999). For instance, in the movie I Am Sam, Starbucks is featured not only as a backdrop to the story, but actively plays a role as the main character’s place of employment (Hudson et al., 2007). By way of review, prominence has been discussed and/or operationalized as the size of the product or logo, centrality in the screen integration into the plot, centrality to the plot, number of mentions, duration on screen, strength of the placement and/ or modality (Auty and Lewis, 2004; Babin and Carder, 1996; Bhatnagar, Aksoy, and Malkoc, 2004; Gupta and Lord, 1998; Law and Braun, 2000; Russell, 2002). Furthermore, which type of product placement is better? Gupta and Lord (1998) found that recall and recognition are better for prominently placed products rather than those simply appearing in the background subtle placements. Schneider and Cornwell (2005) have replicated the findings. Prominent placement has consistently been found to determine memory performance with more prominent brands better remembered than less prominent ones (Banbin and Carder, 1996; Gupta and Lord, 1998; Law and Braun, 2000) and those researchers demonstrated that the more prominent the placement, the greater the impact.. 11.

(21) 2.3 Involvement 2.3.1 Introduction to Involvement The concept of involvement originated in the field of social psychology (Sherrif, 1965). Krugman (1965) first brought and applied the involvement concept into marketing. Involvement has been one of the most frequently studied issues in advertising and consumer research (Petty and Cacioppo, 1981; Zaichkowsky, 1985). Greenwald and Leavitt (1984) suggested involvement as a process, whereas Andrews, Durvasula, and Akhter (1990) have conceptualized it as a state. Involvement has been defined by its antecedents as well as by its consequences (Andrews, Durvasula, and Akhter, 1990). Involvement has often regarded as one of the important moderator that determine purchase decisions (Celsi and Olson, 1988). Several studies (Bloch,1983; Mittal and Lee, 1989; Muehling et al., 1993) has focused on pre-purchase settings in the context of decision making and advertising, with little attention being given to the construct as it affects consumer behavior on an enduring basis. In short, involvement refers to the degree to which a person perceives a product to be personally relevant (Zaichkowsky, 1985). In other words, involvement is relevant to consumers and it dominates consumers how to think and how to do. O’Cass ( 2000) investigated that the level of involvement is assumed to change only to the degree that changes in the consumer’s value system occur on an enduring basis as a result of interaction with a stimulus and environment. Krugman (1965) argues that under high involvement, a communication affects cognitions, than attitudes, than behavior, whereas under low involvement a communication affects cognitions, than behavior, than attitudes. That is to say that under high involvement conditions, the focus of thought is on the content of the persuasive message, whereas under low involvement conditions, the focus of thought is on non-content cues (Petty and Cacioppo, 1981). An extensive review of the literature led Vakratsas and Ambler (1999) to conclude,” different people respond to different advertisements in different ways, depending on their involvement.. 12.

(22) 2.3.2 The Classification of Involvement Krugman (1965) asserted that involvement with advertisement as understanding a consumer’s involvement level or response after receiving advertising information based on a consumer’s concern about advertising information. In conceptualizing involvement, Zaichkowsky (1986) and Bloch and Richins (1983) viewed involvement as having three major antecedent factors-person, stimulus, and situation. One or more of these factors could affect the level of involvement with the stimulus in context of involvement with products (Hupfer and Gardner, 1971), with advertisements (Krugman, 1965), or with purchase situations (Clarke and Belk, 1978). Based on the above-mentioned, Zaichkowsky (1985) identified three major groupings of involvement and has labeled these as: product involvement, advertisement involvement, and purchase involvement. Product involvement means to lead to greater perception of attribute differences, perception of greater product importance, and greater commitment to brand choice (Howard and Sheth, 1969). Advertisement involvement leads one to give more counterarguments to the advertisement (Wright, 1974). Purchase involvement leads one to search for more information and spend more time searching for the right selection (Clarke and Belk, 1978). However, Zaichkowsky (1985) only stressed the classification of involvement, but ignored the interrelationship among product involvement, advertisement involvement, and purchase involvement. Mittal and Lee (1989) argued that product involvement is an antecedent to purchase decision involvement. O’Clas (2000) followed this viewpoint and extended to include purchase decision, consumption, and advertising involvement .He revealed that product involvement was the exogenous construct and consumption, purchase decision and advertising involvement were the endogenous constructs in the relationship. The findings displayed in Figure 2.1.. 13.

(23) Figure 2. 2 the route from Involvement R2 = 0.96. R2 = 0.79 Purchase Decision Involvement. Consumption Involvement .89. R2 = 0.64. .98 .80 Product Involvement. Advertising Involvement. Adapted from A. O’Cass (1999), “An assessment of consumers product, purchase decision, advertising and consumption involvement in fashion clothing,” 2000, p. 566.. 2.3.3 Influence of Product Involvement on the Effectiveness of Product Placement Product involvement research concerns the relevance of the product to the needs and values of the consumer. Several research investigated the differences in low and high involvement behavior (e.g., Belk, 1982; Bowen and Chaffee, 1974; Lastovicka, 1979; Lastovicka and Gardner, 1978b; Robertson, 1976; Tyebjee, 1979). Zaichkowsky (1985) concluded those findings about what composed the differences between having high or low involvement in a product. Under the low involvement situation, researchers (e.g., Belk, 1982; Bowen and Chaffee, 1974; Lastovicka, 1979; Lastovicka and Gardner, 1978b; Robertson, 1976; Tyebjee, 1979) proposed: 1. A relative lack of active information seeking about brands 2.. Little comparison among product attributes. 3. Perception of similarity among different brands 4. No special preference for particular brand. 14.

(24) As mentioned above, people with low product involvement would have less enthusiasm to search information and inactively to receive messages about product. Zaichkowsky (1985) pointed that high involvement consumers should be more interested in acquiring information about the product than low involvement consumer. Studies examined that consumers engage in more information processing as their level of involvement with a product class increases (Celsi and Olson, 1988). On the other hand, highly involved consumer would search for more information about the respective product class, would be more receptive, and would be more knowledgeable about it. Their grater interest and knowledge leads highly involved consumers to talk more about a product class than other consumer groups (Florian, 2007). Numerous studies have found that high involvement increases memory for message information (e.g., Gardner, Mitchell, and Russo, 1985). Terry and Scott (1992) proved that higher involvement led to better memory. Ray et al. (1973) describe high involvement in terms of their "learning hierarchy," in which a communication directly produces cognitive change that can in turn produce attitude change and then behavior change. Moreover, high involvement increases the number of consumer’s own thoughts generated in reaction to a persuasive message (Greenwald, 1968). Cowley (2008) investigated that viewers with higher involvement in program were more likely than those lower involvement in program to remember prominent placement. However, Chaiken (1980) and Petty, Cacioppo, and Schumann (1983) have demonstrated that peripheral cues, like the credibility and attractiveness of the source, have a much bigger impact on persuasion under low-involvement conditions.. 2.4 Influence of Placement Priming on the Effectiveness of Product Placement Many placements are no unforeseen occurrences for program audiences. Sponsors have taken generally taken great care to promote the appearances of their brands in recent feature films (Karrh, 2003). Given the close cooperation between brand sponsors and the managers of editorial media content, informed audience members may actually expect placements in media content (Balasubramanian, Karrh, and Patwardhan, 2006). In addition to advertising that incorporates 15.

(25) placement, priming might also occur for the audience member through memory of a prior consumption experience or awareness of previous traditional advertising (Delorme and Reid, 1999). The goal of priming is to prompt viewers to look for their placed brand in a particular movie or a television show. Such a targeted program connected advertising serves as a prime for brand placements. Priming might also occur for the viewers through memory of a prior consumption experiences or awareness of previous traditional advertising (DeLorme and Reid 1999). Priming has been used to improve the efficiency of recall and information processing (Biehal and Chakravarti, 1986; Hamer and Kahle, 1986; Herr et al., 1983; Keller,1991; Smith, 1992; Smith and Park, 1992). Fiske and Taylor (1984) noted that priming exists when recently and frequently activated ideas come to mind more easily than ideas that are not recently or frequently activated. It has been used by psychologists to aid the naming of objects (Higgins et al., 1985), evaluating people (Herr, 1986) and solving problems (Higgins and Chaires, 1980). Numerous studies ( Janiszewski, 1993; Janiszewski and Chandon, 2005; Labroo and Lee et al., 2006) have now established that contextual primes and situational cues affect consumer judgment and choice by changing not only what information is accessible in memory, but also how easily that information comes to mind and can be processed. Research indicates that objects toward which people hold highly accessible attitudes may attract more attention (Roskos and Ewoldsen et al., 1992). Similarly, movie viewers who were shown a list of brands placed therein outperformed a control group on brand recall (Bennett, Pecotich, and Putrevu,1999). The objective of priming is to remind viewers to seek for their placed brands in a particular movie or a television show. DeLorme and Reid (1999) described the central aim of targeted program-related advertising serves as a prime for brand placements was to prompt viewers’ memory of past consumption experience or advertisement exposures.. 16.

(26) 2.5 Persuasion Knowledge In order to know how people’s persuasion knowledge influences their responses to persuasion attempts, Friestad and Wright (1994) presented a model called Persuasion Knowledge Model (PKM) (See Figure 2.2). The PKM postulates that peoples’ persuasion knowledge is developmentally contingent and uses this knowledge to “cope” with persuasion episodes (Friestad and Wright, 1994). Persuasion knowledge refers to consumers’ theories about persuasion and includes beliefs about marketers’ motives, strategies, and tactics; psychological mediators of tactic effectiveness; and ways of coping with persuasion attempts (Cambell, 2000). Figure 2. 3 The Persuasion Knowledge Model. TARGET Topic Knowledge. Persuasion Knowledge. Agent Knowledge. Persuasion Coping Behavior Persuasion Coping Episode Persuasion Attempt. Topic Knowledge. Persuasion Knowledge. Agent Knowledge. AGENT. Adapted from Friestad and Wright (1994), “The Persuasion Knowlege Model: How People Cope with Persuasion Attempts,” Journal of Consumer Research, 21p. 2.. 17.

(27) As mentioned above, the “target” refers to those people for whom a persuasion attempt is intended (e.g., consumers, voters). The “agent” represents whomever a target identifies as being responsible for designing and constructing a persuasion attempt (e.g., the company responsible for an advertising campaign; and individual salesperson). Persuasion “attempt” describes a target’s perception of an agent’s strategic behavior in presenting information designed to influence somone’s beliefs, attitudes, decisions, or actions (Friestad and Wright, 1994). The PKM is an important consumer behavior model, and identifying factors that either inhibit or encourage the use of persuasion knowledge is a critical step in its further development (Cambell, 2000). Advertising is widely recognized as a form of persuasion, defined as “symbol, manipulation designed to produce action in others” (Brown, 1958). In light of PKM, when a tactic is perceived to have persuasive intent, the message will be affected by the change of meaning principle, which has implications for how consumers interpret the actions of persuasive agents. When a change of meaning occurs, viewers may “disengage somewhat from the ongoing interaction, draw inferences of some sort, get distracted from the message or discount what the spokesperson says” (Friestad and Wright, 1994). However, advertisers desire to promote their products through product placement and attract consumers’ good graces to buy those products placed. If a viewer notices that a placement is pushed from the background to the foreground, it may cause a change in meaning for that viewer (Cowley and Barron, 2008). Cowley and Barron (2008) reported that Persuasion Knowledge Model (PKM) is relevant to the reactions to the persuasive intent of product placements by viewers with high program liking as well as those with low program liking. Persuasion knowledge is not chronically activated after its acquisition; instead, it is available for activation when the consumer believes a message is intended to persuade (Cowley and Barron, 2008). They claimed that exposure to product placement is different from the presence of a sales agent or an advertisement is cause for the activation of persuasion knowledge. Product placement to consumers is a form of entertainment and there is no reason for the activation of persuasion knowledge on every television viewing occasion.. 18.

(28) 2.6 Elaboration Likelihood Model Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) was developed to explain contradictory research findings, specifically the effect of messages on attitude change (Petty and Cacioppo, 1986). Petty and Wegener (1999) formulated the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) as a theory about how the classic source (e.g., expertise), message (e.g., number of arguments), recipient (e.g., mood), and contextual (e.g., distraction) have an impact on attitudes toward various objects, issues, and people. According to ELM (Petty and Cacioppo, 1986a), consumers in a high-involvement situation tend to process more attributes whereas they pay greater attention to peripheral cues in a low involvement situation. Specifically, the ELM posits that attitude change may occur through one of two different processing routes: the central route or the peripheral route (Petty and Cacioppo, 1986a, 1986b; Petty and Wegener, 1999). The ELM embraces a “process-oriented” approach, rather than a “variable-oriented” approach to persuasion (Dillard and Pfau, 2002). Figure 2.3 was depicted the original ELM focuses on the second stage of information processing (Kar Yan Tam, and Ho, S. Y., 2005). ELM clarifies the persuasion process when people face various incoming messages and arguments. This model suggests that one’s involvement and information-processing capability will determine how people deal with various persuasive appeals. When message recipients have both the motivation and the ability to consider detailed information in a given message, persuasion occurs via the central route. On the contrary, when message recipients lack either the motivation or the ability to process the detailed information in the message content, they engage in peripheral processing. Thus, these two routes are often applied to the explanation (and prediction) of consumer information-processing behavior (Kai Wand, Eric T.G. Wang, and Farn, 2009). Petty and Wegener (1999) investigated that high involvement consumers tend to follow the central route of information processing on which more cognitive resources are allocated to judge and elaborate message arguments, and moreover, low involvement consumers, however, often pay more attention to peripheral attributes, such as the color, the transaction context, or the background music, when forming attitudes toward an advertisement.. 19.

(29) Figure 2.4 Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of Persuasion Central Variables Central Route User Characteristics Motivation, ability, personality trait. Peripheral Variables. Depth of information processing. Peripheral Route. Attitude Change. Behavior. Process flow Causal link. Adapted from Kar Yan Tam, and Ho, S. Y. (2005), “Web Personalization as a Persuasion Strategy: An Elaboration Likelihood Model Perspective,” Information Systems Research, 16 (3) p. 274. 2.7 Development of Blogs and Implication of Product Placement in the Context of Blogs Recently years have seen a growing interest in the identification and description of genres on the World Wide Web (Crowston and Williams, 2000). Blogging as an online activity has been increasing exponentially since mid-1999, enabled by the release of the first free blogging software (Blood, 2000). Lasica (2001) pointed that blogs as alternative sources of news and public opinion. Educators and business people see them as environment for knowledge sharing (Festa, 2003; Ray, 2003).. Fitzgerald (2007) said weblogs is a conversational media. In any case, blog may be defined. as Internet-based free flowing individual opinion-based methods of communication. Urszula and Kossecki (2007) said that the virtual community is a good platform of promotion, such as product placement in on-line games or embedding news about companies in customers’ posted blogs, forums or chats. They considered, so far, information in blogs can be perceived as more reliable than traditional Internet promotion, but a growing number of flogs (fake blog, written by company posing as a blog written by a member of the public, like Wal-Mart) lead to customers’. 20.

(30) mistrust. Content in Website can be categorized into two classifications: user-generated content (UGC) and product-generated content (PGC) (Cheong and Morrison, 2008). Opposite to UGC made by users, PGC were generated by producers (i.e., marketers of products). Jina Huh et al. (2007) referred two characteristics- blog content (personal stories; questions and/ or provoking discussion; sharing information or expertise) and intended audience (no specific audience; specific audience; broad audience). Furthermore, they divided 9 types of blogs (see figure 2.3).. Figure 2. 5 The types of blog. Sharing information and/ or expertise Questions and/or provoking discussions. Personal stories. No specific audience. Limited audience. Broad audience. Adapted from Jina Huh et al. (2007), “BlogCentral: The Role of Internal Blogs at Work.,” Paper presented at the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Chiou et al. (2006) observed that blog placement into two types as follows: A. Text placement Bloggers wrote down their experience and thoughts in the blog and the trustworthiness of the bloggers makes them the reliable source of the internet users and blogs tend to draw users with the similar interests to become the reader of the blog, making the bloggers the opinion leaders in the Internet.. 21.

(31) B. Background placement Blogs are used some material of a specific product or brand, making the website looks like a site belongs to the product, deeply reminding of the brand, and creating the advertising images or attitude even the user didn’t click the banner while avoiding noise information.. 2.7 Concluding Remarks At this point, all the theoretical issues related to this thesis have been addressed. This project seeks to provide greater insight into the effectiveness of product placement in bloggers. In this chapter, the concepts of product placement, product involvement and advertising priming were first introduced, with related past studies about those fields. Then, it is focused on product involvement and advertising priming on the effectiveness of product placement. The literature reviewed in this chapter will be used to develop the hypotheses in Chapter Three.. 22.

(32) CHAPTER THREE: Research Design and Method 3.1 Preamble The chief examination conducted for this thesis was an experimental study in tourist-oriented advertising placement in blogs. Figure 3.1 shows the stages of the study. This chapter focuses on Stages II-V, and the next chapter will focus on Study VI. Before all stages of the research methods are reviewed in detail, the objectives of this research will be introduced. Once hypotheses of the research are revealed, the experimental method will be defended and the general design of the study will be described. The experimental conditions that were devised will be detailed, as will the process of participant recruitment. Critical information regarding the sample of respondents will be reported, and the precise experimental procedures that were carried out will be outlined. Throughout all sections, justifications will be furnished for the methodological decisions that were taken. The next chapter will report the data analysis and results. Figure 3. 1 The Stages of Research of the Study Stage I:Identification of the research objectives and questions. Stage II:Development of research hypotheses. Stage III:Development of research design and method. Stage IV:Data collection (experimental design). Stage V:Data coding. Stage VI:Data analysis and interpretation of results. 23.

(33) 3.2 Research Hypotheses This study is designed to extend the prior findings on effectiveness of product placement. In the following, hypotheses will be developed, drawing on appropriate literature for support.. 3.2.1 Influences of Product Involvement on the Effectiveness of Product Placement Involvement has been defined by its antecedents as well as by its consequences (Andrews, Durvasula, and Akhter, 1990). Consumers who have assessed a product as important to their lives will likely develop favorable attitudes towards the product. Involvement with the product moderates the effects of information processing and consumers’ attitude will change by different factors under high or low involvement conditions (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981; 1984). Based on the arguments of ELM, individual involvement and ability of information processing will determine the routes to attitude change (Petty and Cacioppo, 1986). Under high involvement, message content is the proponent determinant of the amount persuasion that occurs. People were motivated to think about the message content under high involvement than under low involvement (Petty and Capicoppo, 1981). Laurent and Kapferer (1985) suggest that people who are highly involved in a certain object (such as product, issues, advertisement, etc.) tend to actively search and process related information for decision making. High involvement consumers have higher willingness to process messages, whereas low involvement consumers are short of the motivation to transmit messages and, instead, choose peripheral cues in shaping attitudes (Giese et al., 1996). However, consumers with low involvement will devote less cognitive effort to evaluate the issue-relevant arguments and change their attitudes according to the simple affective cues (Petty etal., 1983). People with low product involvement would have less enthusiasm to search information and inactively to receive messages about product (Mitchell, 1979; Robertson, 1976; Tyebjee, 1979). Unlike that, people with high involvement would be more interested in acquiring information about the product than low involvement consumer (Zaichkowsky, 1985). Cowley (2008) investigated that viewers with higher involvement in program were more likely than those lower involvement in program to remember 24.

(34) prominent placement. It is found from the results of involvement research that people with high product involvement are more willing to receive news and research information about the product, whereas people with low involvement are less willing to do that. Based on these findings, product placement may lead to more positive product attitude and stronger intention to purchase to viewers with high product involvement. The hypothesis is proposed H1: Influence of product placement is more effective to viewers with high product involvement than those with low product involvement.. 3.2.2 Influences of Placement Priming on the Effectiveness of Product Placement Advertising priming is a tool to evoke viewers’ consciousness. The experimental paper by Boush (1993) provides extensive discussions of the applications of priming advertising slogans that influence the attitudes and perceptions of consumers towards brand extensions. Isen and Labroo (2003) observe that semantic primes that relate to the visual identifier of one of two products increase preference of the prime-compatible object over another no prime-compatible object. Research indicates that objects toward which people hold highly accessible attitudes may attract more attention (Roskos et al., 1992). It means placement priming like an activator to evoke viewers’ concern. Similarly, movie viewers who were shown a list of brands placed therein outperformed a control group on brand recall (Bennett, Pecotich, and Putrevu, 1999). Consistent with these studies, we propose that priming increases attention to, and recall of, a placed brand. Priming would exist when recently and frequently activated ideas come to mind more easily than ideas that are not recently or frequently activated (Fiske and Taylor, 1984). Priming included the product or brand messages may let viewers heed the placement in blogs. Thus, priming before viewing the product placement ad may strengthen the effectiveness of product placement. It is hypothesized as follows: H2: Placement with priming is more effective than that without priming on product placement.. 25.

(35) 3.2.3 Influences of Placement Characteristics on the Effectiveness of Product Placement Prominent product placement is more efficient to attract viewers’ attention than subtle placement. It has been reported that increasing the size of a print advertisement or of a picture within an advertisement increases the likelihood that it will attract reader attention (Finn, 1988). Engel et al. (1993) found that a stimulus which occupies a prominent position within the visual field is also likely to draw attention and this phenomenon were observed in studies of retail shelf location, print and broadcast media. Previous research by Gupta and Lord (1998) has shown that recall and recognition will be higher when a product placement includes both an audio and a visual compared to that of only a subtle visual usage. Prominence has consistently been noted to determine memory performance, with more prominent brands better remembered than less prominent brands (Babin and Carder,1996; Gupta and Lord,1998; Law and Braun, 2000). When a blog product placement is presented prominently, obvious writing included clear brand and photos may enrich participants understanding and promote positive impression on the product. It lends to the following hypothesis: H3: The effects of prominent product placement will be more effective than the effects of subtle product placement.. 3.2.4 Relationship between Placement Priming and Product Involvement on the Effectiveness of Product Placement Product placement is not cure-all. In some case, product placement may cause negative effectiveness. According to Lloyd and Clancy (1991), ratings of audience involvement were not positively correlated with advertising recall and recognition. Previous research using the PKM investigates situations where consumers must contend with a sales agent (Campbell, 1995; Campbell and Kirmani, 2000) or an advertising message (Ahluwalia and Burnkrant, 2004). In terms of the PKM (Friestad and Wright, 1994), people develop knowledge about how, why, and when a message is intended to influence them, to help them deal with persuasive event. Cowley and Barron (2008) have investigated that persuasion knowledge is not chronically awakened after its acquisition; 26.

(36) instead, it is available for activation when the consumers believe a message is intended to persuade them. Petty, Cacioppo, and Schuman (1983) claimed that under high involvement conditions, the focus of thought is on the content of the persuasive message, whereas under low involvement conditions, the focus of thought is on non-content cues. They found that variations in the quality of the claims (strong vs. weak arguments) in an advertisement have a greater impact on product attitudes under high involvement than under low involvement, and that variation in the type of endorser (celebrity vs. average person) has greater impact under low than under high involvement. The potentially positive influence of viewers’ involvement in a program on advertisement recall and recognition has been explained with reference to the effects of facilitative attention (Furnham et al., 2002). The paper by Norris and Colman (1993) reported that an involving program induces a more attentive state of mind, resulting in viewers being more receptive to the advertisements. As review of the literature (Cowley and Barron, 2008) indicates that PKM have been conducted with consumers and has suggested that message with an ulterior motivation may stimulate attention of high involvement consumers. According prior findings, viewers with high product involvement will pay more attention on the content of placement priming and the blog article. Conversly, viewers with low product involvement will pay more attention on the form of priming and evaluate whether product placement is fake. Therefore, viewers with low product involvement will easily notice those contests (included placement priming and blog) designed painstakingly behind meaning and will ignore that information. To sum up, the hypothesis is developed as follows. H4: Placement priming will moderate the effects product involvement on the effectiveness of product placement. When placement priming is provided, influences of product placement will be more effective to people with high involvement than those with low involvement. On the contrary, when placement priming is not exposed before blog, influence of product placement will be more effective to people with low involvement than those with high involvement.. 27.

(37) 3.2.5 Relationship between Placement Characteristics and Product Involvement on the Effectiveness of Product Placement Brand awareness is among the most usual goals advertisers want to achieve when using product placement (Karrh, Mckee, and Pardun, 2003). Generally definition of prominent placement is the brand at the focus of attention (Gupta and Lord, 1998). Prominence has consistently been found to determine memory performance, with more prominent brands better remembered than less prominent brands (Babin and Carder, 1996; Gupta and Lord, 1998; Law and Braun, 2000). However, a promotion in memory does not always guarantee an improvement in brand attitude. The increased processing accompany prominence may have a down side (Campbell, 1995) because it can cause an increase in counter arguing (Friestad and Wright, 1994) and irritation (Aaker and Bruzzone, 1985; Ha, 1996). Under specific condition prominent placement can have negative effects on brand attitudes (Cowley and Barron, 2008; Matthes, Schemer, and Wirth, 2007). Matttes, Schemer, and Wirth (2007) investigated that prominent brand placement (i.e., repeatedly placed brands) incurred high memory scores, but negative brand attitudes for viewers with low involvement with the program who showed sensation of the premeditated brand placement. By contrast, prominent placement did have a positive effect on brand attitudes of viewers who were highly involved with what they were watching, but had little awareness of a deliberate brand placement and little brand memory. McCarty (2004) illustrated that high involvement in the story would improve the effects of product placement that are intimately tied to the plot of the movie because involvement in the story would relate to involvement with products important to the plot. Prominent placement is made highly visible (more information) than subtle placement (less information) (Gupta and Lord, 1998). Prominent placement is more artfully processed and that leads to increase memory (Reijmersdal E. V., 2009). However, in some state, prominent placement may awaken understanding of deliberate brand placement and cognitive defenses against persuasion (Friestad and Wright, 1999; Nairn and Fine, 2008; Russell, 2003; Wright, Friestad, and Boush, 2005). According to PKM, too much information will let consumers comprehend the behind meaning with commercial 28.

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