第五章 結論與建議

第二節 研究限制與建議

本研究主要的目的在於欲瞭解當領導人採取威權式領導模式、以及當組織內部 團隊間存在自利的投機行為,對於組織績效之間的關聯性。儘管我們可以從我們實 證的結論當中,對於其中的相互影響關係有著進一步的瞭解,但有鑒於領導理論、

甚或投機主義相關理論的博大精深,本研究仍存在許多不足處,值得相關研究持續 作後續的追蹤、討論。

以下針對本研究在研究果程中所受到的一些限制,與不足之處作一個回顧,期 待未來能得到更深一層的解答。

一、 威權領導對於組織績效是否有正面影響力。

本研究假設威權領導會負向的影響組織績效,儘管得到的結果並不支持,但使 我們得知了在台灣的企業環境中,威權領導的模式並不會對績效產生負面的影響力。

然而,基於統計上的意涵而言,此一研究結果卻也並不意味著我們可以宣稱:威權 領導的模式對於組織績效會有正面的影響效果。

因此本研究建議未來研究可以嘗試以與本研究相反的觀點切入,針對領導者威 權領導模式的正向影響力做出相關假設,進行分析檢定。以祈與本研究的相關內容 交叉討論,使得威權領導的探討更加完善。

二、 威權領導對於績效不產生負面影響的因素。

如本研究於結論部分所討論,我們推測威權領導並不會對績效產生明顯的負面 影響,可能是因為文獻中所提到會造成員工負面反應的因素,如:畏懼、羞愧等,

這些因素並不代表一整個威權領導過程中的全部。亦即在領導者強勢的威權領導之 下可能有更多這些負面因素以外的其它良性因素存在威權領導的過程之中,如我們 所舉出的:賞罰分明、欽佩、景仰、尊敬等。

然而,這些可能的因素僅為我們針對本研究結果所提出的合理推測,並沒有實 證數據的支持,明顯存在不夠客觀之嫌。因此,我們也期許後續研究持續針對這些 可能的因素,一一的作更深入的探討,並加以歸納整理,使得相關的研究更為完整。

三、 東西方文化對於威權領導所造成的差異

相較於國外學者的論點,本研究所得到的結論與國內學者的研究更加符合,推 測可能是東西方組織文化長年存在差異的因素。事實上,文獻顯示早於1976 年代 哈佛大學博士候選人Silin 即曾在台灣進行過一年的民營企業個案觀察研究,並觀察 企業領導者與部屬之間的互動。其研究結果認為台灣的企業領導人極具特色,與西 方截然不同,進而提出威權與德行領導的概念。

然而,儘管領導理論的研究眾多,卻較少有針對這其中的差異作進一步的探討,

本研究受限於整體研究方向與目的的限制,亦僅對於可能造成的差異點到為止,並 未深入做追蹤探討。因此也建議後續的相關研究可以針對國情不同、地區差異、甚 至歷史因素等面向再進行進一步的討論。

四、 組織內部與外部差異

儘管本研究之樣本經過六個月的搜集,得到 37 間企業的相關資料,卻仍然受 限於樣本數與抽樣樣本的限制,無法得到更加充足的樣本資料。針對組織內部差異 的部分,本研究在研究的過程中,由於受到樣本數的限制,本研究對於每間受訪企 業的內部僅挑選一至三組不等的團隊進行抽樣調查,因此本研究並未能考量組織內 部不同部門間團隊文化差異的不同,亦未針對不同部門對於威權領導以及團對投機 行為作深入的探討,例如:可能製造部門以及行銷部門對於威權領導或團對投機行 為呈現不同的反應。

另外在組織外部文化差異的部分,本研究亦未考量不同產業間對於威權領導的 關聯性。亦即我們認為,可能有些產業是較為適合威權領導;亦有些產業並不適合 此類強勢的領導模式。然而本研究同樣礙於樣本數的限制,無法針對不同產業的企 業進行個別的分析,僅能假設每間所調查的企業具有相同的性質,因而造成可能存 在研究偏誤的機率。

針對上述組織內部與外部的差異性,我們認為未來相關研究若能盡可能在樣本 數上產生突破的話,將可針對這些差異性的部分作更進一步的分析討論,以祈能夠 使得相關理論的研究更加臻至完善、完美。

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在文檔中 組織領導者威權領導與團隊間投機行為對組織績效之影響-以組織承諾為中介變數 (頁 71-86)