研究限制與後續研究展望

在文檔中 英語「Actually」的語篇與人際分析對其漢語翻譯的影響 (頁 103-134)

第六章 結論

第二節 研究限制與後續研究展望

筆者希望以後能繼續研究 actually 的功能與其相對地漢語翻譯,並相 信有一定的研究展望。首先,本研究並未著重 actually 未被漢譯之處。的 確,本論文 200 筆的語料中,有 70 筆的 actually 缺少任何的相對漢譯詞。

筆者希望將來能進一步分析這些 actually 為何缺相對的翻譯。其次,筆者 希望能從漢語語料的角度進行相同的研究,分析漢語的「其實」和「真的」

如何翻譯為適切英譯詞,好讓筆者了解漢語的狀語強化詞和篇章標記是如 何翻譯為英語較佳,以便更全面的了解英漢這兩種語言的異同和互動。只 有更進一步從事上述的雙向研究,方能提供更仔細、更全面的跨語言文化 的教學建議。

91

參考文獻

English Works Cited:

Aijmer, K. (2002). English Discourse Particles: Evidence from a Corpus. John Benjamins Publishing.

Aijmer, K. (2015). Analysing Discourse Markers in Spoken Corpora: Actually as a Case Study.

Corpora and Discourse Studies, 88-109.

Biq, Yong O. (1988). From Focus in Proposition to Focus in Speech Situation: Cai and Jiu in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Chinese Linguistics. 16.1: 72-108

Biq, Yong O. (1989). Ye as Manifested on Three Discourse Planes: Polysemy or Abstraction.

Functionalism & Chinese Grammar, edited by James H-Y. Tai & Frank F. S. Hsueh, 1-18. South Orange, NJ: Chinese Language Teachers Association.

Blakemore, D. (1992). Understanding utterances. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Brown, P., Levinson, S. C., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge University Press.

Gray, M. (2012). On the interchangeability of actually and really in spoken English:

Quantitative and qualitative evidence from corpora. English Language and Linguistics, 16.

Halliday, M. A. K., & Hasan, R. (1987). Cohesion in English. London: Longman.

Halliday, M. A. K. (revised by Matthiessen, C.) (2013). Halliday’s Introduction to Functional Grammar (4 edition). Routledge.

Jacobson, S. (1978). On the Use, Meaning and Syntax of English Preverbal Adverbs.

Almqvist & Wiksell International.

Karlsson, J. (2015). The expectation marker actually in spoken conversation.

Lai. (1999). Rejected expectations: The scalar particles cai and jiu in Mandarin Chinese in:

Linguistics Volume 37 Issue 4 (1999).

Lenk, U. (1998). Discourse markers and global coherence in conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 30(2), 245–257.

Oh, S.-Y. (2000). Actually and in fact in American English: A data-based analysis. English Language and Linguistics, 4, 243–268.

Shyu. (2010). Focus interpretation of zhi ‘only’ associated arguments in Mandarin triadic constructions.

92

Smith, S. W., & Jucker, A. H. (2000). Actually and other markers of an apparent discrepancy between propositional attitudes of conversational partners. Pragmatic Markers and Propositional Attitude Pragmatics & Beyond New Series, 207.

Taglicht, J. (2001). Actually, there’s more to it than meets the eye. English Language &

Linguistics, 5(1), 1–16.

Thompson, G. (2014). Introducing functional grammar. London: Routledge

Wang, Y.-F., Goodman, D., Chen, S.-Y., & Hsiao, Y.-H. (2010). Making claims and counterclaims through factuality: The uses of Mandarin Chinese qishi (‘actually’) and shishishang (‘in fact’) in institutional settings. Discourse Studies, 13(2), 235–262.

Wang, Y.-F., & Tsai, P.-H. (2007). Textual and contextual contrast connection: A study of Chinese contrastive markers across different text types. Journal of Pragmatics, 39(10), 1775–1815.

Yuan, M., & Hara, Y. (2019). Guiding assertions and questions in discourse: Mandarin dique and zhende. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 37(4), 1545–1583.

Chinese Works Cited:

游雅欣 (2016),《漢語「其實」和「事實上」的語義、篇章分析與教學啟示》台北 胡壮麟、朱永生、张德禄、李战子 (2008),《系統功能語言概論》,北京:北京大學出

版社

張莉萍 (2015),《現代漢語情態副詞的語用分析──以語料庫中的「其實」一詞論述》

台北:臺灣漢語教學研究 Television Shows Cited:

Ansari, A., Yang, A., Schur, M., Becky, D., Miner, D. (Executive Producer). (2015-2017).

Master of None [TV Series]. Alan Yang Pictures, Oh Brudder Productions, Fremulon, 3 Arts Entertainment, Universal Television.

Bays, C., Thomas, C., Greenberg, R., Fryman, P., Heisler, E., Heline, D., Lord, P., Malins, G., Miller, C., Harris, C., Lloyd, S., Kang, K., Rhonheimer, J., Tatham, C. (Executive Producers). (2005-2014). How I Met Your Mother [TV Series]. Bays & Thomas Productions, 20th Century Fox Television.

Collin, D., Williams, M., Eric, R., Lane, J., Sher, A., Hochman, J., Eilenberg, D., George, D.

(Executive Producers). (2018-Present). Queer Eye [TV Series]. Scout Productions.

ITV Entertainment.

93

Craven, W., DiSanto, T., Gateley, L., Maddalena, M., Konrad, C., Blotevogel, J., Paglia, J., Weinstein, B., Weinstein, H. (Executive Producers). (2015-Present). Scream [TV Series]. Signpost Up Ahead, DiGa Vision, Dimension Television, MTV Production Development, The Weinstein Company.

Goor, D., Schur, M., Miner, D., Lord, P., Miller, C., Tredici, L., Phillips, D. (Executive Producers). (2013-Present). Brooklyn 99 [TV Series]. Fremulon, Dr. Goor Productions, 3 Arts Entertainment, Universal Television.

Kohan, J., Hess, S., Herrmann, T., Vinnecour, L., Tannenbaum, N.K. (Executive Producer).

(2013-2019). Orange is the New Black [TV Series]. Tilted Productions, Lionsgate Television.

Levitan, S., Lloyd, C., Morton, J., Corrigan, P., O’Shannon, D., Walsh, B., Zuker, D., Wrubel, B., Richman, J., Higginbotham, A., Lloyd, S., Ko, E., Tatham, C., Chandrasekaran, V., Pollack, J., Burditt, J. (Executive Producers). (2009-2020). Modern Family [TV Series]. Lloyd-Levitan Productions (2009-2012), Picador Productions, Steven Levitan Productions, 20th Century Fox Television.

Schur, M., Miner, D., Sackett, M., Goddard, D. (Executive Producers). (2016-2020). The Good Place [TV Series]. Fremulon, 3 Arts Entertainment, Universal Television.

Yacenda, T., Perrault, D., Lagana, D., Farrell, J., Lubet, A., Lieberman, J., Rotenberg, M.

(Executive Producers). (2017-2018). American Vandal [TV Series]. Woodhead Entertainment, One Man Canoe, 3 Arts Entertainment, Funny or Die, CBS Television Studios.

Waksberg, R.B., Bright, N., Cohen, S., Fetter, B., Wiseman, J., Arnett, W., Paul, A., Weil, A.

(Executive Producers). (2014-2020). Bojack Horseman [TV Series]. Tornante Television, Boxer vs. Raptor, ShadowMachine.

Textbooks Cited

Yeh. (2014). Far East everyday Chinese. Taipei: Far Eastern Book.

Chen, Y., Wang, S., & Lu, C. (2008). Practical audio-visual Chinese. Taipei: Zhengzhong shuju.

94

95

附錄

語料 Bojack Horseman (21)

1. Charlie: To what do you attribute the show’s wide appeal?

- 你認為這部戲劇之所以成功的原因是甚麼?

Bojack: Charlie, listen, you know, I know that it’s very hip these days to shit all over Horsin’ Around, but at the time, I can tell you – is it okay to say ‘shit’?

- Charlie,你聽著 – 我知道最近很流行靠北 Horsin’ Around,但當年我跟你 保證 – 我可以說靠北嗎?

Charlie: Please don’t.

- 請不要

Bojack: ‘Cause, I think the show’s actually pretty solid for what it is.

- 因為我覺得這節目其實沒有大家說得這麼糟

2. Penguin: We’re living month to month here! We’re kind of counting on your autobiography to save the company, no pressure.

- 我們每個月都青黃不接. 正指望你的自傳能拯救公司, 所以別太有壓力.

Bojack: That’s actually a lot of pressure.

- 壓力超大的好嗎

3. Mr. Peanutbutter: Mr. Peanutbutter and Bojack Horseman in the same room. What is this, a crossover episode!?

- Mr. Peanutbutter 與 Bojack Horseman 見面了,這是甚麼合作特輯嗎?

Bojack: You know, that gets funnier every time.

- 這其實越聽越好笑

Mr. Peanutbutter: You’re being sarcastic, but I think it does actually get funnier every time.

- 你諷刺我了, 但我真的覺得越聽越好笑.

4. Bojack: We’re actually in the middle of breaking up right now, so if you could just…

5. Bojack: Yes, actually, it’s very awkward. Is that not clear?

- 會, 超級尷尬的. 還不夠明顯嗎?

96

6. Bojack: Everyone thinks that I’m just this washed-up hack, but actually…

- 大家都認為我是個沒用的廢物, 但其實…

7. Bojack: Oh, god, actually what if they’re right? I can’t breathe…

- 天啊, 如果他們說對了呢? 我不能呼吸了…

8. Diane: Most people don’t even get to do The Brady Bunch version of the thing they want to do with their lives. You’re actually in a really good position now, because you can pretty much do anything you want.

- 很多人無法像 The Brady Bunch 那樣過著隨心所欲的生活呢. 你其實已 經比他們好多了, 因為 你可以為所欲為

9. Bojack: Excuse me, I just wanted you to know that you ruined someone else’s night tonight, and I hope you have enough decency to at least feel a little bit crappy about it.

- 不好意思, 我想要你們知道你們今晚毀了別人的夜晚. 我希望你們懂禮貌

至少對此事感到一 點抱歉.

Girl: Excuse me?

- 你說甚麼?

Bojack: I was actually already in a bad mood, but I thought maybe for one night, I could go out to a bar and try to forget about myself, but now because of your and your friends, I feel more self-conscious than ever.

- 我其實已經心情不好, 但我以為也許只有一晚我可以外出到一間酒吧設法

忘記我自己, 但現 在因為你和你的朋友我比以往更有自覺.

10. Secretary: Princess Carolyn needs to talk to you immediately.

- Princess Carolyn 想跟你說話.

Princess Carolyn: No, we should do it somewhere people will actually see it.

- 不, 我們應該在大家真的會收看的地方

12. Neal: Say I’m a hero

- 說我是英雄

Bojack: You’re a hero. The troops are all heroes, every single one. And I don’t believe saying that cheapens the word and actually disrespects those we mean to honor by turning people into political pawns.

97

- 你是一個英雄. 軍人都是英雄, 每個人都是。而且我不想新這麼說會貶低

這個說法而且藉由把真人變成政治工具

13. Neal: Hey look, Mr. Peanutbutter got a bucket stuck on his head!

- 黑, 快看! Mr. Peanutbutter 的頭卡在桶子裡!

Bojack: Uh, actually I had anoher point I wanted to make…

- 其實我還有一個重點想說…

14. Sarah Lynn: Andrew’s my boyfriend – we’re a power couple. It’s no big deal. It’s a really big deal

- Andrew 是我的男友. 我們是有名的明星情侶檔. 這也沒什麼啦. 其實這 很有甚麼.

Andrew: Sarah Lynn, I actually wanted to talk to you about that. When we started dating, you were the biggest star in the world, but your last few albums tanked, so now, I don’t even know what you are anymore...

- Sarah Lynn,其實我正好想跟你談談. 我們剛在一起時, 你是走紅全球的 A 咖明星。但你前幾 張專輯都賣很慘, 所以我不知道你現在到底算那種 咖耶…

Sarah Lynn: Are you breaking up with me?

- 你現在要跟我分手嗎!?

15. Princess Carolyn: I’m not one of those agents who can’t turn it off. Your Ari Emanuels and Vanessa Geckos and what have you.

- 我才不是那種滿口公事的經紀人呢。像 Ari Emanuels 和 Vanessa Gecko 等 等。

Sarah Lynn: Vanessa Gecko is actually Andrew’s agent, and she’s really great.

- Vanessa Gecko 其實是 Andrew 的經紀人,而她是真的很厲害。

16. Sarah Lynn: Guess what, Bo-J? In order to be a has-been, you have to have actually, you know, been.

- 我跟你說,Bojack,要成為個過氣藝人,你也得先做過甚麼。

17. Bojack: I know, she’s taking advantage of me.

- 我知道,她在利用我。

Princess Carolyn: Actually, it feels like you’re taking advantage of her.

- 其實說真的,感覺有點像你在利用她。

18. Princess Carolyn: Didn’t you have anyone who helped you when you were just starting out?

98

Wayne: I’ve actually been meaning to go myself。

- 我本來就打算要去。

20. Bojack: Oh that damn videogame!

- 該死的電玩遊戲。

Todd: No, it’s not the videogame’s fault. I blew it. For a second there, I actually convinced myelf, I was more than just a worthless screw-up.

- 不, 不是遊戲的錯. 我搞砸了. 有一瞬間我真的相信自己, 我不只是個沒

價值的失敗者.

21. Bojack: Do you know who I am? I’m actually a huge celebrity on my way to New York for an important meeting with a book publisher, who wants to publish a book about me because I am famous.

- 你知道我是誰嗎? 我是個大名流要去紐約趕一個出版書商的重要約會,她

想出版一本關於我的書因為我很有名。

語料 How I Met Your Mother

1. Ted: Damn it, why did Marshall have to go and get engaged? Yeah, nothing hotter than a guy planning out his own imaginary wedding, huh?

- 可惡,她為甚麼要結婚? 沒有甚麼會比一個男生計畫自己的假想婚禮更

吸引吧?

Girl: Actually, I think it’s cute.

- 其實我覺得蠻可愛的。

Ted: Well you’re clearly drunk.

- 你很明顯已經喝醉了。

2. Marshall: So, did you kiss her?

- 那你親了她嗎?

Ted: No, the moment wasn’t right. Look, this woman could actually be my future wife. I want our first kiss to be amazing.

- 沒有,氣氛還不夠好。這女人很可能成為我未來老婆。我希望第一個吻很

美妙!

3. Ted: I gotta do what that guy couldn’t, I gotta take the leap! Okay, not a perfect metaphor, cause for me it’s ‘fall in love and get married’ and for him it’s death.

- 我會做那傢伙做不到的,我會跳出去!可能不是最好的比喻,因為我的是

哀傷然後結婚而她的是死。

Barney: Actually, that is a perfect metaphor.

- 其實那是很棒的比喻。

4. Ted: We licked the liberty bell. And you know what it tastes like?

- 我們添了自由鐘。你知道那是甚麼味道嗎?

Girl: What?

99

- 甚麼味道?

Ted: Freedom. No, actually it tastes like pennies.

- 自由的味道。不,其實像硬幣的味道。

5. Ted: Look , Natalie, I was just a stupid kid back then, terrified of commitment.

- 當時我是個蠢小鬼,不敢給承諾。

Natalie: And I suppose you’re suddenly ready to get married and settle down?

- 我想你是突然準備好要結婚定下來。

Ted: Well, yeah, actually, I’m a different guy now. Natalie

- 沒錯,我已經跟以前不同了。

6. Ted: Now, our apartment was on the third floor, so I’m not sure if this part is actually true. But Marshall swears it happened.

- 我們的公寓在三樓,所以我不確定這段是真是假,但 Marshall 叔叔發誓是

真的。

7. Rachel: Marshall just ditched out on our own party. Can you get me in there? I kind of need to kill him.

- Marshall 從我們的派對開溜了。你能讓我進去嗎?我得辛了他。

Robin: Actually, I can’t even get myelf in.

- 其實我自己也進不去。

8. Marshall: What be a pirate’s favorite fast food restaurant?

- 海盜最喜歡哪家速食店?

Rachel: Arby’s!

Marshall: T’would think it would be Arby’s, but actually it’s Long John Silver’s.

- 真沒想到是Arby’s。不過其實是 Long John Silver’s。

9. Robin: Actually I kind of need this hand to eat…

- 我需要用這支手才能吃飯。

10. Robin: Okay, I’m a bit set in my ways. That doesn’t mean this won’t work.

- 好吧,我的確有堅持的做法。但那不代表我們不能在一起。

Robin’s Date: Actually, it kind of does.

- 事實上,似乎不行。

11. Matchmaker: How do I say this? This is gonna be really hard… Ted, there are absolutely no women out there for you. Actually, I got through that okay!

- 我該怎麼說呢?這真的很難,Ted,沒有任何女人適合你。我終於說了,

感覺還好。

12. Ted: Do you want to have dinner with me Saturday night?

- 周末夜你想和我共進晚餐嗎?

Doctor: That’s very sweet, but I’m actually getting married on Saturday.

- 真窩心,但這星期六我就要結婚了。

13. Mandy: Let’s all go back to my place.

100

- 好主意,我們可以回我家。

Barney: Your place? Thanks but no thanks 1994 Courtney Love.

- 你家? 謝謝,但免了,1994 年的 Courtney Love。

Marshall: Music for when we’re actually doing it?

- 正式來時後的音樂。

16. Barney: Whoa, ted, that thing you’re packing is way too big to fit in that box - 哇, Ted 那個東西是裝不進那個箱子的。

Wayne: He’s actually a really sweet guy, and he’s great with my son.

- 他是個很棒的人,而且很疼我的兒子。

18. Marshall: Come on, ted! This is your dream!

- 這是你的夢想。

101

Ted: No, it’s not. Not anymore. You guys actually think I have some lingering itch to be an architect? To work 20 hours a day and weekends?

- 不,已經不是了。你們真以為我留戀想當建築師?每天工作 20 小時,周

- 不,已經不是了。你們真以為我留戀想當建築師?每天工作 20 小時,周

在文檔中 英語「Actually」的語篇與人際分析對其漢語翻譯的影響 (頁 103-134)