A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship among Psychological Contract Breach, Turnover Intention, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

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(1)A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship among Psychological Contract Breach, Turnover Intention, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. by Cai-Rong Ho. A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Major: International Human Resource Development. Advisor: Chu-Chen Rosa Yeh, Ph. D.. National Taiwan Normal University Taipei, Taiwan June, 2020.

(2) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT At this moment, I would like to appreciate everyone who have been together with me to finish the journey of thesis, especially my beloved advisor, Dr. Rosa, and all of you who helped me within these two years and on the way of Master degree. First, the greatest appreciation is to dear Dr. Rosa, the IHRD super star in my heart. At the beginning when I just joined IHRD family, she is so warm and willing to share any valuable experience and suggestion to all the students. I feel really honor and grateful I can be her advisee and the research assistant. No matter for study, research or life, I enjoy every single moment I can talk and discuss with Dr. Rosa. She not only kindly guided me to finish thesis and conference paper, but also give me a great confidence when I am facing different challenges. Furthermore, I went through many awesome experiences with Dr. Rosa, including attending the international conference in Vietnam, and give the first try to do meta-analysis research. Her patience and guide do support me a lot to finish the thesis writing. I also would like to appreciate my committee members, Dr. Mavis and Dr. Darren. They both gave me a better overview and powerful suggestion of how to improve my thesis. Having them as my advisor and committees are the luckiest and best things during my master degree in IHRD. Second, thanks to my dear friends and classmates. We work hard, play hard. I learned a lot from all of you during our teamwork, and enjoy the unforgettable time to hanging out for fun. Special thanks to Gill and Josie, for the time we worked as research assistant together and the memorable time we chatted, and solved the problem together. The other special thanks to Sean for being my great partner for most of the group affairs for class, life and the IHRD events. All of you are perfect listeners to accompany with me and help me relieve my stress a lot. Last but not least, thanks to my family and boyfriend for supporting me process my master degree. No matter what decision I made, you are always the most powerful backup for me. In the foreseeable future, I will endeavor to be a professional HR, like our IHRD family members. I wish I could make you proud. Love you all and thank you very much..

(3) ABSTRACT Psychological contract can profoundly affect employees’ willingness to stay and contribute to a company beyond their performance requirements. With the fast-paced advancement of internet and technology over these years, information has become readily accessible and transparent. The free flow of information not only can trigger new business models, but may also lead to a change in the mutual obligation between employees and their organization. This research aims to confirm the effect of psychological contract breach (PCB) on two important employee outcomes, turnover intention (TI) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). A quantitative approach was used by conducting a meta-analysis to synthesize the overall effect among the three variables from studies published between 2010 and 2019. A total of 76 articles were included in this meta- analysis. 38 articles on PCB and TI, and another 38 articles on PCB and OCB. The forest plot, subgroup analysis, moderation analysis, and publication bias analysis were applied to test the hypotheses. The results show PCB having a positive effect on TI, and a negative effect on OCB over the last 10 years. Country difference is found to moderate the association between PCB and OCB, but not the relationship between PCB and TI. Power distance strengthens the negative association between PCB and OCB. Uncertainty avoidance and the percentage of individual using internet weaken the negative association between PCB and OCB. This study adds new value to the literature on PCB, TI, and OCB. The findings confirm the severe workplace consequences caused by PCB and lead to the suggestion to improve company’s talent management procedure and enhance the mutual communication between employees and employers.. Keywords: psychological contract breach (PCB), turnover intention (TI), organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), meta-analysis, country difference. I.

(4) TABLE OF CONTENT ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................... I TABLE OF CONTENT ....................................................................................... II LIST OF TABLES ..............................................................................................IV LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................. V CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 1 Background of the Study ........................................................................................................ 1 Statement of the Problem ....................................................................................................... 2 Purposes of the Study ............................................................................................................. 5 Questions of the Study ........................................................................................................... 7 Significance of the Study ....................................................................................................... 7 Definition of Key Terms ........................................................................................................ 8. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW ......................................................... 11 Psychological Contract ......................................................................................................... 11 Turnover Intention................................................................................................................ 14 Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) ....................................................................... 15 Theoretical Background and Hypotheses ............................................................................. 20. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY .................................................................. 31 Research Framework ............................................................................................................ 31 Research Hypothesis ............................................................................................................ 32 Research Procedure .............................................................................................................. 32 Research Design ................................................................................................................... 33 Research Method .................................................................................................................. 34 Data Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 40 Study Characteristics ............................................................................................................ 43. CHAPTER IV ANALYSES AND RESULTS ................................................ 47 Forest Plot ............................................................................................................................ 47 Subgroup Analysis ............................................................................................................... 50. II.

(5) Moderation Analysis ............................................................................................................ 57 Publication Bias Analysis..................................................................................................... 60. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ................................ 65 Conclusions .......................................................................................................................... 65 Discussion ............................................................................................................................ 66 Research Implications .......................................................................................................... 69 Practical Implications ........................................................................................................... 70 Research Limitations ............................................................................................................ 71 Future Research Suggestions ............................................................................................... 72. REFERENCES.................................................................................................... 75 APPENDIX A: CODING INFORMATION FOR SAMPLES INCLUDED IN THE META-ANALYSES (PCB & TI) .............................................................. 92 APPENDIX B: CODING INFORMATION FOR SAMPLES INCLUDED IN THE META-ANALYSES (PCB & OCB).......................................................... 95 APPENDIX C: CODING INFORMATION FOR SAMPLES INCLUDED IN THE META-ANALYSES (PCB & OCBI) ........................................................ 98 APPENDIX D: CODING INFORMATION FOR SAMPLES INCLUDED IN THE META-ANALYSES (PCB & OCBO) ..................................................... 100. III.

(6) LIST OF TABLES Table 2.1. Summary of Four Dimensions and Each Construct of Organizational Citizenship Behavior………………………………………………………………………………...18 Table 2.2. Summary of Four Dimensions and Each Construct of Psychological Contract……21 Table 3.1. Summary of the Coding for this Study…………………………….……….….…..39 Table 3.2. Summary of the Statistical Tests and Index Reported in the Study……...……….…42 Table 3.3. List for the Basic Study Information……………………….……………………...44 Table 3.4. List for the Sources by SSCI Journal and Non-SSCI Journal……………………...45 Table 4.1. Statistics for PCB on TI and PCB on OCB………………………………………...49 Table 4.2. Subgroup Analysis of Psychological Contract Breach and Turnover Intention……52 Table 4.3. Potential Moderators of the Relationship between Psychological Contract Breach and Turnover Intention--………………………………………………………………...53 Table 4.4. Subgroup Analysis of Psychological Contract Breach and Organizational Citizenship Behavior………………………...………………………………………………………55 Table 4.5. Potential Moderators of the Relationship between Psychological Contract Breach and Organizational Citizenship Behavior……………………………...………………..56 Table 4.6. Hypothesis Testing Results Summary…………………………………...………...63. IV.

(7) LIST OF FIGURES Figure 3.1. Research framework……………………………………………………………...31 Figure 3.2. Research procedure……………………………………………………………….33 Figure 3.3. Lite rature screening process using PRISMA (2009)……………………………..37 Figure 4.1. Forest plot of articles regarding PCB and TI……………………………………...48 Figure 4.2. Forest plot of articles regarding PCB and OCB…………………………………..49 Figure 4.3. The moderation effect of power distance on the relationship between PCB and OCB……………………………………………………………………………………..58 Figure 4.4 The moderation effect of uncertainty avoidance on the relationship between PCB and OCB………………………………………………………………………………...59 Figure 4.5 The moderation effect of individual using internet (% of total population) on the relationship between PCB and OCB…………………………………………………….60 Figure 4.6 Funnel plots with publication bias analysis of PCB and TI literature……………..61 Figure 4.7 Funnel plots with publication bias analysis of PCB and OCB literature………….62. V.

(8) CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION. In this chapter, an overview for the background of the study is provided, along with the problem statement, the research purpose, question, the contribution, and the limitation of this research. In the last part of this chapter, definition of each of the key terms is presented as well.. Background of the Study Organizations have gone through substantial changes in order to be more competitive in the marketplace within the last decade. These changes add to the complexity of the working environment which impacted the work arrangements and modified the nature of psychological contract that exists between the employees and the employer (Malik & Khalid, 2016). Psychological contract is a belief about mutual agreement between an individual and another party (Rousseau, 1995), which is one of the critical antecedents about the attitude towards change, and is so dynamic that it can trigger certain emotions or behaviors. Moreover, psychological contract is formed in a process with various potential affection through the external and internal stimulus (Van den Heuvel, Schalk, Freese, & Timmerman, 2016). The external stimulus is generated by the information and internal stimulus is created by the behavior of other parties in the organization. All the provocation can influence employees’ behavior and their perception toward the organization profoundly. How the exchange relationship operates and what is the effect of perceived employer obligations are the key differences among a broad range of agreements (Coyle-Shapiro & Kessler, 2002). For the aspect of external stimulus, the perceived employer obligations can provoke various work-related outcomes and possibility, especially within the well-developed Internet era. Due to the digitalization, the channels used to post job vacancies nowadays are diverse with emerging social media or the platform launched by start-up companies. People can instantly and actively or passively obtain more job information with less effort than using. 1.

(9) the traditional methods. In the meanwhile, with more new forms of job springing up, many free-lancers jobs appearing and more start-up companies setting up in recent years, people can find different work opportunities and entrepreneurial information through internet promptly. Hence, people now possess more selections to choose the job or the way of life they want. This phenomenon can be considered the way of working is changing or even moving to a new era, which means people tend to have higher possibility to change and choose their job. Employees can compare more information to measure whether their dedication to current job and corresponding returns are in line with their own expectations. However, easily accessed information and increased job choices might impact individual’s fulfillment on their current job by comparing the offer and treatment of other companies. For the aspect of internal stimulus, once the current company cannot achieve or fulfill the agreement or duty that they had promised to their employees, a concept called psychological contract breach, it might lower employees’ intention to stay and their willingness to put more effort to the organization. This issue is not only about the employees but also related to how companies treat their employees. Coyle-Shapiro and Kessler (2002) confirmed that employees will reciprocate perceived employer fulfillment of obligations by cognitively adjusting their obligations to the employer and when fulfilling those obligations. For practitioners, the implications of globalization and employment relations have renewed the concern on psychological contract, which triggers policy-makers to put more efforts to ‘change the deal’ in response to changing circumstances (Coyle‐Shapiro & Kessler, 2000). For academics, psychological contract is deemed as another opportunity to re-appraise the fundamental aspect of organization life (Coyle‐Shapiro & Kessler, 2000).. Statement of the Problem In accordance with some latest issues, the statement of problem can be divided into the practical and the academic perspectives. For the practical investigation, according to HR F.B.I 2.

(10) Report (104 Corporation Taiwan, 2018) conducted by 104 Corporation, one of the biggest job bank in Taiwan, there is a big issue regarding how to retain new generation employees, which results in a significantly different perception of turnover reason between the employer and the employees. The Workplace Climate Survey of 104 Corporation (104 Corporation Taiwan, 2018) revealed employers involved in this survey considered the common reasons for the turnover of generation Y employee firstly is the dissatisfaction with the compensation (46.8% to 48.2%) and the feeling of being ineligible and disagreeable and misfit to the position (45.1%). The second is the main concern of generation Y and Z toward better career development (51.7%). The concern of these situations is that more and more potential talents will leave the current company to pursue other achievements, which will be a loss to the company. Consequently, the questions of how to effectively retain the employees from new generation and align the concepts between both parties remain unresolved. It is also noteworthy that Smithson and Lewis (2000) had discussed the changing notions with insecurity and career of young adults, effects of uncertainty on future planning of work and non-work lives for people, which means the job insecurity and turnover intention are regarded as important issues within the young generation for the distant future. For employees who cannot leave their job for professional or personal reason, the potential consequence of psychological contract breach is lower engagement or commitment to the job, which may manifest in employees withholding extra-role contribution, specifically performance of the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). The breached expectation will reflect on the level of extra contribution to the company, because the uncertain feeling can be affected by how company treat the employee. Therefore, how willing an employee to contribute more may be adjusted with the perception of breach, which is another important issue when PCB occurs. Although OCB performance do not have an instant impact on the organization, it is still a loss for the company from the long-term point of view. On the other hand, as discussed in the previous section, there are various choices and 3.

(11) form of work nowadays due to the Internet era and the technology development such as Ecommerce, IoT and blockchain. As a result, some people decide to invest in new startups or begin their own businesses, and they possess various options from ample information of job vacancies to select their job as well, which could be a possible cause for higher turnover rate and lower intention to engage in extra-role performance such as OCB. How to deal with the negative outcome caused by the employees’ psychological contract breach beforehand is necessary for employer. This paragraph concludes that the well-developed internet may produce a cognitive difference toward retention and OCB issues between employees and their employer in recent years after the employee's experience of psychological contract breach. From the academic standpoint, although psychological contract has been studied in numerous research in the past, the most recent meta-analysis research focusing on psychological contract was done in 2007. Zhao, Wayne, Glibkowski, and Bravo (2007), who represented the first attempt of meta-analysis review suggested the researcher to continuously focus on the measures of breach in the future. Furthermore, there is no meta-analysis researches focusing on the relationship between psychological contract breach and organizational citizenship behavior in recent years. Consequently, the study proposes to figure out the overall effect between employees’ psychological contract breach and two behavioral outcomes with individual and organizational scope by synthesizing the literature from 2010 to 2019. Furthermore, there is a strong recommendation from previous studies to conduct national and cross-national research to examine a different levels of psychological contract within and across societies (Rousseau & Schalk, 2000; Malik & Khalid, 2016). Also, Thomas, Au, and Ravlin (2003) point out that the variation in the cultural orientation of individuals can affect the conception of the psychological contract in different stages of the PCB formation, which might influence the differentiation of work-related outcomes. According to Gladwind and Hofstede (1981), national culture matters to the organization, and the organizational behavior are culture-bound. It can generate the mental program which indirectly influence 4.

(12) peoples’ perceptions and beliefs, then make individuals behave in various way. In other words, some previous research demonstrates that individuals’ behaviors and attitudes toward job content and work environment could be alleviated or aggravated by the situational variables (Agarwal & Bhargava, 2013; Hofstede, Bond, & Luk, 1993; Suazo & Turnley, 2010). Hence the social group’s reaction to turnover intention and OCB can vary in different cultures.. Purposes of the Study Based on the preceding discussions, it seems that the managers need to have insight into employees’ expectation toward the company. Also, realizing to which extent they had achieved and fulfilled the agreement with employees plays a crucial role. Hence, there are some objectives of this study. Firstly, applying the psychological contract theory, the purpose of this research is to quantitatively synthesize findings across studies about the links among employee psychological contract breach, turnover intention and organizational citizenship behavior over the last ten years and raise the employer’s awareness of how strongly the psychological contract breach will affect employees’ turnover intention and organizational citizenship behavior. In line with this aim, the researcher can realize to which extent these relationships really matter by probing the overall effect size through the correlations between those variables. The first reason for including turnover intention and organizational citizenship behavior in the study is that the two variables have direct effect to the employee retention and contribution issue, which are important to each organization nowadays when facing the impact of PCB. Secondly, they have not been included in meta-analysis with PCB. Second, with the main purpose, this study focuses on the articles related to turnover intention and OCB with psychological contract defined as “individual beliefs, shaped by the organization, regarding terms of an exchange agreement between individuals and their organization” (Rousseau, 1995, p.9) to present a holistic picture of how the selected constructs 5.

(13) operate within the psychological contract breach literature from 2010 to 2019 by meta-analysis. The reason to select the beginning of 2010 is because 2014 was the year that well-developed 4G networks was launched and popularized in most of the countries. With the time passed, the popularity of social media and borderless 4G networks made it more attainable to access the Internet and online information. This progress lead to new business models for nearly all the occupations and industries. Therefore, it is possible that some of the variables may have developed different levels of effect. Hence, compared with the background before and after 2014, the accessibility of information may generate different impact on the relationship between psychological contract breach and the outcomes. Third, with the technique of meta-analysis, this study proposes to assess what factors account for the different degree of association between psychological contract breach and a particular work-related behavior. Additionally, a meta-analysis not only can summarize past research but also highlights directions of future inquiry (Zhao et al., 2007). This researcher is convinced that firstly, there could be new findings over and above what were discovered in the previous research under traditional research design, which will add value to the literature. Second, it may provide some evidence and suggestions for future researchers who would like to probe into the psychological contract and behavioral outcomes. Finally, with the suggestion and the technique of meta-analysis, this study will try to discover potential moderator that may differentiate the strength of the relationship among the variables, such us national difference. Since the variation of the cultural factors in the organization can successfully affect the different degree and aspects of behavior, so this study would like to use two of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions to see how they can differentiate the main effect, including power distance and uncertainty avoidance. The reason why these two were chosen is because power distance and uncertainty avoidance have more profound influence on the interactions between an employer and the employees than the other factors. Furthermore, this study assumes the internet popularity to be a moderator because 4G internet 6.

(14) has become a source of change on business structures and communications in the workplace. Therefore, this study attempts to test whether the popularity of internet can vary the relationship between PCB and the outcome variables.. Questions of the Study In accordance to the statement of problem and research purpose, the research seeks to examine the following questions: 1. Does an individual who experience high psychological contract breach (PCB) also experience high inclination to leave the organization? 2. Does country difference moderate the reported relationship between PCB and turnover intention? 3. Does an individual who experience high psychological contract breach (PCB) also experience low inclination to perform organization citizenship behavior (OCB)? 4. Does country difference moderate the reported relationship between PCB and OCB?. Significance of the Study This study adds several contributions to the psychological contract breach literature. First, a meta-analysis not only enables one to synthesize the empirical findings with a larger sample size across settings, but also provides a closer estimation of the true effect in the larger population (Zhao et al., 2007). Second, it can summarize the impact of past studies and highlight directions of future research inquiry. Hence, this study provides a comprehensive quantitative review of the impact of psychological contract breach on employees’ work-related behavioral outcomes. Third, this research tested the effect of multiple moderators in an attempt to can explain the variability in the effect sizes reported in individual studies, which can generate implications for future research on the psychological contract breach. Lastly, the result can help the organizations or managers have a better understanding of how psychological. 7.

(15) contract breach really matters. In addition, the result can assist the HR practitioners to review and enhance their current retention, performance management, and career development policies to avoid negative behavioral outcomes in the future.. Definition of Key Terms Psychological Contract Breach (PCB) The most popular definition of psychological contract is by Rousseau (1995, p.9) as “individual beliefs, shaped by the organization, regarding terms of an exchange agreement between individuals and their organization”, which will affect a number of crucial organizational and individual outcomes, including turnover intention. Owing to the psychological contract, each employee has their own informal contract which probably involve a high degree of subjectivity (Rousseau, 1995; Robinson & Wolfe Morrison, 2000). PCB refer to the negative feeling with betrayal when employees are conscious that their organization cannot fulfill their expectation and obligation (Robinson & Wolfe Morrison, 2000).. Turnover Intention Turnover intention is the voluntary behavior and perception to leave the current organization (Yamazakia & Petchdee, 2015) as well as a conscious desire to look for a new job with another organization (Mobley, 1986). More specifically, it is “a specific interval and described as the last in a sequence of withdrawal cognitions, to which thinking of quitting and intent to search for alternative employment” Matz, Woo, and Kim (2014, p.234).. Organization Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Organ and his colleagues started to use the term of organization citizenship behavior (OCB) in 1980s which trigger the academic interest in this type of behavior (Smith, Organ, & Near, 1983). OCB is a kind of behavior which shows to what extent employees are willing to contribute to organizations beyond the performance requirements of their own job duties (Organ, 1988). In other words, OCB is employees’ intentional behavior that is discretionary 8.

(16) and typically not recognized to be rewarded which can make the organization more functional (Organ, 1988).. 9.

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(18) CHAPTER II. LITERATURE REVIEW. This chapter provides a review of previous studies which is relevant to this research. Firstly, the definition and concept of psychological contract, turnover intention and organization citizenship behavior will be discussed. In the second part, will mention the theories which are related to this research or widely discussed within the previous metaanalysis. In the third part, will discuss the previous research of psychological contract associated with turnover intention and organizational citizenship behavior. In the last portion, the hypothesis will be developed in the end of the chapter.. Psychological Contract Psychological contract has attracted attention of researchers in understanding the employment relationships. Argyris (1960) first used the term “psychological work contract” to describe an implicit relationship between a group of employees and their foreman that arose as a result of a particular leadership style. Rousseau (1989, p.123) defined psychological contract as “an individual's beliefs regarding the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange agreement between that focal person and another party”, which was the perspective of the individual as the central element. In addition, according to Rousseau (1989, p.124), psychological contract is “a mutual obligation existing at the level of the relationship (e.g. dyadic, inter-organizational)”. The definition of Rousseau (1995) highlights the significance issue that promises of future behavior by the organization are contingent upon action by the individual in that these reciprocal obligations are defined by the individual, not organization, even though the organization is perceived as making these promises (Heffernan & Rochford, 2017). Later, Morrison and Robinson (1997) consider the psychological contract breach as the failure of the employer or organizations to meet their obligations towards their employees, involved an. 11.

(19) employee’s perception that one or more obligations of the employer are unfulfilled. With the concept of Rousseau (1989), Rousseau, Hansen, and Tomprou (2018, p.1) defined psychological contract as “a cognitive schema, or system of beliefs, representing an individual's perceptions of his or her own and another's obligations, as well as the duties or responsibilities one feels bound to perform”. Psychological contract can be regarded as a combination of the individual's dedication and organizational desire, and the organization's contribution to the individual's expectations.. Psychological Contract Breach, Violation and Fulfillment Some important concepts in the psychological contract literature involve with psychological contract breach (PCB), psychological contract fulfillment (PCF), and psychological contract violation (PCV). PCB refers to the perception and awareness of expected promises of psychological contract become unreciprocated (Rousseau, 1995). Besides, PCB can mean the perception that one's psychological contract has been breached in an inherently a fundamentally individual and subjective phenomenon (Robinson & Wolfe Morrison, 2000). PCB is also described as when organizational intervention is critical for maintaining productive relationships (Lapointe, Vandenberghe, & Boudrias, 2013). On the other side, PCF refers to employee perceptions regarding the extent to which the organization has delivered on what was promised (Rousseau & Tijoriwala, 1998). PCF is used to measures the extent to which the individual to the contract (employee) deems the other (employer) has met his or her obligations. Akhtar, Salleh, Ghafar, Khurro, and Mehmood (2018) described that there are two form of employees’ perspective of fulfillment. Firstly, perceived employer fulfillment means the employee judges the extent to which the employer fulfills their obligations. Secondly, perceived employee fulfillment means the perceptions of employees’ fulfillment of obligations to the employer. (Akhtar et al., 2018; Conway & Briner, 2005). For psychological contract violation (PCV), Morrison and Robinson (1997) presented a theoretical model and outlined two conditions, reneging and incongruence, which might lead 12.

(20) to the perception of violation. Reneging means when agent(s) of the organization recognize that an obligation exists but knowingly fail to meet that obligation (Morrison & Robinson, 1997; Robinson & Wolfe Morrison, 2000). On the other hand, incongruence is when the employee and organization agent(s) have different understanding about whether a given obligation exists or about the nature of a given obligation (Morrison & Robinson, 1997; Robinson & Wolfe Morrison, 2000). Firstly, when individual perceived being reneged on a deal by their employer with the unfulfilled obligation. Second, employees perceived the violation as a result of incongruence of treatment or obligation. Sometime the violation would not be obvious but still an inconsistent event caused by either party as to the nature of mutual obligation (Morrison & Robinson, 1997; Grimmer & Oddy, 2007). Yet, Rousseau (1995) and Morrison and Robinson (1997) have different views toward PCV. Rousseau (1995, p. 112) defined PCV as “failure to comply with the term of a contract”. In comparison, Morrison and Robinson (1997) proposed a theoretical model distinguishing PCF and PCV, stating that contract fulfillment acting as a more cognitive mediator between the employee’s perception of unmet promises and perception of violation. Given that the differences indicated, there are more evidences shown the distinct but highly related constructs of PCF and PCV (Rousseau, 2001). Alternatively, other researchers started using the terms PCF and PCV indistinctively (Conway & Briner, 2005). Suggested by the definition of constructs, the opposite of breach is fulfillment such that researchers have used PCB and PCF to refer to two ends of same spectrum, establishing a breach-fulfillment continuum (Michigan, 2017). Compared with breach and violation, breach is the cognitive evaluation that their organization or employer fail to fulfill the promises and agreement, whereas violation refers to the emotional and affective state that may come out and influenced by the cognition of breach (Zhao et al., 2007). Moreover, this study faced the same issue with Zhao et al. (2007) that many studies used the term “breach” and “violation” interchangeably. Therefore, this research will follow the same conceptual distinction and regard violation as an outcome of breach. 13.

(21) Turnover Intention Price (1977) defined “turnover” as the ratio that the organizational members who have left or quitted during the period being considered divided by the average number of employees in that organization during that time. Turnover is also defined as “individual movement across the membership boundary of an organization” (Price, 2001, p. 600). In the study of Zhao et al. (2007), turnover intention reflects the subjective tendency that an employee will leave his or her organization at certain future period. For turnover intention, the term is defined as a conscious desire to look for a new job with another organization (Mobley, 1986). Lacity, Lyer, and Rudramuniyaiah (2008, p.228) defined turnover intention as “the extent to which an employee plans to leave the organization”. Plus, Matz et al. (2014, p.234) defined turnover intention as “the conscious and deliberate willfulness to leave the organization”, which is often measured with reference to “a specific interval and described as the last in a sequence of withdrawal cognitions, to which thinking of quitting and intent to search for alternative employment”. Turnover intention has been expressed inter changeably in many forms in the literature, including the intention to quit or leave. Turnover intention can mostly precede the decision to leave the organization. Theoretical framework of Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) suggests that turnover intention is a behavioral intention considered as a good anticipation as well as the best measurement to determinant of workers’ actual turnover (Kraut, 1975; Yamazakia & Petchdee, 2015). For the actual decision to quit, it might be affected by numerous factors, including chances of career development, dissatisfied with the financial reward, low degree of organizational commitment (Rahman & Nas, 2013). Turnover intention differs from actual turnover behavior since it is the subjective perception for employees to leave the current job, which is considered the main variably for this research to explore (Edmondson & Boyer, 2013).. 14.

(22) Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) There are plentiful ways in which OCBs have been conceptualized over the years. Two of the most popular concepts are derived from Organ (1988, 1990) and Williams and Anderson (1991) (Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff, & Blume, 2009).. Definition of Organizational Citizenship Behavior Firstly, OCB was defined by Organ (1988, p.4) as “individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization”. The behavior is performed with enforceable requirement of the specific role and job with five-factor model including altruism, courtesy, conscientiousness, civic virtue, and sportsmanship (Organ, 1988). Afterwards, more research related to OCB was conducted. To make the conceptual definition more clear and understandable, OCB has been subsequently expanded with two other dimension, including peacekeeping and cheerleading, in turn, redefined as “contributions to the maintenance and enhancement of the social and psychological context that supports task performance” (Organ, 1997, p.91). Second, Williams and Anderson (1991) divided OCB into two main categories with OCBI and OCBO. Behaviors directed with the benefit of other individuals are called OCBI. The involved element of OCBI organized by Podsakoff et al. (2009) are listed as following, altruism, courtesy, peacekeeping, cheerleading (Organ, 1990); interpersonal helping (Van Dyne, Graham, & Dienesch, 1994); interpersonal facilitation (Van Scotter & Motowidlo, 1996), and helping coworkers and interpersonal harmony constructs (Farh, Earley, & Lin, 1997). Whereas, behaviors directed toward the benefit of the organization are called OCBO. The involved element of OCBO also organized by Podsakoff et al. (2009) are listed as below, compliance, civic virtue, and sportsmanship dimensions (Organ, 1990); organizational loyalty (Graham, 1991); endorsing, supporting, and defending organizational objectives (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993, 1997); job dedication (Van Scotter & Motowidlo, 1996); voice behavior (LePine & Van 15.

(23) Dyne, 1998); taking charge (Morrison & Phelps, 1999), and promoting the company’s image constructs (Farh, Zhong, & Organ, 2004). To sum up, the conceptual scheme proposed by Williams and Anderson (1991) successfully captured all the OCB dimensions from Organ’s original model (1988, 1990). With the rapid growth in the theory and study about OCB, it also produced some issue regarding the conceptual confusion about the similarities and difference in some construct of OCBs and other form of extra-role behavior (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Paine, & Bachrach, 2000). Organ (1997) pointed out that the difference between OCB and contextual performance is that the definition of contextual performance did not require the behavior be extra-role (discretionary) nor be non-rewarded, which means “non-task” in general (Motowidlo, 2000). Motowidlo (2000) found that there were some ambiguities and conceptual difficulties associated with the definitional requirements of OCB and contextual performance. Later, Motowidlo (2000) redefined OCB in the same way as Borman and Motowidlo (1993) defined contextual performance, “as contributions to the maintenance and enhancement of the social and psychological context that support task performance.” (Organ, 1997, p.91).. Dimension of Organizational Citizenship Behavior Research has therefore identified various other forms of OCB. As for the dimension of OCB, Organ, Podsakoff, and Mackenzie (2005) firstly propose seven major dimensions emerge from their review about OCB, which thoroughly clarified by Podsakoff and his colleagues (2000) as below. (1) Helping Behavior, conceptually is a critical element with helping other voluntarily by solving work-related problems or proactive cooperation. (2) Sportsmanship, a willingness of accepting the inevitable situation or inconveniences and the degree that employees could have positive attitude to deal with the extra workload without complaint (Organ, 1990). (3) Organizational Loyalty, means employees tend to prevent the external threats as well as the endorsing and defending behavior within their organization (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993, 1997). (4) Organizational Compliance, is the acceptance of the organization 16.

(24) regulation and guide which potentially seize the individual’s internalization. This concept is also regarded as generalized compliance by Smith et al. (1983), as it is a form of conscientiousness to help all people involve the workplace instead of targeting at a specific one. (5) Individual Initiative, means the voluntary behavior or speak out with the aim to transform the current situation and improve the performance (LePine & Van dyne, 1998). This form of OCB can be considered an extra-role for not only covering the work engaging aspect, but more commit than the task-related requirement. (6) Civic Virtue, which derived from previous research Graham (1991) and defined by Organ (1988) as the acceptance of responsibility to perform non-mandatory effort, helping the workforce gain more benefit and monitoring the environment for threat and chances. (7) Self Development, which make the employee enhance their work competence by training or workshop, dedicating to develop the knowledgeable skill to contribute. These seven dimensions are summarized as Table 2.1.. 17.

(25) Table 2.1. Summary of Four Dimensions and Each Construct of Organizational Citizenship Behavior Dimension Helping Behavior. Constructs. Description. Altruism. Behavior in some situation that intentionally and directly oriented towards helping a person with direct interaction (Smith et al., 1983). Courtesy. Compilation of those anticipated actions that help someone else prevent a problem (Organ, 1990).. Cheerleading. “The words and gestures aiming to encourage and reinforcement of coworkers’ accomplishments and development” (Organ, 1990, p.96).. Peacemaking. To “prevent, resolve or mitigate the unconstructive interpersonal conflict” (Organ, 1990, p.96).. Interpersonal helping. Helping coworkers in the job when they need. (Moorman & Blakely, 1995).. OCB-I. Behaviors that have immediately advantage to a particular individual and indirectly impacting the organization (Williams & Anderson, 1991).. Interpersonal facilitation. “Encompasses a range of interpersonal acts that help maintain the interpersonal and social context needed to support effective task performance” (Van scooter and Motowidlo, 1996, p.256). Sportsmanship Sportsmanship Helping with others Organizational Loyal Boosterism Loyalty. Tolerating the situation that are not ideal without complaints (Organ, 1988, 1990). “Organizational courtesy and not complaining” (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993, p.82) “Promotion of the organizational image to outsiders” (Moorman & Blakely, 1995, p.130). Organizational loyalty. Identification and feeling of obligation to fidelity to organization (Van Dyne et al., 1994). Endorsing, supporting, and defending the organization. The concern for organizational objectives, saying “with the organization during the hard time and representing the organization favorably to outsiders” (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993, p.82) (continued). 18.

(26) Table 2.1. (continued) Dimension. Constructs. Description. Organizational Generalized Compliance compliance. Individual Initiative. Civic Virtue. The behavior “seems to represent something akin to compliance with internalized norms defining what a good employee should do” (Smith et al., 1983, p.657) Organizational Recognition and acceptance of formal structure of the organization and understanding of the need for the obedience regulations (Van Dyne et al., 1994) OCB-O Behaviors that beneficial to the organization (Williams & Anderson, 1991). Conscientiousness A model of “going well beyond minimal required level” (Organ, 1990, p.96) Individual Improvement of group and individual performance in the workplace by communication (Moorman & initiative Blakely, 1995) Job dedication A motivational basic for “job performance that make people to act with the deliberate intention of promoting the organization’s best interest” (Van Scotter & Motowidlo, 1996, p.526) Organizational Behavior of participating responsibly in the governance of the organization (Van Dyne, Graham, & participation Dienesch, 1994) Voice Speaking-out and questioning the commonality for changing the better situation (LePine & Van dyne, 1998) Protecting the “The voluntary acts organizational members engage in to protect property” (George &Jones, 1997, p.155) organization Civic Virtue. Be responsible with constructive contribution in the political process of organization (Organ, 1990). SelfDeveloping Employees improve their knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) to give well contribution to their development oneself organization (George & Jones, 1997). Note. Adapted from “Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research” by Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Paine and Bachrach. 2000, Journal of Management, 26(3), 513-563. Copyright 2000 by Elsevier Science Inc. and “Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature, Antecedents and Consequences” by Organ, Podsakoff and Mackenzie. 2005. Copyright 2005 by the Sage Publications.. 19.

(27) Theoretical Background and Hypotheses This section will demonstrate the theory and previous studies related to the association between psychological contract breach, turnover intention and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), then in order to develop the hypothesis for this research.. Psychological Contract Theory In the framework of psychological contract theory, a contract refers to an agreement, formal or informal, overt or implied, between two or more agents (Rousseau, 1995). According to Rousseau (2001), the mechanism about antecedents that lead to psychological contract are activated through pre-employment experiences, recruiting procedure, early on-the-job socialization, and evolves over the worker’s tenure in that organization (Soares & Mosquera, 2019). The process involves the perception of the obligation, perceived career development and well-being via the incentives and feedback of employer. Van den Heuvel, Schalk, Freese, and Timmerman (2016, p.41) signified that “psychological contract was identified as an overruling factor with the potential of reversing a positive evaluation of the change effect for employee into a negative attitude towards change and vice versa”. As for the type of psychological contract, Rousseau (1995) explicated that there are two major categories of psychological contracts described as relational and transactional contracts. Rousseau and Tijoriwala (1998) proposed two other types, which are the balanced/hybrid contract and transitional/uncertain contract. With the aforementioned, Rousseau and Schalk (2000) developed the four dimension based on the duration and performance-reward contingencies (Soares & Mosquera, 2019). First, relational contracts can be characterized as “the beliefs about obligations based on long-term exchanges of socio-emotional factors (e.g. loyalty and support) rather than purely monetary issues” (Grimmer & Oddy, 2007, p.155; Rousseau & Schalk, 2000). Plus it includes “more direct, informal and ambiguous agreements, which clarify the significance of mutual emotional and physical investment” (Moquin, Riemenschneider, & Wakefield, 2019, p. 2). Second, in contrast, transactional contracts refer 20.

(28) to “short-term monetary agreements with little involvement of the parties”, mainly focused on economic exchange (Grimmer & Oddy, 2007, p.155; Rousseau & Schalk, 2000), as well as “the direct and explicit enumeration of duties, deliverables, compensation and duration agreed upon by all parties” (Moquin et al., 2019, p.2). Third, balanced contracts is a long-term arrangement, but more dynamic contract that rewards employees based on individual and organizational performance (Rousseau & Schalk, 2000). Lastly, Rousseau and Schalk (2000) pointed out the transitional type is regarded as a cognitive state due to organizational transitions, so that the performance terms are not specified. These four psychological dimensions proposed by Rousseau (2000) are summarized in Table 2.2. Table 2.2. Summary of Four Dimensions and Each Construct of Psychological Contract Dimension Relational Contracts. Constructs Stability. Description (Rousseau and Schalk, 2000, pp. 4-5) A long-term employment relationship for employees obligated to achieve the performance requirement and stay in the firm; for employer committed to offering stable wages. Transactional Contracts. Loyalty. The employees are obligated to support the firm. In return, the employer has committed to supporting the well-being and interests of employees and their families.. Narrow. The employees are paid to perform only a fixed scope of duties; the employer has committed to offering only limited involvement in the organization with little training and development opportunities.. Short-term. The employee has no obligation to stay for long term and is committed to working only for a limited time. Also, the employer is not obligated to any future commitments.. Balanced Contracts. External The employee is obligated to develop their skills for the employability market demand; the employer has committed to enhancing the employee’s long-term employability. Internal advancement. The employee is obligated to develop their skills for the current employer; the employer has committed to providing internal career advancement plan for their employee. (continued) 21.

(29) Table 2.1. (continued) Dimension. Constructs. Description (Rousseau and Schalk, 2000, pp. 4-5). Balanced Contracts. Dynamic performance. The employee is obligated to perform well of the demanding goals and make their firm be competitive; the employer has committed to provide continuous learning chances to assist employees achieving the job requirements.. Transitional Contracts. Mistrust. The employee does not trust the employer due to the unclear information provided by the firm, which is inconsistent with the organization intentions.. Uncertainty. Employees feel not clear about the nature of their own obligations to the firm; the employer evaluate the extent that the employees are uncertain regarding the employer’s future commitments to them.. Erosion. Employee anticipates a declining of returns from their contributions to the firm compared to the past and the employer has introduced changes that reduce employee rewards.. Note. Adapted from “Psychological Contracts in Employment: Cross-National Perspectives” by Rousseau and Schalk. 2000. Copyright 2000 by the Sage Publications. Two of the most commonly used dimensions are relational and transactional contracts. Grimmer and Oddy (2007, p.155) considered “the scope of relational contracts is more general and pervasive subject to clarification and modification as circumstances evolve”. Therefore, relational contracts might be more subjective and less tangible in comparison to transactional contracts (Grimmer & Oddy, 2007). In addition, PCB can also be seen as reactions to violations of employment-related social exchanges, and can lead to reduced work efforts. The reduced work efforts can be the task performance, but may also be the contribution that beyond the performance requirements, such as OCB. More specifically, psychological contract breach will possibly cause the employees’ negative reactions including the strengthened turnover intention and weakened willingness of OCB. As claimed by Coyle-Shapiro & Kessler (2002, p. 83), “employees seem. 22.

(30) to balance future benefits from their employer with present contributions as a way of discharging their obligations and concurrently maximizing the realization of future benefits from the employer”. If the current obligation and agreement are breached, some negative behavioral outcomes will likely to occur. From the literature search between 2010 to 2019, the researcher found two most common outcomes of PCB, one is the higher turnover intention, and the other is the lessened contribution beyond employees’ job duties to the organization, which means the OCB. In conclusion, when the promises are broken, employees’ trust and faith toward the company are destroyed with destructive outcomes, and it not only has impacts on an individual scope but also the organizational scope. More specifically, when this kind of “mutual obligation” between one person and another party in the organization is unfulfilled, it may cause employees to strengthen their inclination to leave the company and decrease the willingness to contribute more beyond the employees’ responsibility. The statements above demonstrate the negative effect caused by a violation of an invisible agreement mentally exist in our mind.. Psychological Contract Breach and Turnover Intention When the behavioral and attitudinal change occur in employees who feel that their psychological contract is breached or violated (Kickul and Lester, 2001), it can lead to employees exhibiting deviant behaviors at workplace, like counterproductive work (Griep & Vantilborgh, 2018; Li & Chen, 2018). Previous meta-analysis study has suggested that PCB is significantly and positively related to the employees’ turnover intention (Zhao et al., 2007). Over the past five years, there are numerous studies conducted to test the relationship between psychological contract and turnover intention (Behery, Abdallah, Parakandi, & Kukunuru, 2016; Hartmann & Rutherford, 2015; Heffernan & Rochford, 2017; Kraak, Lunardo, Herrbach & Durrieu, 2017; Liao, Widowati, & Tasman; 2017; Mai, Ellis, Christian, & Porter, 2016; Malik & Khalid, 2016; Moquin et al., 2019; Umar & Ringim, 2015; Van Stormbroek & Blomme, 2017; Wang, Li, Wang, & Gao, 2017). Malik and Khalid (2016) pointed out that the 23.

(31) PCB caused by the non-fulfillment of employees’ demand, which will lead to their behavioral reaction toward work, like turnover. Kraak et al. (2017) states that the different factors of breach, including job content, social atmosphere, organizational policies and rewards have been proved to have a direct influence on violation as well as an indirect influence on turnover intention. Additionally, Moquin et al. (2019) claim that a psychological contract breach will occur with high possibilities of turnover intention when the unmet expectations regarding supervisor support, work exhaustion, emotional dissonance, and compensation are accumulated with time passed. Besides examine the main effect between PCB and turnover intention, some researchers also test the relationship with the two dimensions of PCB, which are relational and transactional psychological contract breach (PCB). Relational contracts are the long-term contract with mutual trust and assess to what extent they trust their employer was obligated to provide them with long-term career development plans, job security, and other kinds of personal support (Kwon Choi, Koo Moon, Ko, & Min Kim, 2014). On the other hand, transactional contracts are the short-term economic exchange and assess to what extent they believed their employer was obligated to provide them with rapid advancement, reasonable pay with the current performance (Kwon Choi et al., 2014). As claimed by Behery et al. (2016), the finding of their study demonstrates that relational psychological contract has a significant effect on employees’ intention to leave, which suggest organizations to use the relational psychological contract as a communication channel in building stronger relationships and belief. Some other studies have also proved the significant relationship between turnover intention, relational contracts, and transactional contracts (Mai et al., 2016; Umar & Ringim, 2015; Wang et al., 2017). However, some other studies did not find significant effect in the relationship between transactional contracts and turnover intention (Heffernan & Rochford, 2017; Liao et al., 2017). Interestingly, there are some other different perspectives and findings that existed in previous studies based on the dimensions under PCB. Some of them come up with different 24.

(32) direction of results. For example, first, in the research of Liao et al. (2017), they found that the breach of relational psychological contract positively affects the employees’ turnover intention, however, the effect between the transactional PCB and turnover intention is not significant with the sample of foreign workers in Taiwan. The same result are in the research of Heffernan and Rochford (2017) with the Irish sample. Second, Wang et al., (2017) stated the relationships between turnover intention and psychological contract with relational and transactional dimensions are all negative with China sample. Third, some other studies found that turnover intention was negatively affected by relational psychological contract but positively affects transactional psychological contract with the sample of Nigeria, China and the U.S (Mai et al., 2016; Umar & Ringim, 2015). Based on the above discussion, this study believe that the turnover intention can be affected differently by the dimensions under PCB. Even though most of the previous research have already proved the positive relationship between PCB and turnover intention, there are still some inconsistent results that existed in the dimensions under PCB. Hence, to synthesize the overall effect with the regional and industrial differences over the last 10 years, the following hypothesis 1 is proposed. Hypothesis 1: Psychological contract breach (PCB) is positively related to turnover intention.. Psychological Contract and Organizational Citizenship Behavior OCB is a crucial performance that generate the extra effort and process so as to improve the task-related outcomes and workforce atmosphere by different way. Plus, OCB is widely regarded as the consequence of PCB. The theoretical basis of OCB is expanded by explicitly capturing the effects of the psychological contract, which highlights the importance of employer’s contract behavior about the employees’ fulfillment of specific obligations (Coyle‐ Shapiro & Kessler, 2000). Podsakoff and his colleagues (2000) examine the relationships between OCB and its antecedents, including individual characteristics, task characteristics, 25.

(33) organizational characteristics, and leadership behaviors, which demonstrates that individual characteristics especially the perceived fairness was positively related to OCB. In other words, when employees themselves feel the perceived agreement or obligation were not performed by their employer as relatively as they expect at first, their PCB will strengthen than usual. This concept can be supported by the previous research that psychological contract breach/violation can lead to a negative effect on the willingness to engage more in OCB (Biswas, 2016; TranHuy, 2016; Yang & Chao, 2016 ;Zhao et al., 2007). For the effect of dimensions under PCB, Hui, Lee, and Rousseau (2004) states transactional contracts are becoming increasingly common with the direct effect to OCB. On the other hand, Restubog, Hornsey, Bordia, and Esposo (2008) found the variables associated with the group value model are more connected to OCB when caused by relational psychological contract breach rather than transactional. In recent years, Tufan and Wendt (2019) claim that OCB is negatively related to relational and transactional PCB, moreover, the effect by relational contract is stronger than the transactional contract. Conversely, the achieved level of transactional or relational psychological contract has been proved to have a positive association with OCB (Kishokumar, 2018; Kwon Choi et al., 2014). Nevertheless, in other point of view, some researchers found the different direction of results based on the two dimensions. Ali-Shah and Ali-Shah (2016) as well as Sharma, Pandey, and Sinha (2019) indicated that transactional contract is negatively related to OCB, but relational contract is positively related to OCB. In this study, the researcher states PCB, including relational and transactional contracts is negatively related to OCB. Also, psychological contract has been proven useful in understanding and managing exchange relationships in the dynamic construct (Rousseau et al., 2018). Bankins (2015) proposed a process perspective model to demonstrate how breach or violation events trigger sense-making, resulting in initially negative employee reactions and a “withdrawal” of perceived contributions. With the critical event, a process of contract “repair” could occur if 26.

(34) the coping action were effective (Bankins, 2015). Hence, employer must pay attention to what type of psychological contract employee have, then can facilitate their OCB. Based on the discussion, hypothesis 2 assume there is a negative association between PCB and OCB. Hypothesis 2: Psychological contract breach (PCB) is negatively related to organizational citizenship behavior. Previous meta-research have indicated that PCB has a profound impact on work-related attitudes and behaviors (Zhao et al., 2007). From the aforementioned literature review, turnover intention and OCB are two of the most relatively indicative phenomena among the outcomes of PCB for organizational management scholars and practitioners. Therefore, this study intend to replicates previous research and examine the impacts of perceived PCB on work related attitude such as turnover intention, and work-related behavior such as PCB over the last 10 years.. The Moderating Effect of National Difference Power distance, and uncertainty avoidance. Hofstede empirically categorized cultures at the national level with several dimensions, including power distance, and uncertainty avoidance (Gladwind & Hofstede, 1981). Power distance defined as “the acceptable degree of hierarchical power inequality existing between the authority and the subordinate” (Hofstede, 1980). Uncertainty avoidance refers to “the extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by uncertainty or an unknown situation.” (Hofstede & Bond, 1993). Most of the research conducted in Western countries regarding PCB are typically low in power distance and uncertainty avoidance. Conversely, Eastern countries tend to have higher degrees in both dimensions. Individuals in high power distance are more likely to show greater respect, and loyalty to authority (Chao, Cheung, & Wu, 2011; Farh et al., 1997). The higher power distance nations tend to find “greater centralization, taller organization pyramids, closer supervision, and much less in the way of participative management” (Gladwind & Hofstede, 1981, p. 682). Chao et al. 27.

(35) (2011) indicates that power distance is a significant moderator between PCB and the counterproductive work behavior (CWB). When individual in high power distance countries, perceive PCB, even though the prior promises were not fulfilled by the organization, they would reasonably perform less behavior that against the authorities. If individuals in the low power distance countries feel been betrayed by the organization, they tend to generate negative performance and behavior to convey their unsatisfied emotion (Chao et al., 2011). Also, the other study from Zagenczyk et al. (2014) found power distance has a moderation effect between PCB and exit in that higher power distance orientation can weaken the positive relationship. With the finding, there is an assumption that the higher level of power distance culture may lead to higher resistance of breach, so the impact to turnover intention may be lower. For OCB performance, it would be lower with higher power distance culture when individuals face breach since the change will not be obvious comparing with the lower power distance culture. On the other hand, the lower level of power distance culture let the employees convey their real feeling and emotion, which could trigger the higher intent to leave once they feel breached. For uncertainty avoidance, it was also proved to have higher degree in Eastern countries and much lower in the Western countries. Although studies from 2010 to 2019 rarely probe into the moderation effect of uncertainty avoidance, this study proposes that higher level of uncertainty avoidance can enhance employees’ intention to leave when facing breach, because these group of people tend to avoid as much negative impact as possible. Deciding to leave the current workplace would be preferable comparing to endure the uncertain outcome. For OCB performance, it will increase in the higher level of uncertainty avoidance culture, as individuals may try to contribute more to remove the uncertain feeling of breach. With the assumption, this study will test if power distance and uncertainty avoidance can moderate the associations of PCB and work outcomes. Hence, the hypothesis 3a, 3b, 4a and 4b are proposed. Hypothesis 3a: Power distance will moderate the relationship between PCB and TI, whereby a higher level of power distance will decrease the effect of PCB on TI. 28.

(36) Hypothesis 3b: Uncertainty avoidance will moderate the relationship between PCB and TI, whereby a higher level of uncertainty avoidance will increase the effect of PCB on TI. Hypothesis 4a: Power distance will moderate the relationship between PCB and OCB, whereby a higher level of power distance will increase the effect of PCB on OCB. Hypothesis 4b: Uncertainty avoidance will moderate the relationship between PCB and OCB, whereby a higher level of uncertainty avoidance will decrease the effect of PCB on OCB. Percentage of individual using internet. With the well-developed internet accessibility these years, people can get new information by various channels. It makes our life become more convenient, however, also increases some concern in workplace, such as information asymmetry. The term, information asymmetry refers to a situation when the message and information are not evenly received by the different parties, which may potentially increase the risk for PCB (Dries & De Gieter, 2014). For example, once the individuals obtain more critical information by internet than other parties (i.e. employer, colleagues, people from other company), they will start comparing the advantages and disadvantages among the internal workplace or even the external environment. By those comparing process, people will evaluate if their organization has fulfilled the original expectations or promises. If the results of the comparison lead to a feeling of breach by the current company, the intention to leave or to withdraw OCB contribution will be strengthened. Therefore, the internet popularity of a country is predicted to positively moderate the association between PCB and turnover intention, as well as PCB and OCB, which are stated as the following hypothesis. Hypothesis 3c: The percentage of individuals using internet will moderate the relationship between PCB and TI, whereby a higher percentage will increase the effect of PCB on TI. Hypothesis 4c: The percentage of individuals using internet will moderate the relationship between PCB and OCB, whereby a higher percentage will increase the effect of PCB on OCB. 29.

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(38) CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY. In this chapter, it demonstrates the concept, procedure, and the statistical techniques to make sure the research process adequately meets the research purpose. This chapter describe the research framework, hypothesis, research procedure, design, and method. The research method of meta-analysis is introduced in detail. Lastly, the characteristics of the studies included in this meta-analysis are presented.. Research Framework Based on the discussion in the literature review, the following framework demonstrate the relationship among three variables in this study. As mentioned in the hypothesis, the independent variable is psychological contract breach, which is assumed to predict the turnover intention and OCB. Moreover, the moderator is country difference with three national factors, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and percentage of individual using internet. The research framework is shown in Figure 3.1.. Figure 3.1. Research framework. 31.

(39) Research Hypothesis H1: PCB is positively related to TI. H2: PCB is negatively related to OCB. H3a: Power distance will moderate the relationship between PCB and TI, whereby a higher level of power distance will decrease the effect of PCB on TI. H3b: Uncertainty avoidance will moderate the relationship between PCB and TI, whereby a higher level of uncertainty avoidance will increase the effect of PCB on TI. H3c: The percentage of individuals using internet will moderate the relationship between PCB and TI, whereby a higher percentage will increase the effect of PCB on TI. H4a: Power distance will moderate the relationship between PCB and OCB, whereby a higher level of power distance will increase the effect of PCB on OCB. H4b: Uncertainty avoidance will moderate the relationship between PCB and OCB, whereby a higher level of uncertainty avoidance will decrease the effect of PCB on OCB. H4c: The percentage of individuals using internet will moderate the relationship between PCB and OCB, whereby a higher percentage will increase the effect of PCB on OCB.. Research Procedure In order to investigate the study of the stated hypotheses comprehensively, this study follows the 10-steps research procedure, as shown in Figure 3.2. Firstly, the researcher identified the initial topic of this research, which was based on the personal observation and experience when serving internship in a company, and the initial literature search. Secondly, the researcher conducted the literature review for the specific topics through reading article to gain substantial knowledge about the history and professional domain, which is one of the most important and essential process in research procedure. After reviewing the literature, next step was to identify the research gap and the research problem. Then, the research purposed, questions, and constructs were developed. Later, the researcher will collect the data via. 32.

(40) literature search, setting the inclusion criteria, and coding procedure to do the further quantitative approach with a meta-analysis. Once all the needed data were collected, data were analyzed to test the hypotheses, and findings were interpreted. Finally, the research provided recommendations, implications, and suggestions, then conclude basing on the results.. Figure 3.2. Research procedure. Research Design This research is attempts to offer insight to the organization practitioners on how strongly PCB will influence the employees’ turnover intention and willingness of OCB over the last 10 years. Thus, the hypotheses state that PCB will positively affect the inclination to turnover and negatively affect the engaged degree of OCB from 2010 to 2019. In order to test these hypotheses, this study will apply the quantitative approach by using meta-analysis, which is a method that can systematically integrates primary research on psychological contract breach with turnover intention and OCB. 33.

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