• 沒有找到結果。

第六章 結論與建議

第三節 未來研究之建議

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引用在同一篇論文中通常被分到同一種類型,且在其他引用它的論文中也屬於同 種類型時,便可知該文獻對研究者而言確有其特殊的功能定位。最早開始建構引 用文獻分類模型的幾位學者中,Lipetz 的立意便是為了改善引用文獻索引,期能 協助使用者能更快在長串書目清單中找到與自身需求最相關的文獻;然而在紙本 索引早已數位化且有摘要可協助篩選文獻的今日,於書目清單中找尋符合需求的 文獻仍耗費引用文獻索引資料庫使用者相當多的時間與精力。如果引用文獻資料 庫的建置者能新增欄位,由資料庫方的索引人員給定分類,配合被引用次數與其 類型之計算,便能協助使用者辨識文獻的主要功能定位(如欲找尋合適的研究設 計與分析方法),增加檢索的效率。

第三節 未來研究之建議

一、與各學科專家合作

雖然引用文獻分析有固定的方法,加以 Peritz 的分類程序容易且不需特殊學

科背景便可執行(通常只需觀察引用文獻所在的前後文即能判別);然若無專業

學科背景與對學科研究特性之了解,在研究結果的分析與闡釋上較易流於表面而 無法深入;故建議往後的研究可與學科專家合作,以便能更深入地了解各學科的 引用特性,並針對特定學科抽樣更多期刊以達到更好的解釋力。除了諮詢學科專 家以進行更深入地詮釋,未來研究亦可考慮對各學科研究者採用問卷法或訪談法 調查其引用行為背後的動機與目的。

二、採用「引用內容分析」的分類模型進行跨學科引用文獻類型研究

White 曾指出所有的分類模型基本上都有特色過於獨具和難以編碼的問題

(註 121),Peritz 的引用文獻分類架構雖然簡單、直接且可應用在多種學科的引

註121 Howard D. White, "Citation Analysis and Discourse Analysis Revisited," 100.

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用文獻上,但只適用於實證類型的研究;故鮮少實證研究的人文學科便無法和自 然科學與社會科學採用同樣的分類架構,因而無法進行有效的跨領域比較。此問 題可能可以透過 Zhang、Ding 與 Milojevic 於 2013 年所提出的「引用內容分析 (Ciation Content Analysis, CCA)」架構獲得解決。CCA 企圖融合過去重視數值的 計量研究、重視文句脈絡的結構型研究和重視社會文化層面的內容分析研究,發 展具有「結構(Syntactic)」面向和「語意(Semantic)」面向的引用分類框架,將引 用/被引用文獻類型、引用/被引用文獻作者人數、引用與被引用文獻的關聯、

被引用文獻的位置、被引用次數、提及被引用文獻的方式、被引用文獻的功能、

被引用文獻的性質、引用文獻的研究領域、引用文獻的研究焦點全部納入分類編

碼。(註 122)其中「引用文獻的研究領域」有社會科學、人文學、自然科學以

及應用科學與工程等 4 種分類,使人類知識的三大研究領域在同一架構下有可比 性,並解決純科學與應用科學分類的窘境。

註122 Guo Zhang, Ying Ding, and Staša Milojevic, “Citation Content Analysis (CCA): A Framework for Syntactic and Semantic Analysis of Citation Content,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 64, no. 7(2013): 1490-1503.

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2012 59(1) Kinetics of Malachite Green Fading in Water-ethanol-1-propanol Ternary Mixtures

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