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(1)An Introduction to Animal Structure and Function 授課教師:傅耀賢 教師研究室:N927 連絡電話:(07)3121101-2705 Email:m805004@kmu.edu.tw 本章節授課教材圖片主要來源摘自:Reece et. al. (2011) Campbell Biology, 9th ed, P820~843. Key Concepts of This Lecture • 何謂組織學? • 如何製作與進行顯微樣本之觀察與研究? • 動物之構造、形態與體型受到那些因素之限制? • 動物在構造與功能上所具備的關係與共同性? • 動物體的結構與生理性階層 • 動物基本組織的介紹 • 恆定狀態與調控 • 代謝、體溫與能量利用 • 食慾、肥胖、基因與演化.

(2) Histology This lecture will be leading students to understand the microanatomy (顯微解剖 學) of cells, tissues and organs, and to correlating their structures with functions.. Methods (Microscopic techniques) • Tissue preparation : – In vivo (活體) – In vitro (離體) • Auxiliary (輔助) techniques : – Histochemistry (組織化學) and cytochemistry(細胞化學) – Immunocytochemistry (免疫細胞化學) and insu hybridization (原位雜合- DNA or RNA) – autoradiography • Microscopy : – Light microscope (LM) – Electron microscope (SEM, TEM) – Atomic force microscope (原子力學顯微鏡-AFM).

(3) Routine Tissue Preparation • Fixation (固定) : the first step – Chemical fixation (formaldehyde-甲醛) – Physical fixation (temperature). • Embedding (包埋) : – Paraffin (石蠟). • Section (切片) : 5~15 μm • Staining (染色) : – hematoxylin (蘇木紫) and eosin (伊紅). • Examination (觀察) : – light microscopy. Fixation • The first step • Functions : – – – – –. Structural preservation (保存結構) Terminate cell metabolism (終止代謝反應) Prevent structural degradation (防止構造崩解) Kill pathogen (殺死病源) Harden tissue (增加硬度). • Methods : – Chemical fixation (formaldehyde) – Physical fixation (temperature).

(4) Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining. In situ Hybridization Techniques • Detection for DNA or RNA • In situ hybridization : – Complementary (互補) probe (探針) : • oligonucleotide probes (oligo-寡). – Single amplification : • PCR • RT-PCR. – Label : • Isotope (同位素) : • Fluorescence (螢光) dyes : – FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) procedure.

(5) Examination a Tissue Slide • Tissues are threedimensional structures – From two-dimensional images to threedimensional structures. • Artifacts (人為失誤) : – – – – – –. Fixation Dehydration (脫水) Embedding Section Staining Mounting (載片). Tight Junction (緊密結合).

(6) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Gap (孔隙) Junction • Functions : – Electrical conduction – Low-resistance junction. • Structures : – Connexons : • 6 connexins (each side of membrane).

(7) Diverse Form, Common Challenges • Evolution (演化) : – Diversity (多樣性) • habitat, form, function. • Adaptation (適應) : – Anatomical adaptation. Campbell & Reece (2011) Biology 9thed, fig 40.1. – Physiological adaptation – Behavior adaptation. How Physical Laws Constrain Animal Form • Physical laws limit : – Materials exchange (物質交換) : – Energy exchange (能量交換) : – Force interaction (力交互作用) : • Size and shape affect the way an animal interacts with its environment. • Physical requirements constrain what natural selection (天擇) can “invent” – Convergent evolution (趨同演化) – Many different animal body plans have evolved and are determined by the genome (基因).

(8) Exchanges with the External Environment • Diffusion (擴散) : – External environment – Epithelium (上皮組織) – Interstitial (組織間) environment • Cells • Interstitial fluid. • Passive transport (被動運輸) : • Active transport (主動運輸) :.

(9) Exchange with External Environment • Organism (生物個體) and environment interaction. Exchange. – Aqueous (水) environment – body size • material exchange • energy exchange. 0.1 mm. Mouth Gastrovascular cavity. (a) Single cell. Exchange. • Physical laws – Surface-to-volume relations – evolution – adaptation. Exchange. 1 mm (b) Two layers of cells. Internal Exchange Surfaces And Homeostasis (恆定狀態) Respiratory system. Heart. Digestive system Nutrients. Lung tissue (SEM). Cells Interstitial fluid. Circulatory system. Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces). Metabolic waste products (nitrogenous waste). 50 μm. Excretory system. 100 μm. Lining of small intestine (SEM). od. 250 μm. Blo. External environment CO2 O Food 2 Mouth Animal body. Blood vessels in kidney (SEM).

(10) Hierarchical Level (階層) of Structural Organization in an Animal. • Cells with similar properties group to form tissues • Tissues combine with other types of tissues to form organs • Organs are anatomically or functionally linked to form organ systems. Tissues • An organized aggregation of cells that function in a collective manner. – Cellular communication – Cellular cooperation – Cell interaction.

(11) Tissues (組織) • Define : – groups cells with a common structure and function. • Four main categories (類別) : – – – –. epithelial tissue (表皮組織) connective tissue (結締組織) muscle tissue (肌肉組織) nervous tissue (神經組織). Tissues Classification : • Epithelial tissue : – cell layers – shape of cells. • Connective tissue : – Structures : • Cells • Extracellular matrix. – Classification : • Connective tissue proper – –. loose dense. » regular » Irregular. • Specialized connective tissue. • Muscle tissue : • Nervous tissue :.

(12) Epithelium • Structure : – cover inner and outer surface of body and organs – attached to basement membrane (基底膜). •. Function : – barrier – absorption – Secretion : • glandular epithelium – exocrine – endocrine. • Classification : – the number of cell layers • Simple (單層) • Stratified (複層). – the shape of the cells • Squamous (鱗狀) • Cuboidal (立方) • Columnar (柱狀). Glandular Epithelium • Exocrine : – – – – – –. Mucus Saliva Earwax Milk Oil Digestive enzymes. • Endocrine : – Secrete hormones. • Mucous Membrane : – Secrete mucous • Lubrication • Moistly. – Digestive tract – Respiratory tract.

(13) Connective Tissue • Common Structure : – a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular (細胞外) matrix (基質). • Function: – Binding and supporting for other tissues. • Extracellular matrix : – fibers – ground substance. • Cells : – fibroblast (纖維母細胞), macrophage (巨噬細胞). • Fiber types of connective tissue : – collagenous fibers (collagen-膠原纖維) – elastic fibers (彈性纖維) – reticular fibers (網狀纖維).

(14) Connective Tissue Loose connective tissue Blood. Collagenous fiber. Plasma. 120 μm. 55 μm. White blood cells. Elastic fiber. Red blood cells. Cartilage. Fibrous connective tissue. 30 μm. 100 μm. Chondrocytes. Chondroitin sulfate Nuclei. Adipose tissue Central canal. Fat droplets. Osteon. 150 μm. 700 μm. Bone. Soft Connective Tissue.

(15) Specialized Connective Tissues • Cartilage – Cushions – Bone formation. • Bone – Spongy and compact. • Adipose tissue – Fat. • Blood – Transport. Nervous Tissue • Function : – sensor – signal transmission • nerve impulses. • Neuron : the functional unit – cell body – dendrites (樹突) : • impulses from ending to cell body. – axon (軸突) : • impulses from cell body to ending.

(16) Muscle Tissue Muscle Tissue Skeletal muscle. • Functions :. Nuclei. – contraction Muscle fiber. • Classification : Sarcomere. 100 μm. – skeletal muscle (striated) : 骨骼肌 • voluntary movement Smooth muscle – cardiac muscle (striated) :Cardiac 心肌muscle. • involuntary movement. – smooth muscle (non-striated) :平滑肌 • involuntary movement Nucleus Muscle fibers 25 μm. skeletal muscle (striated). smooth muscle (non-striated). Nucleus. Intercalated disk. 50 μm. cardiac muscle (striated).

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(19) Organs and Organ Systems • Organ (器官) : – different tissues are organized into the specialized centers of function – may surround with mesenteries (腸繫膜) in body cavity. • Organ system (器官系統) : – several organs are grouped into carrier out some specific functions. • Organism (生物個體) : – coordinate all organ system for survival. The Functions of Organ System Digestive system. Nutrition and digestion. Respiratory system. Gas exchange. Circulatory system. Materials transport. Lymphatic and immune system Defense Excretory (排泄) system. Waste excrete. Endocrine (內分泌) system. Hormone secretion. Reproductive system. Offspring production. Nervous system. Control and response. Muscular system. Movement. Skeletal system. Supporting and protection. Integumentary (皮膚) system. protection.

(20) Coordination and Control • Control and coordination within a body depend on : – Endocrine system – Nervous system. • The endocrine system : – Hormones : chemical signals – Signal transporter : blood – Receptive cells : throughout the body. • Characteristic features : – A hormone may affect one or more regions throughout the body – Hormones are relatively slow acting, but can have long-lasting effects. Regulating and Conforming • Regulator (調控者) : • Conformer (順應者) : • Homeostasis (恆定狀態) : – Negative feedback control • Sensor : • Control center : • Effector : – Response :.

(21) Maximum and Minimum Metabolic Rate • Minimum metabolic rate (最低代謝速率) : – Endotherm (內溫動物) : • BMR (基礎代謝速率) : – Basal Metabolic Rate. – Ectotherm (外溫動物) : • SMR (標準代謝速率) : – Standard Metabolic Rate. • Maximum metabolic rate (最高代謝速率) :. Feed back Mechanism in Thermoregulation • Thermostat center : 體溫中樞 • Hypothalamus (下視丘) • 36-38 ℃ • Skin : – blood vessels – Sweat glands (汗腺). • Muscles : – Shivering (顫抖) contraction.

(22) Regulating the Internal Environment • Internal environment : – interstitial fluid :. • Homeostasis : – dynamic (動態) state – feed-back control (回饋控制) • negative (負) feedback : • positive (正) feedback :. • Circadian rhythm (周期) – Set points and normal ranges can change with age or show cyclic variation – every 24 hours. Thermoregulation (體溫調控) • Maintain internal body temperature within defined limits • Ectotherms : – obtain body heat primarily by absorbing it from their surroundings. • Endotherms : – derive the majority of their body heat from their metabolism (代謝).

(23) Thermoregulation • Ectotherms – Lower metabolic rate-SMR – Cold blooded. • Endotherms – Higher metabolic rate-BMR – Warm blooded. • Heat exchange : – – – –. Conduction (傳導) Convection (對流) Radiation (輻射) Evaporation (蒸散). • Insulation (絕緣) : – Skin – Adipose tissue – hypodermis. Circulatory Adaptation • Blood flow control : – Vaso-dilation (舒張) – Vaso-constriction (收縮). • Countercurrent (對流) exchange : – Vertebrate : • Blood. – Insect : • Flight muscle.

(24) Other regulations of heat exchange • • • •. Muscle contraction : Evaporation (蒸散) Behavioral responses Physiological adjusting – Shiver – Brown fat : 棕脂肪 • nonshivering thermogenesis. http://www.ijri.org/articles/2007/17/3/images/IndianJRadiolImaging_2007_17_3_169_33629_15.jpg. Chemical Energy Utility • Energy Harvest : – Autotrophs – heterotrophs • Energy require for : – Growth – Repair – Physiological processes – Regulation – Reproduction • Bioenergetics : – the overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal. • Quantifying energy utilization : – Metabolic rate :.

(25) Quantifying energy use : Metabolic rate • Define : – the total amount of energy for an animal that used in a unit time. • Energy unit : – calories (cal) – kilocalories (kcal). • Metabolic rate measure : – – – –. heat lose O2 consumed (利用) CO2 produced Energy content of the food. Metabolic Rate and Body Size • Smaller animals comparing with the larger animals : – – – – –. higher metabolic rate : higher breathing rate higher heart rate higher relative blood volume larger surface volume ratio : • Endotherm : – greater heat loss to surroundings. • Ectotherm : – greater heat gain from surrounding. • Physical support : • Body size and shape affect interaction with environment :.

(26) Energy budgets (預算) of different animals species and sizes. • Different species use energy and materials in food in different ways, depending on their environment • Use of energy is partitioned to BMR (or SMR), activity, thermoregulation, growth, and reproduction. Adjustment to changing temperatures • Acclimatization : 馴化 – Stress-induced proteins : – Heat-shock proteins. • Torpor (休眠) : – Hibernation : 冬眠 – Estivation : 夏眠 • Summer torpor. – Daily torpor : – Small endotherms.

(27) Feedback circuits regulate digestion, energy storage, and appetite • Energy budgets : – ATP producing and using. • Homeostasis : – Nutrient (營養) • intake and consume. – Caloric utility. • Caloric imbalance : – Undernourishment – Overnourishment. • Appetite : 食慾 – – – –. Leptin (suppression) PYY (suppression) Insulin (suppression) Ghrelin (activation).

(28) Obesity (肥胖) and Evolution • Nutrient requirement : • Evolutionary past : – fat hoarding : to survive famines (飢荒). 下課~起床囉 ~!.

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