教育評鑑人員專業化指標之建構及其實證研究--以臺北市國民中小學教育評鑑人員為例

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˪㔁做埴㓧冯姽揹⬠↲˫ 2011 ⸜ 6 㚰炻䫔⋩ᶨ㛇炻枩 29-62

ఀىຟᠦΡষடཾϽࡾ኿Ϟ࡚ᄺЅڏᄂᜌं

ـȈоᇃѕѿ୽ҕϛωᏰఀىຟᠦΡষ࣏ٽ

点 檀渿沛ˣ点点⏛㶭Ⱉġ

ᄢौ

㛔䞼䨞䚖䘬㖐⛐⺢㥳ㆹ⚳⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁䲣䴙烊⍲㩊夾⚳㮹ᷕ ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹⥼⒉⍲⍿姽⬠㟉⮵姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁䘬䫎⎰䦳⹎ˤ㛔䞼䨞㕡㱽ẍ⓷ ⌟婧㞍㱽䁢ᷣ炻᷎㍉㧉䱲⽟㆟埻⍲㧉䱲Ⰼ䳂↮㜸㱽Ἦ䴙㔜↮㜸婧㞍シ夳ˤ㇨䌚农䘬 䞼䨞䳸婾烉炷ᶨ炸ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭䲣䴙炻䳸㥳ᶲ⊭⏓⚃ᾳⰌ 朊ˣ⋩ℓᾳᷣ㊯㧁ˣ80 ᾳ㫉㊯㧁炻ẍ⮰㤕䳈梲Ⰼ朊㪲慵㭼䌯㚨檀烊炷Ḵ炸⮰㤕䳈梲Ⰼ 朊⊭⏓姽揹⮰㤕䞍嬀ˣ㔁做⮰㤕䞍嬀ˣ䞼䨞㕡㱽䞍嬀ˣ夷∫䭉䎮傥≃ˣṢ晃斄Ὢ傥 ≃ˣ⍲屯㕁嗽䎮傥≃䫱ᷣ㊯㧁炻ẍˬ姽揹⮰㤕䞍嬀˭㪲慵㭼䌯㚨檀烊炷ᶱ炸⮰㤕ΐ䎮 Ⰼ朊⊭⏓ⶍἄΐ䎮ˣṢ晃ΐ䎮ˣ⍲䣦㚫ΐ䎮䫱ᷣ㊯㧁炻ẍˬⶍἄΐ䎮˭㪲慵㭼䌯㚨 檀烊炷⚃炸⮰㤕㚵⊁Ⰼ朊⊭⏓⮰㤕ン⹎ˣ⮰㤕屔ảˣ⮰㤕䱦䤆ˣ⮰㤕㈧媦ˣ⍲㚵⊁⮶ ⎹䫱ᷣ㊯㧁炻ẍˬ⮰㤕屔ả˭㪲慵㭼䌯㚨檀烊炷Ḽ炸⮰㤕䘤⯽Ⰼ朊⊭⏓⮰㤕䳬嬀ˣ⮰ 㤕忚ᾖˣ⮰㤕屯㬟⍲䣦㚫娵⎴䫱ᷣ㊯㧁炻ẍˬ⮰㤕屯㬟˭㪲慵㭼䌯㚨檀烊炷ℕ炸冢⊿ ⶪ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹姒夾⥼⒉⍲⍿姽⬠㟉⛯娵䁢㛔䞼䨞㇨⺢䩳⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁冯䎦㱩 忼⇘⣏悐↮䫎⎰䘬䦳⹎ˤ 斄挝娆烉㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉ˣ⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁ˣ㔁做姽揹ˣ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠ġ ____________________ 点 檀渿沛烉冢⊿ⶪ㔯Ⱉ⋨㊯⋿⚳㮹⮷⬠㔁ⷓ炷㓗㎜㔁做⯨炸炻冢⊿ⶪ⚳㮹⮷⬠῁䓐㟉攟 点点 ⏛㶭Ⱉ烉冢⊿ⶪ䩳㔁做⣏⬠㔁做埴㓧冯姽揹䞼䨞㇨㔁㌰ˣ⚳⭞㔁做䞼䨞昊昊攟 暣⫸悝ẞ烉kaolifeng@gmail.comˣwchingshan@gmail.com 㓞ẞ㖍㛇烉2010.07.20烊ᾖ㓡㖍㛇烉2010.12.10烊㍍⍿㖍㛇烉2011.06.01

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Journal of Educational Administration and Evaluation June, 2011, Vol. 11, pp. 29-62

The Study on Application and Construction of

the Professionalization Indicators for

Educational Evaluators in Public Elementary

and Junior High Schools

Li-Feng Kao

点点

Ching-Shan Wu

Abstract

The main purpose of this study is to construct professional indicators for education evaluators in public elementary and junior high schools. To examine the appropriateness of the professional indicators for educational evaluators and evaluated school staffs in public elementary and junior high schools, this study employed questionnaire surveys, then used Fuzzy Delphi analysis and Fuzzy Hierarchical analysis to construct questionnaire details. The conclusions of this study are as follows:Ȑ1ȑThe professional indicators for public elementary and junior high school educational evaluators in Taiwan consisted of four broad categories, eighteen main indicators, and eighty secondary indicators. The four broad categories included professional attainment, professional ethics, professional services, and professional developments in which the weighting for professional attainment is the highest among all other categories. Ȑ2ȑThere were six main indicators and twenty-nine secondary indicators in the professional attainment categories. The weighting for professional evaluation knowledge was the highest among those main indicators. Ȑ3ȑThere were three main indicators and fifteen secondary indicators in the professional ethics categories. The weighting of work ethics was the highest among those main indicators. Ȑ4ȑThere were five main indicators and twenty secondary indicators in the professional service categories. The weighting of professional responsibilities was the highest among those main indicators. Ȑ5ȑThere were four main indicators and sixteen

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secondary indicators in the professional developments categories. The weighting of professional qualifications and experiences was the highest among those main indicators. Ȑ6ȑThe education evaluators and staffs from evaluated schools from Taipei’s public elementary and junior high schools believed that the current professional indicator system reflects its main objective .

Keywords: educational evaluator, professionalization indicator, educational

evaluation, public elementary and juniorhigh schools

____________________

Li-Feng Kao: Teacher / Taipei Municipal Zhinan Elementary School (on secondment to Department of Education, Taipei City Government);

Qualified prospective principal (to Taipei’s elementary schools)

点点

Ching-Shan Wu: Professor / Graduate School of Educational Administration & Evaluation, Taipei Municipal University of Education;

President / National Academy for Educational Research E-mail : kaolifeng@gmail.com; wchingshan@gmail.com

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൦ȃᆱ፣ġ

Ιȃ୰ᚠधශᇄंـଢ଼ᐠ!

役⸜Ἦ㔁做ᷣ䭉㨇斄⼨⼨ẍ姽揹䷦㓰Ἦ堉慷㔁做屯㸸䘬↮惵炻㔁做姽揹㶙⍿⚳ ℏ㔁做䓴㘖念䘬慵夾炻姽揹Ṣ⒉㗗㔜ᾳ姽揹忶䦳ᷕ䘬斄挝Ṣ䈑炻℞䳈岒㗗⏎⮰㤕⊾炻 㰢⭂姽揹䳸㝄䘬℔ᾉ≃冯⭊奨⿏ˤ ὅ Abercrombie 䫱⬠侭㊯↢炻⮰㤕⊾㗗ᶨ䧖借⊁䘬䫾䔍炻㑩㚱娚借㤕䘬佌橼ⶴ㛃 啱㬌塓娵⭂㗗⮰㤕Ṣ⒉炻侴傥䌚⼿⎹ᶲ䘬䣦㚫㳩≽炻⡆忚䣦㚫⛘ỵ冯䈑岒愔⃇炷⺽ 冒㚦㵹よ炻2006炸ˤ⮰㤕⊾㤪⾝⶚㖍㻠⍿⇘⎬埴⎬㤕䘬慵夾炻⮰㤕⊾塓夾䁢借㤕㯠临 䘤⯽䘬慵天㊯㧁ˤ䚖⇵⛐⚳⢾䘬㔁做姽揹柀➇ᷕ炻⬠侭ㆾ⮰㤕㨇㥳⮵㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉ 䘬⮰㤕傥≃ˣ⮰㤕ΐ䎮⍲⮰㤕嫱䄏䫱枭䚖炻⶚妪↢思⽒䘬㸾⇯炻䚖䘬⛐徥㯪㔁做姽 揹⮰㤕䘬䘤⯽⍲㍸㖯姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕⛘ỵ炻ⶴ㛃㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕堐䎦⤪⎴⼳ ⷓˣ慓ⷓˣ㚫妰ⷓ⍲⺢䭱ⷓ䫱炻ᶨ㧋㶙⍿䣦㚫⣏䛦⮵℞⮰㤕䘬娵⎴冯偗⭂炻㔁做姽 揹Ṣ⒉劍天⤪⎴⼳ⷓˣ慓ⷓᶨ㧋炻ㆸ䁢ᶨ枭⮰攨借㤕炻⽭枰℟⁁⒒ṃ⮰㤕傥≃烎䓐 Ṩ湤㧁㸾Ἦ㩊㟠姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕⊾堐䎦炻㗗ῤ⼿≈ẍ㍊妶䘬炻㬌䁢㛔䞼䨞≽㨇ᷳᶨˤ ⚳ℏ⮎㕥ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹㗪炻姽揹╖ỵ⼰⮹⍣夷䭬⢾悐姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕⿏炻忂 ⷠ㗗倀婳⍿姽㕡㟰柀➇䘬⮰㤕Ṣ⢓炻ἳ⤪炻ᶨ䁢⣏⬠昊㟉䘬㔁㌰炻Ḵ䁢㔁做ᷣ䭉㨇 斄䘬䜋⬠ㆾ䎦借㟉攟ㆾ徨ẹ㟉攟ˤ⇵侭ẋ堐⬠䓴炻⼴侭⇯ẋ堐⮎⊁䓴ˤ⤪㬌⬱㌺晾 䃞偗⭂䥖倀⮰⭞⬠侭䁢姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬₡ῤ炻Ữ㗗㭷㫉⮎晃➟埴姽揹䘬姽揹Ṣ⒉⣂Ⱄ冐 㗪䳬ㆸ䘬ˤ⛐埴⇵嫃佺㚫㗪炻⣂㔠ῷ慵婒㖶姽揹忶䦳ᷕㅱ㲐シḳ枭ㆾⶍἄ䘬↮惵炻 ᷎㛒㈲姽揹柀➇䌐䈡䘬䞍嬀冯㈨傥䲵ℍ埴⇵嫃佺㚫䘬婚䦳ᷕ炻⚈㬌炻ᶵ婾⛐姽揹忶 䦳ˣ㕡㱽ㆾ⛐➢㛔㤪⾝ᶲ炻⛯暋㕤䞕㗪攻ℏ忼⇘ℙ嬀ˤ≈ᶲ姽揹㗪攻㚱旸炻姽揹ℏ ⭡䷩暄炻暋㯪䡢⮎㶙ℍ炻ⷠⷠ傥⛐⼊⺷ᶲ ⇘⤪㛇⬴ㆸ炻⌣仢᷷⮎岒䘬㓰䙲炻⭡ 㖻忈ㆸ⢾䓴Ṣ⢓㈡姽㔁做姽揹䘬䳸㝄㗗⮰㤕⿏ᶵ嵛ˣ⍲℔ᾉ≃ᶵ⣈ˤ⚈㬌炻⏛㶭Ⱉ 冯䌳㸀㞿炷2004炸㊯↢烉姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕㔁做炻ᶨ悐↮Ἦ冒㕤借⇵梲ㆸ㔁做炻ᶨ悐 ↮㚱岜㕤⛐借忚ᾖ㔁做ˤỮ㗗炻⚳ℏ䘬姽揹Ṣ⒉⣏悥㗗冐㗪怨普侴ㆸ炻䳈岒⍫ⶖᶵ 滲炻侴ᶼḇ䃉姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬梲ㆸ㔁做ˤ㓧⹄㛒Ἦ⎗ẍ侫ㄖ怨婳⎬⣏⬠䘬㔁做㓧䫾冯埴 㓧䞼䨞㇨炻ㆾ㔁做埴㓧冯姽揹䞼䨞㇨炻夷∫姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕⬠䦳炻屈屔➡妻㔁做姽 揹Ṣ⒉炻ẍ㍸⋯㔁做姽揹⑩岒ˤ 䔞⎬埴⎬㤕徸㻠怩⎹⮰㤕⊾䘤⯽ᷳ㗪炻㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕⊾㚜栗䣢↢慵天

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⿏炻⤪ỽ嬻㔁做姽揹崘⎹⮰㤕⊾炻㚦㵹よ炷2006炸㊯↢烉ㆸ䩳⮰攨䘬㔁做㨇㥳炻啱 䓙忁ṃ㔁做㨇㥳↮㜸⽆ḳ娚埴㤕ⶍἄ㇨暨䘬⮰㤕䞍傥炻᷎䘤⯽⮰㤕䘬⬠䦳ẍ妻䶜⮰ 㤕Ṣㇵ炻䔞⬠䓇䔊㤕⼴䴻忶ᶨṃ䦳⸷⍾⼿娚柀➇䘬屯㟤娵⭂侴䌚⼿⯙㤕屯㟤炻⼭忚 ℍ借⟜⼴傥䌐䩳埴ἧ℞⮰㤕䞍傥炻䁢℞㛔幓⮰㤕䓇㵗䘬䘤⯽侴≈ℍ⮰㤕⛀橼炻⽆⍫ 冯⮰㤕⛀橼䘬妻䶜㳣≽忚埴⮰㤕ㆸ攟炻᷎德忶⮰㤕⛀橼㇨妪⭂䘬⮰㤕ΐ䎮ᾉ㡅㍸ὃ ⮰㤕Ṣ⒉思⽒炻⚈侴ㆸ䁢ᶨ攨ˬ⮰㤕˭ˤ 姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⿏㗗㓠斄姽揹䳸㝄䘬⑩岒炻⚳ℏ㔁做姽揹䞼䨞ᷣ柴⣏⣂㔠叿慵㕤 姽揹⮎⊁㩊㟠ˣ姽揹㕡㟰忳ἄˣ㊯㧁⺢㥳䫱炻㚱斄姽揹Ṣ⒉傥≃ℏ㵝䫱䚠斄䞼䨞炻 ⚳ℏ⢾䘬⌂䡑⢓婾㔯晾䃞㚱⮹㔠䭯䪈炻ἳ⤪烉Jones炷2001炸䘬ˬ姽Ộ姽揹Ṣ⒉嫱䄏 䘬暨㯪˭ˣ⼸ㄏ⫃炷2007炸䘬ˬㆹ⚳㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉嫱䄏⇞⹎⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞˭ˣ∱㘢尒炷2004炸 䘬ˬ⚳㮹⮷⬠㟉⊁姽揹⥼⒉姽揹⮰㤕傥≃㊯㧁⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞˭ˣ惕䎖䏛炷2005炸䘬ˬㆹ ⚳㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕ΐ䎮㸾⇯ᷳ⺢㥳˭䫱炻䞼䨞慵溆⛐㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕傥≃ˣ ⮰㤕ΐ䎮⍲嫱䄏⇞⹎炻忁ṃ枭䚖晾⛯Ⱄ⮰㤕⊾䘬䭬䔯炻Ữ䚖⇵⚳ℏ⢾⯂㛒㚱㍊䨞㔁 做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁䘬⮰婾炻⚈㬌炻⺢㥳㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁炻ᷫㆸ䁢㛔䞼 䨞䘬⎎ᶨᾳ䞼䨞≽㨇ˤ

ΠȃंـҬޟġ

➢㕤ẍᶲ㇨徘㛔䞼䨞䘬ᷣ天䚖䘬⤪ᶳ烉 炷ᶨ炸⺢㥳ㆹ⚳⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁䲣䴙ˤ 炷Ḵ炸㩊夾⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹⥼⒉⍲⍿姽⬠㟉⮵姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁䘬䫎⎰䦳⹎ˤ

ຯȃМᝦ௤ଆġ

㟡㒂⚳ℏ⢾䚠斄㔯䌣炻↮䁢ᶱ悐↮Ἦ斉徘烉ᶨ䁢姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾ℏ㵝⍲䚠斄䞼 䨞烊Ḵ䁢㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁ᷳℏ㵝烊ᶱ䁢㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾ᷳ䚠斄䞼䨞ˤ

ΙȃຟᠦΡষடཾϽϱొЅࣺᜰंـġ

德忶教嬨䚠斄㔯䌣⍲℞↮㜸炻ἄ䁢⺢㥳ㆹ⚳㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁䘬䎮婾ὅ 㒂炻勚婒㖶⤪ᶳ烉

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炷ᶨ炸⮰㤕⊾シ㵝 䌳㓧⼍炷1995a炻1995b炸㊯↢烉⮰㤕⊾㖊㗗ᶨ䧖忶䦳炻ḇ㗗ᶨ䧖䳸㝄ˤ⯙忶䦳 Ἦ䚳炻⮰㤕⊾㗗䓙徥㯪⮰㤕䘬ᶨ䲣↿㳣≽㇨䳬ㆸ烊⯙䳸㝄Ἦ婒炻⮰㤕⊾㗗ᶨᾳ䚖㧁 ㆾ䎮゛炻㗗忶䦳㳣≽㇨ẩ㯪䘬䚖䘬ˤ⮵㕤ᶵ⎴借㤕佌橼侴妨炻⮰㤕⊾⎗ẍ⋼≑ℐ橼 ⺢䩳㪲⦩冯⛘ỵ炻忚侴䘤㎖⮰㤕䘬⼙枧≃ˤ⚳ℏ⢾⬠侭炷傉⣊殐炻1995炻2001烊昛 ⚳⮏炻1992烊≺䞍⊌炻2001烊哉➡㛹炻1995烊啃⸛㴟炻2001烊櫷よ⧇炻1995烊Altschuld, 1999a; Petrie, 1995; Worthen, 1994炸⮵⮰㤕⊾シ㵝䘬䓴⭂㗗⣏⎴⮷䔘炻勚㬠䲵㔜䎮⎬ ⭞䘬奨溆炻⮯⮎㕥⮰㤕⊾䘬天䳈↮㜸⤪ᶳ烉1. 㖶䡢䲣䴙⊾䘬䞍嬀䎮婾橼䲣烊2. ℙ⎴ 䘬₡ῤ奨⍲ᾉ⾝烊3. ⮰攨䘬妻䶜婚䦳烊4. ⮰㤕傥≃㧁㸾烊5. ΐ䎮忻⽟夷䭬烊6. ⮰ 㤕⛀橼烊7. ⮰㤕娵嫱⇞⹎烊8. ⮰㤕冒ᷣ⿏烊9. ⮰㤕ㆸ攟烊10. ⮰㤕䘬⇑Ṿ㚵⊁ˤ ➢㛔ᶲ炻⮰㤕⊾Ὢ䁢Ṣ⒉傥≃⮰㤕⊾忶䦳炻Ṣ⒉䁢㍸⋯㛔幓傥≃䁢娚借㤕ᷕ㚨 檀Ⰼ䳂⮰㤕傥≃䘬䣦㚫忶䦳炻⛐忶䦳ᷕ炻天䫎⎰⮰㤕㨇㥳ᷕ⮰㤕Ṣ⒉屯㟤㡅ẞ䘬天 㯪炻℟⁁⮰㤕㨇㥳㇨夷䭬䘬⮰㤕傥≃⍲⭂㛇⍫≈⮰㤕妻䶜炻᷎⍾⼿⮰㤕嫱䄏炻➟埴 姽揹ⶍἄ㗪⇯➭㊩♜㟤思⬰⮰㤕埴䁢䘬夷䭬⍲⮰㤕ΐ䎮炻᷎ᶼ⭂㛇㍍⍿⮰㤕㩊㟠ẍ 䵕专⮰㤕䘬⑩岒冯⛘ỵˤ 炷Ḵ炸⮰㤕⊾夷㸾ᷳℏ㵝 婯婾⮰㤕⊾⯙⽭枰㍸⍲⮰㤕⊾夷㸾䘬⓷柴炻⎬埴⎬㤕䘬⮰㤕⊾夷㸾ᶵᶨˤ㔁做 姽揹Ṣ⒉天℟⁁⒒ṃ㡅ẞㆾ䫎⎰⒒ṃ夷㸾炻ㇵ忼⇘⮰㤕⊾䘬䚖㧁烎䞼䨞侭䵄⎰㜿ᷫ ㄏ炷1999炸䫱 18 ỵ⚳ℏ⬠侭䘬奨溆⍲ American Evaluation Association 炷2004炸䫱ℕ 䭯⢾⚳㔯䌣屯㕁炻婒㖶⤪ᶳ炻᷎㔜䎮⤪堐 1烉 1. 䞍嬀橼䲣烉⮰㤕ⶍἄㅱ℟⁁ᶨ⣿⬴㔜䘬䞍嬀橼䲣ˤ 2. ⮰㤕䞍嬀烉⮰㤕Ṣ⒉⽭⁁㝸䧖⮰攨䘬䞍嬀冯㈨傥ˤ 3. ⮰㤕㈨傥烉Ṣ⒉天㑼ả㝸枭⮰㤕ⶍἄᷳ⇵炻昌Ḯ⽭⁁⮰㤕䞍嬀ᷳ⢾炻㚜暨䴻忶攟 㛇䘬⮰攨妻䶜⍲⭂㛇䘬⛐借妻䶜ㇵ傥⊅ả娚枭⮰㤕ⶍἄˤ 4. ⮰㤕ΐ䎮烉⮰㤕Ṣ⒉⛐ⶍἄᶲ⽭枰思⽒䘬忻⽟夷䭬冯屔ảˤ 5. ⮰㤕㈧媦烉⮰㤕Ṣ⒉㚵⊁忶䦳天䥱㊩⮰㤕ン⹎冯⮰㤕⢓㯋炻⍲娵䛇屈屔䘬ⶍἄ㈧ 媦炻冯㚵⊁䣦㚫䘬⬴ℐả⊁ˤ 6. ⮰㤕冒ᷣ烉⮰㤕Ṣ⒉⛐➟埴ⶍἄ㗪炻℟㚱䌐䩳␴冒䓙埴ἧ℞⮰㤕䞍傥炻᷎ 䎮⿏ ⇌㕟冯㈱㑯烊⮵㇨㑼ả䘬ⶍἄ傥ℐ㪲屈屔嗽䎮炻ᶵ⍿⢾Ṣ㓗惵ㆾ⸚枸䘬埴䁢冯ン ⹎ˤ 7. ⮰㤕䳬䷼烉⮰㤕Ṣ⒉ㅱ⺢䩳᷎⍫冯⮰㤕䳬䷼炻德忶普橼䘬㘢ㄏ冯≃慷炻妪⭂⮰㤕

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堐 1 ⮰㤕⊾夷㸾Ⰼ朊ℏ㵝⼁㔜堐ġ ⮰㤕⊾Ⰼ朊 ᷣ⻝侭 ⮰㤕䳈梲 ⮰㤕㚵⊁ ⮰㤕䘤⯽ 䞍 嬀 橼 䲣 ⮰ 㤕 䞍 嬀 ⮰ 㤕 ㈨ 傥 ⮰ 㤕 ΐ 䎮 ⮰ 㤕 ㈧ 媦 ⮰ 㤕 冒 ᷣ ⮰ 㤕 䳬 ䷼ ⮰ 㤕 嫱 ⮰ 㤕 ㆸ 䣦 㚫 娵 ⎴ 㜿ᷫㄏ炷1999炸 V V V V V 㜿⣑䣸炷2004炸 V V V V 㜿⽿∃炷1993炸 V V V V V V V 㜿㴟㶭炷2000炸 V V V V V V ⏛Ἓ䅩炷2005炸 V V V ⏛㶭Ⱉ炷1998炸 V V V ⏛㶭㯜炷1999炸 V V V 傉⣊殐炷1995炻2001炸 V V V V V V ⼸ㄏ⫃炷2007炸 V V V V 㚦㵹よ炷2006炸 V V V V V V V 湫㚁㜙炷2007炸 V V V V 哉➡㛹炷1995炸 V V V V V V 櫷よ⧇炷1995炸 V V V V ∱㗍㥖炷2004炸 V V V ∱㘢尒炷2004炸 V V V 岜㵹⌧炷2004炸 V V V V 惕䎖䏛炷2005炸 V 嫅㔯ℐ炷2004炸 V V V V V

American Evaluation Association

炷2004炸 V V KingˣStevahnˣGhere ␴ Minnema 炷2001炸 V V Halpern ␴ Long炷2007炸 V V V V Hoy ␴ Miskel炷1987炸 V V V V Huse ␴ McDavid炷2006炸 V V V V WorthenˣSanders ␴ Fitzpartick 炷1997炸 V V V V ䷥ 妰 4 17 14 17 4 7 12 9 10 4 屯㕁Ἦ㸸烉䞼䨞侭㔜䎮ġ ΐ䎮夷䭬炻彎䎮⮰㤕姽揹炻㍐≽⛐借忚ᾖ炻㍸ὃ⮰㤕㚵⊁炻⋼≑ㆸ⒉妋㰢⮰㤕⓷ 柴炻ẍ㍸⋯⮰㤕Ṣ⒉䘬䳈岒冯㯜㸾ˤㆸ䩳⮰㤕䳬䷼炻ᶨ㕡朊⎗䡢䩳⮰㤕⛘ỵ炻⎎ ᶨ㕡朊⎗德忶⮰㤕⛀橼夷䭬ↅ倂⛀橼䘬屔ảデˤ

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8. ⮰㤕嫱䄏烉㊩㚱⮰㤕嫱䄏侭㕡⼿⽆ḳ⮰㤕ⶍἄ炻ᶨ⇯䡢ᾅṢ⒉䘬屯㟤㯜㸾冯⑩ 岒炻Ḵ⇯⺢䩳⮰㤕䘬㱽⭂⛘ỵ炻䵕㊩⮰㤕㛔幓䘬⮲♜冯倚嬥ˤ 9. ⮰㤕ㆸ攟烉⮰㤕Ṣ⒉⽭枰晐㗪ᶵ㕟忚ᾖ⮰㤕䞍嬀冯㈨傥炻⏠㓞㕘䘬䞍嬀冯奨⾝炻 ≈⻟⮰㤕䞼䨞炻ẍ䵕㊩冒幓䘬ㆸ攟㨇㚫ˤ 10. 䣦㚫娵⎴烉⮰㤕Ṣ⒉䘬屯㟤ˣ傥≃冯堐䎦昌Ḯ天䌚⼿⮰㤕⛀橼䘬娵⎗炻㚜慵天䌚 ⼿䣦㚫⣏䛦娵⎴ˤ 㟡㒂ᶲ↿婾徘炻㛔䞼䨞⮯⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁ℏ㵝∫↮䁢ᶱ⣏ Ⰼ朊炻ᶫᾳ枭䚖炻婒㖶⤪ᶳ炻䞼䨞侭ẍ㬌ᶱ⣏Ⰼ朊䁢➢㸾炻䳸⎰㊯㧁⺢㥳䘬⍇⇯⍲ 㕡㱽炻⺢㥳庫䁢⎰⭄⎗ᾉ䘬㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁ˤ 1. ⮰㤕䳈梲烉⊭⏓⮰㤕䞍嬀ˣ⮰㤕㈨傥䫱Ḵᾳ枭䚖ˤ 2. ⮰㤕㚵⊁烉⊭⏓⮰㤕ΐ䎮ˣ⮰㤕㈧媦ˣ⮰㤕冒ᷣ䫱ᶱᾳ枭䚖ˤ 3. ⮰㤕䘤⯽烉⊭⏓⮰㤕䳬䷼ˣ⮰㤕嫱䄏䫱Ḵᾳ枭䚖ˤ

ΠȃఀىຟᠦΡষடཾϽࡾ኿Ϟϱొġ

姽揹怩⎹⮰㤕⊾㗗ᶾ䓴䘬㼖㳩嵐⊊炻⮰㤕⊾暨天ᶨ⣿⬴㔜䌐䈡䘬䞍嬀橼䲣冯㧁 㸾ˤ⚳ℏ⛐㬌柀➇䘬䞼䨞䁢㔠ᶵ⣂炻䞼䨞侭德忶↮㜸㔜䎮⚳ℏ⢾䚠斄㔯䌣炻娎⚾⺢ 䩳ᶨ⣿怑⎰⚳ね䘬⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁䘬⬠䎮➢䢶炻䴻䵄⎰㔜䎮⚳ ℏ⢾⬠侭䘬奨溆炷㜿⣑䣸炻2006烊㜿⽿∃炻1993烊屉⛀㱽Ṣ檀䫱㔁做姽揹ᷕ⽫➢慹 㚫炻2006烊⼸㖲㜚ˣ㚦㵹よˣ姙⒚䓟ˣ哉㚄⤪炻2007烊⼸ㄏ⫃炻2007烊楔よ⧋ˣ㛶 㕘悱炻2007烊昛⣶ㅁ炻1993烊㚦㵹よ炻2002烊湫㚁㜙炻2007烊∱㘢尒炻2004烊∱䤷 挼ˣ㜿㶭㔯炻2007烊哉➡㛹炻1995烊惕䎖䏛炻2005烊岜㵹⌧炻2004烊嫅㔯ℐ炻2004烊 伭㔯 廅 炻1998烊Altschuld, 1999a, 1999b; American Evaluation Association, 2004; Australasian Evaluation Society, 2006; Buchanan, Maicher, & Kuji-Shikatani, 2008a, 2008b; Dreyfus & Dreyfus, 1986; Ennis, 2004; Gauthier, Halpern, & McDavid, 2007; Herman, Morris, & Fitz-Gibbon, 1987; Jones, 2001; King, Stevahn, Ghere, & Minnema, 2001; Knott, 1998; Mertens, 1994; Owen & Lambert, 1998; Professional Designation Core Committee, 2008; Stevahn, King, Ghere, & Minnema, 2005炸炻䞼䨞侭㍸↢㔁做姽揹 Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁⇅㬍⺢㥳炻℞ℏ⭡↮䁢⮰㤕䳈梲ˣ⮰㤕㚵⊁⍲⮰㤕䘤⯽䫱ᶱ⣏Ⰼ朊炻

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⮰㤕䳈梲Ⰼ朊ᷳᶳ↮䁢⮰㤕䞍嬀ˣ⮰㤕㈨傥䫱Ḵᾳ枭䚖炻枭䚖ᷳᶳℵ↮䁢 7 ᾳᷣ㊯ 㧁炻33 ᾳ㫉㊯㧁ˤ⮰㤕㚵⊁Ⰼ朊ᷳᶳ↮䁢⮰㤕ΐ䎮ˣ⮰㤕㈧媦ˣ⮰㤕冒ᷣ䫱ᶱᾳ枭 䚖炻枭䚖ᷳᶳℵ↮䁢 7 ᾳᷣ㊯㧁炻30 ᾳ㫉㊯㧁ˤ⮰㤕䘤⯽Ⰼ朊ᷳᶳ↮䁢⮰㤕䳬䷼⍲ ⮰㤕嫱䄏䫱Ḵᾳ枭䚖炻枭䚖ᷳᶳℵ↮䁢 6 ᾳᷣ㊯㧁炻24 ᾳ㫉㊯㧁ˤ䵄⎰ᷳ炻㛔䞼䨞 ㊯㧁⇅㬍⺢㥳ᷳ䳸㥳ℙ↮ᶱ⣏Ⰼ朊ˣᶫᾳ枭䚖ˣḴ⋩ᾳᷣ㊯㧁⍲ℓ⋩ᶫᾳ㫉㊯㧁炻 娛䳘ℏ⭡⤪堐 2炻㊯㧁橼䲣䳸㥳娛⤪⚾ 1 昶Ⰼ斄Ὢ⚾㇨䣢ˤẍ㬌⇅㬍⺢㥳ℏ⭡䶐墥ㆸ ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞˭⮰⭞㓰⹎⓷⌟炻晐ᷳ德忶⓷⌟ 婧㞍㱽↮昶㭝吸㔜⮰⭞ᷳシ夳ˤ 堐 2 ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁ᷳℏ⭡㝞㥳堐 ⮰㤕䳈梲Ⰼ朊 ⮰㤕㚵⊁Ⰼ朊 ⮰㤕䘤⯽Ⰼ朊 ⮰㤕䞍嬀枭䚖 ⮰㤕ΐ䎮枭䚖 ⮰㤕䳬䷼枭䚖 㔁 做 姽 揹 䈡 ⭂ 䞍 嬀 炷1炸℟⁁姽揹䲣䴙䘬 䎮婾䞍嬀ˤ 炷2炸℟⁁姽揹䭉䎮㈨ 傥䘬䞍嬀ˤ 炷3炸℟⁁姽揹⮎⊁㈨ 傥䘬䞍嬀ˤ 炷4炸Ḯ妋⎬栆㔁做姽 揹㧉⺷⃒ᷳ仢溆 冯旸⇞ˤ 炷5炸℟⁁㕡㟰妰䔓冯 姽揹䘬䚠斄䎮婾 䞍嬀ˤ 炷6炸Ḯ妋㔁做姽揹䘬 䚖䘬ˣ≇傥⍲➢ 㛔㬟䦳ˤ ⶍ ἄ ΐ 䎮 炷1炸ㅱℐ䦳⍫冯㔜ᾳ姽揹忶 䦳ˤ 炷2炸ㅱ〒思ᾅ⭮⍇⇯ˤ 炷3炸ㅱ思⬰⇑䙲徜性ᷳ⍇⇯ˤ 炷4炸ㅱ嫡⬰㔁做姽揹䘬♜嫡夷 䭬 炷5炸ㅱ⣂⃫㞍嫱屯㕁㬋䡢⿏ˤ 炷6炸姒姽㛇攻ㅱ徜性ảỽ⼊⺷ 䘬㊃⼭ㆾ棥岰ˤ 思 ⬰ 䳬 ䷼ 夷 䭬 炷1炸军⮹℟㚱ᶨ枭⮰㤕 姽 揹 ⛀ 橼 ㆸ ⒉ 䘬 幓↮ˤ 炷2炸⭂㛇⍫≈㇨Ⱄ⮰㤕 ⛀橼䘬㳣≽ˤ 炷3炸思⬰㇨Ⱄ⮰㤕⛀橼 䘬夷䭬ˤ 㔁 做 ⮰ 㤕 䚠 斄 䞍 嬀 炷1炸℟⁁㔁做䎮婾⍲ ⒚⬠➢䢶䞍嬀ˤ 炷2炸Ḯ妋㔁做㓧䫾⍲ ⮎㕥㕡㟰䘬䚠斄 䎮婾ˤ 炷3炸℟⁁㔁做埴㓧ⶍ ἄᷳ䚠斄䞍嬀ˤ 炷4炸℟⁁婚䦳冯㔁⬠ ᷳ䚠斄䞍嬀ˤ 炷5炸℟⁁㔁做朑㕘ᷳ 䚠斄䞍嬀ˤ Ṣ 晃 ΐ 䎮 炷1炸冯⮷䳬ㆸ⒉ˣ⥼妿╖ỵˣ ⍿姽╖ỵ攻⺢䩳⮲慵Ḻ ᾉ斄Ὢˤ 炷2炸䵕㊩列⤥䘬⎴₽⎰ἄ斄 Ὢˤ 炷3炸㛒䴻⎴シᶵ⼿⺽徘ㆾ廱徘 ℞Ṿㆸ⒉䘬⮰㤕シ夳ˤ 炷4炸ㅱ⮲慵姽揹妶婾㚫嬘䘬ℙ 嬀䳸㝄ˤ 炷5炸ㅱ⁦倥᷎⮲慵⍿姽䚠斄Ṣ ⒉䘬婒㖶ˤ ⍫ ≈ ⮰ 㤕 忚 ᾖ 炷1炸傥⍫冯姽揹⬠㚫ㆾ 㨇 㥳 ᷳ ⮰ 㤕 䘤 ⯽ 婚䦳ˤ 炷2炸⍫冯⮰㤕⛀橼䘬⬠ 佺䣦佌炻⯽攳⮰㤕 ⮵娙ˤ 炷3炸䴻ⷠ⍫冯姽揹⮰㤕 䘬⛐借妻䶜ˤ 炷4炸⍫冯⎬栆䞼妶㚫冯 ⬠埻䞼妶㚫炻ẍ㍸ 㖯䞍嬀側㘗ˤ 炷临ᶳ枩炸

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堐 2炷临炸 ⮰㤕䳈梲Ⰼ朊 ⮰㤕㚵⊁Ⰼ朊 ⮰㤕䘤⯽Ⰼ朊 ⮰㤕㈨傥枭䚖 ⮰㤕㈧媦枭䚖 ⮰㤕嫱䄏枭䚖 䞼 䨞 㕡 㱽 婾 䞍 嬀 炷1炸℟⁁姽揹䎮婾冯㕡㱽 婾䘬䞍嬀ˤ 炷2炸℟⁁岒⿏冯慷⊾䞼䨞 䘬䎮婾䞍嬀ˤ 炷3炸℟⁁屯㕁䴙妰↮㜸䘬 䞍嬀ˤ 炷4炸℟⁁屯妲嗽䎮䘬䞍嬀ˤ 䣦 㚫 ΐ 䎮 炷1炸⮎⛘姒夾㗪炻ㅱ性⃵⸚ 㒦 ⍿ 姽 ╖ ỵ 㬋 ⷠ 㳣 ≽ 䘬忚埴ˤ 炷2炸姽揹忶䦳ᷕㅱ性⃵㓧㱣 ⚈䳈⸚㒦ˤ 炷3炸姽揹忶䦳ᷕㅱ➭⬰ᷕ䩳 ⭊奨䘬刚⼑ˤ 炷4炸姽揹忶䦳ᷕ炻朊⮵ℑ暋 ⓷柴ㅱ㉙㊩忻⽟≯㯋ˤ 炷5炸ㅱ䡢娵冒幓䘬䣦㚫屔ả 冯⮰㤕奺刚ˤ ㈧ 㑼 ⮰ 㤕 屔 ả 炷1炸傥冯⮰㤕⛀橼ㆸ⒉ ἄ ℔ 攳 䞍 嬀 冯 䴻 槿↮ṓˤ 炷2炸傥⍫冯⛀橼≽≃婚 䦳㍸㖯㚵⊁䅙⾙ˤ 炷3炸傥⽆ḳ䞼䨞冯⮎槿 ⶍἄ炻Ὣ忚⮰㤕朑 㕘䘤⯽ˤ 炷4炸傥ᷣ≽䘤堐⮰㤕⬠ 埻㔯䪈炻⟙⮶⮰㤕 妲〗ˤ 炷5炸傥 冒ㆹ㩊㟠冯⚆ 棳 炻 ㍸ 㖯 㚵 ⊁ ⑩ 岒ˤ 柀 ⮶ 夷 ∫ 䘬 傥 ≃ 炷1炸℟㚱⮰㟰ᷣ㊩冯夷∫ 䘬傥≃ˤ 炷2炸℟㚱䚖㧁⺢㥳䘬傥≃ˤ 炷3炸℟㚱䫾䔍䘤⯽䘬傥≃ˤ 炷4炸℟㚱䷦㓰䭉㍏䘬傥≃ˤ 炷5炸℟㚱怷廗冯㈡⇌⿏⿅ 侫㈨ⶏˤ 炷6炸℟㚱㔜⎰Ṣ≃ˣ䴻屣 冯屯㸸䘬傥≃ˤ 列 ⤥ 䘬 ⮰ 㤕 ン ⹎ 炷1炸傥娵⎴㔁做姽揹ⶍἄ㗗 㚱₡ῤ䘬⮰㤕炻᷎䴎Ḱ 㬋⎹䘬姽₡ˤ 炷2炸傥ᷣ≽䧵㤝⍫冯炻᷎⽆ ᷕ 䌚 ⼿ ㆸ ⯙ デ 冯 㬠 Ⱄ デˤ 炷3炸⮵姽揹⮰㤕ả⊁冯≇傥 ℟ 㚱 ➭ ⭂ ᾉ ẘ 冯 㦪 奨 ン⹎ˤ ℟ ⁁ 屯 㬟 䴻 槿 炷1炸℟⁁䡑⢓⬠ỵẍᶲ 䘬⬠㬟ˤ 炷2炸军⮹ᾖ佺 18 ⮷㗪 ẍ ᶲ 䘬 㔁 做 姽 揹 䚠斄婚䦳ˤ 炷3炸℟㚱寸⭴䘬㔁做埴 㓧 ㆾ ⬠ 㟉 埴 㓧 䘬 屯㬟ˤ 炷4炸忂忶姽揹⮰㤕⬠㚫 䘬 ⮰ 㤕 姽 揹 Ṣ ⒉ 屯㟤娵⭂ˤ 炷5炸℟㚱ᶨ⸜ẍᶲ⍫冯 姽 揹 䚠 斄 ⶍ ἄ ᷳ 䴻槿ˤ Ṣ 晃 斄 Ὢ 䘬 傥 ≃ 炷1炸℟㚱列⤥䘬㹅忂⋼婧 傥≃ˤ 炷2炸傥䆇忈⛀橼⎰ἄ䘬䑘 ⠫冯㯋㯃ˤ 炷3炸℟㚱⊾妋堅䨩䘬㈨ⶏˤ 炷4炸℟⁁⛀昲ⶍἄ冯⋼⎴ 忳ἄ䘬㈨ⶏˤ 列 ⤥ 䘬 ⶍ ἄ ㈧ 媦 炷1炸傥䤨㊩㬋䚜冯℔⸛䘬ン ⹎埴ḳˤ 炷2炸ㅱ≯㕤㈧娵冒⶙㇨忈ㆸ 拗婌䘬姽揹䳸㝄ˤ 炷3炸傥ℐ≃䁢㔁做姽揹ⶍἄ 侴届䌣⮰攟ˤ 炷4炸傥ᶵ㕟䞼䨞∝㕘炻㍸檀 ⶍἄ㓰傥ˤ ㊩ 临 冒 ㆹ ㆸ 攟 炷1炸傥ᷣ≽⬠佺㕘䞍嬀 ␴㈨傥ˤ 炷2炸傥㌴㎉⮰㤕䘤⯽䘬 傰䴉炻᷎ἄ䓇㵗䘤 ⯽夷∫ˤ 炷3炸傥夷∫⍫冯姽揹⮰ 㤕 ⬠ 㚫 䘬 ⎬ 栆 姽 揹Ṣ⒉⃚⁁⬠䦳ˤ 炷临ᶳ枩炸

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堐 2炷临炸 ⮰㤕䳈梲Ⰼ朊 ⮰㤕㚵⊁Ⰼ朊 ⮰㤕䘤⯽Ⰼ朊 ⮰㤕㈨傥枭䚖 ⮰㤕㈧媦枭䚖 ⮰㤕嫱䄏枭䚖 屯 㕁 嗽 䎮 䘬 ㈨ 傥 炷1炸℟㚱屯㕁吸普ˣ䳬䷼ 傥≃ˤ 炷2炸傥↮㜸岒⿏冯慷⊾屯 㕁傥≃ˤ 炷3炸℟㚱屯㕁䴙妰↮㜸傥 ≃ˤ 炷4炸℟㚱暣儎嗽䎮屯㕁䘬 傥≃ˤ ⮰ 㤕 䱦 䤆 炷1炸傥䥱㊩姢㕟ˣ⋼≑ˣ㓡 ┬㔁做䎦㱩䘬䱦䤆ˤ 炷2炸姽揹忶䦳ᷕㅱ性⃵ᷣ奨 シ嬀冯ῷ夳ˤ 炷3炸傥㟡㒂⮰㤕䞍傥冯䴻槿 ἄ⮰㤕⇌㕟冯㰢⭂ˤ 炷4炸傥➭㊩⮰㤕屔ả炻性⃵ ⢾≃䘬⸚枸ˤ 䌚 ⼿ 䣦 㚫 娵 ⎴ 炷1炸⍫冯⮰㤕嫱䄏⇞㩊 ⭂ˤ 炷2炸〒思㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉ ⮰㤕㧁㸾夷䭬ˤ 炷3炸姽揹忶䦳ᷕ䥱㊩䣦 㚫㬋佑⍇⇯ˤ 炷4炸娖慳姽揹䳸㝄℟㚱 ℔ᾉ≃ˤ 㑘 ⮓ 姽 揹 ⟙ ⏲ 䘬 傥 ≃ 炷1炸傥怑䔞忳䓐㔯⫿⚾堐  ㆸ姽揹⟙⏲ˤ 炷2炸傥㊯↢姽揹䘬旸⇞⍲ ἧ䓐䘬天溆ˤ 炷3炸傥㍸↢℟橼⎗埴䘬⺢ 嬘ˤ 炷4炸傥䵄⎰㬠䲵姽揹䘬䘤 䎦炻 ㆸ姽揹䳸婾ˤ ⇑ Ṿ 㚵 ⊁ 炷1炸℟㚱㚵⊁慵㕤⟙愔䘬⇑ Ṿ㚵⊁ᾉ⾝ˤ 炷2炸怑䔞䘬ἧ䓐䣦㚫⿏屯 㸸ˤ 炷3炸⛐姽揹忶䦳ᷕㅱὫ忚䣦 㚫㬋佑冯℔⸛⍇⇯ˤ ䷥ 妰 2ᾳ枭䚖 7ᾳᷣ㊯㧁 33ᾳ㫉㊯㧁 3ᾳ枭䚖 7ᾳᷣ㊯㧁 30ᾳ㫉㊯㧁 2ᾳ枭䚖 6ᾳᷣ㊯㧁 24ᾳ㫉㊯㧁

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⚾ 1 ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁橼䲣⚾⇅䧧

έȃఀىຟᠦΡষடཾϽϞࣺᜰंـġ

䴻㞍娊⚳ℏ⢾䘬⌂䡑⢓婾㔯屯㕁⹓炻㇒军 2008 ⸜ 4 㚰炻䳸㝄䘤䎦烉伶≈⛘⋨䘬 ⌂䡑⢓婾㔯屯㕁⹓炷ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, PQDT炸炻ẍˬ㔁做姽揹˭ 炷educational evaluation炸䁢䞼䨞ᷣ柴䘬⬠ỵ婾㔯㚱 54 䭯烊ẍˬ姽揹Ṣ⒉˭炷evaluator炸 䁢䞼䨞ᷣ柴䘬⬠ỵ婾㔯㚱 180 䭯烊ẍˬ㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉˭炷educational evaluator炸䁢䞼 ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁橼䲣ġ ⮰㤕䳈梲Ⰼ朊ġ ⮰㤕㚵⊁Ⰼ朊ġ ⮰㤕䘤⯽Ⰼ朊ġ Ⰼ朊昶Ⰼġ 烁 ⮰ 㤕 ㈨ 傥 ġ ġ 烀 ⮰ 㤕 䞍 嬀 ġ 烂 ⮰ 㤕 冒 ᷣ ġ 烁 ⮰ 㤕 ㈧ 媦 ġ 烀 ⮰ 㤕 ΐ 䎮 ġ 烁 ⮰ 㤕 嫱 䄏 ġ ġ 烀 ⮰ 㤕 䳬 ䷼ ġ 枭䚖昶Ⰼġ 烃 㑘 ⮓ ⟙ ⏲ 䘬 傥 ≃ ġ 烂 屯 㕁 嗽 䎮 䘬 ㈨ 傥 ġ 烁 Ṣ 晃 斄 Ὢ 䘬 傥 ≃ ġ 烀 柀 ⮶ 夷 ∫ 䘬 傥 ≃ ġ ġ 烂 䞼 䨞 㕡 㱽 婾 䞍 嬀 ġ 烁 㔁 做 ⮰ 㤕 䚠 斄 䞍 嬀 ġ 烀 㔁 做 姽 揹 䈡 ⭂ 䞍 嬀 ġ 烁 ⇑ Ṿ 㚵 ⊁ ġ 烀 ⮰ 㤕 䱦 䤆 ġ 烁 列 ⤥ 䘬 ⶍ ἄ ㈧ 媦 ġ 烀 列 ⤥ 䘬 ⮰ 㤕 ン ⹎ ġ 烂 䣦 㚫 ΐ 䎮 ġ 烁 Ṣ 晃 ΐ 䎮 ġ 烀 ⶍ ἄ ΐ 䎮 ġ ᷣ㊯㧁 昶Ⰼġ 烂 䌚 ⼿ 䣦 㚫 娵 ⎴ ġ 烁 ㊩ 临 冒 ㆹ ㆸ 攟 ġ 烀 ℟ ⁁ 屯 㬟 䴻 槿 ġ 烂 ㈧ 㑼 ⮰ 㤕 屔 ả ġ 烁 ⍫ ≈ ⮰ 㤕 忚 ᾖ ġ 烀 思 ⬰ 䳬 ䷼ 夷 䭬ġ 㫉㊯㧁 昶Ⰼġ ㊯ 㧁 ĴĴġ ġ ġ ġ į ġ ġ ġ ġ į ġ ġ ġ ġ į ġ ġ ġ ġ į ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ į ġ 㫉 ㊯ 㧁 IJ ġ 㫉 ㊯ 㧁 Ĵıġ ġ į ġ į ġ į ġ ġ 㫉 ㊯ 㧁 IJ ġ 㫉 ㊯ 㧁 ijĵġ ġ ġ ġ 炽 ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ į ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ į ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ į ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ į ġ 㫉 ㊯ 㧁 IJ

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䨞ᷣ柴䘬⬠ỵ婾㔯㚱 2 䭯烊⬠ỵ婾㔯䘬䞼䨞ᷣ柴ẍˬ⮰㤕⊾˭炷professionalism炸侭㚱 490 䭯烊ẍˬ⮰㤕⊾˭炷professionalization炸侭㚱 371 䭯烊℞ᷕ炻⣏⣂㔠䘬䞼䨞慵溆 ⛐慓ⷓˣ嬟⢓⍲㔁ⷓ䘬⮰㤕⊾䞼䨞炻冯姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕䚠斄䘬⬠ỵ婾㔯炻㚱 Jones炷2001炸 䘬ˬ姽Ộ姽揹Ṣ⒉嫱䄏䘬暨㯪˭炻⍲ Hamilton炷2003炸䘬ˬ娵嫱借㤕姽揹⮰⭞䘬奺刚 冯≇傥˭䫱Ḵ䭯ˤ䚖⇵⯂㛒㚱ẍˬ㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾炷educational evaluator professionalization ㆾ professionalism炸˭䁢䞼䨞ᷣ柴䘬⬠ỵ婾㔯ˤ ⚳ℏ悐↮炻㇒军 2009 ⸜ 7 㚰㬊炻ℐ⚳⌂䡑⢓婾㔯屯㕁⹓炻ẍˬ㔁做姽揹˭䁢䞼 䨞ᷣ柴侭⇯㚱 79 䭯烊ẍˬ㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉炷ㆾ姽揹⥼⒉炸˭䘬䞼䨞ᷣ柴䘬⬠ỵ婾㔯ℙ 㚱 7 䭯炻ἳ⤪烉⏪ᶾ῱炷2007炸䘬˪⣏⬠㟉昊䲣㇨姽揹⥼⒉⮰㤕傥≃冯⮰㤕堐䎦ᷳ 䞼䨞˫ˣ㛶ⱓ暚炷2006炸䘬˪冢⊿䷋⸤䧂⚺姽揹㕡㟰烉姽揹⥼⒉䘬奨溆˫ˣ⏛Ἓ䅩炷2005炸 䘬˪⸤䧂⚺姽揹⥼⒉➡妻㕡㟰ᷳ⺢㥳˫ˣ⼸ㄏ⫃炷2007炸䘬˪ㆹ⚳㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉嫱䄏 ⇞⹎⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞˫ˣ哉䏳㗞炷2007炸䘬˪⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㟉⊁姽揹⥼⒉⮰㤕ΐ䎮㸾⇯⺢㥳 ᷳ䞼䨞˫ˣ∱㘢尒炷2004炸䘬˪⚳㮹⮷⬠㟉⊁姽揹⥼⒉姽揹⮰㤕傥≃㊯㧁⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞˫ˣ 惕䎖䏛炷2005炸䘬˪ㆹ⚳㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕ΐ䎮㸾⇯ᷳ⺢㥳˫䫱ᶫ䭯䡑⢓婾㔯ˤẍ 姽揹⮰㤕ℏ㵝䁢䞼䨞ᷣ柴侭㚱 1 䭯炻ἳ⤪烉␐ⲯ₺炷2008炸䘬˪⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㟉⊁姽 揹⮰㤕ℏ㵝⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞˫炻䚖⇵⚳ℏ⢾䘬䚠斄䞼䨞ᷳᷣ柴⛯Ⱄ借㤕怩⎹⮰㤕⊾䘤⯽忶 䦳ᷳᶨ悐↮炻⯂㛒㚱ẍˬ姽揹⮰㤕⊾˭⍲ˬ㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾˭䁢䞼䨞ᷣ柴䘬⌂ 䡑⢓婾㔯ˤ䃞侴炻⮰㤕⊾忶䦳ᷕ天⺢䩳⮰㤕Ṣ⒉䘬屯㟤冯埴䁢ᷳ夷䭬炻侴⮰㤕夷䭬 㗗䓙⮰㤕㨇㥳⇞⭂炻᷎ᶼ➭㊩⮰㤕Ṣ⒉天♜㟤思⬰⮰㤕埴䁢䘬夷䭬炻᷎ᶼ⭂㛇㍍⍿ ⮰㤕揹⭂ẍ䵕专⮰㤕䘬⼊尉冯⑩岒ˤ

୤ȃंـ೩ॎᇄᄂࢊġ

Ιȃंـᄇຫġ

䘤⯽⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁䘬忶䦳ㅱ䓙⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹䘬⇑ ⭛斄ὪṢℙ⎴⍫冯炻℞⇑⭛斄ὪṢ⊭⏓㔁做姽揹⥼⒉ˣᷣ䭉㔁做埴㓧㨇斄Ṣ⒉ˣ⬠ 㟉埴㓧Ṣ⒉ˣ㔁ⷓˣ⬠䓇ˣ⭞攟ˣ⍲䣦㚫⣏䛦ˤỮ⮎晃ᶲ炻⎗䓐⿏㊯㧁⍲℞㪲慵䘬 姽⭂℟㚱⮰㤕⿏炻ᶨ凔Ṣ⿸暋⊅ả㬌枭ⶍἄ炻⚈㬌炻㛔䞼䨞㍉䓐䩳シ⍾㧋㕡⺷怠⍾ ⍫冯⽟㆟䞼䨞ᷳ⮰⭞炻⮵⮰⭞䘬屯㟤冯㡅ẞ≈ẍ旸⭂炻⮯㭵佌䘬䭬⚵䓴⭂䁢㚦⍫冯 㔁做姽揹⮎⊁ⶍἄ炷⊭⏓姽揹⥼⒉⍲塓姽揹侭炸炻ᶼ℟⁁㔁做埴㓧⮰㤕䞍嬀侭ˤ

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㛔䞼䨞⽟㆟埻⮰⭞⮷䳬怠⍾㧋㛔㔠䁢 20 Ṣ炻怨婳 14 ỵ⛐㔁做姽揹柀➇㚱㌰婚ˣ ⮰攨叿ἄˣ⮰柴䞼䨞ㆾ㚦㑼ả㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⬠侭⮰⭞炻3 ỵ⮎晃⍫冯㔁做姽揹ⶍἄ 䘬㔁做埴㓧Ṣ⒉ˣ⍲ 4 ỵ㚦⍫冯㔁做姽揹䘬⬠㟉埴㓧Ṣ⒉ℙ⎴䳬ㆸˤ 㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁シ夳婧㞍ᷳ㧋㛔㔠㗗⽆役ℓ⸜Ἦ炷2001~2009 ⸜炸⍫冯 冢⊿ⶪ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㟉⊁姽揹䘬⥼⒉⎵╖炻㈋昌慵央⍫冯⽟㆟埻⮰⭞⮷䳬䘬⎵╖炻晐 㨇怠⍾ 100 ỵ㚦⍫冯㔁做姽揹䘬⣏⬠㟉昊㔁ⷓ⬠侭ˣ⬠㟉埴㓧Ṣ⒉炷䎦ả㟉攟炸ˣ⍲ 徨ẹ㟉攟䫱炻⍫冯㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁䘬シ夳婧㞍ˤ

Πȃंـώڎġ

㛔䞼䨞䓐Ἦ吸普屯㕁䘬䞼䨞ⶍ℟㚱⚃烉Ὢ䞼䨞侭冒䶐ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞烉⎗䓐⿏㊯㧁˭⓷⌟ˣˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯ 㧁⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞烉㊯㧁䚠⮵㪲慵˭⓷⌟ˣˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁婧㞍⓷ ⌟˭ˤ℞ᾉˣ㓰⹎婒㖶⤪ᶳ烉 炷ᶨ炸ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞烉⎗䓐⿏㊯㧁˭⓷⌟ 㛔㫉⓷⌟怨婳 20 ỵ℟㚱㔁做姽揹柀➇⮰攟ㆾ℟㚱㔁做姽揹ⶍἄ⮎⊁䴻槿䘬⮰⭞ ⬠侭⍫冯炻䴻㍉䓐㧉䱲⽟㆟埻ᷳ⣂ỵ⮰⭞⇌㕟㧉䱲䚠Ụ⿏㔜⎰㱽炻⮯ 20 ỵ⮰⭞⬠侭 䘬⇌㕟⋨攻≈ẍ㔜⎰炻㯪↢㭷枭㊯㧁䘬怑↯⿏㧉䱲⋨攻ˣ慵⽫炷㧉䱲㛇㛃ῤ炸ˣZ ↮ 㔠炻᷎⍫侫ⷠ㧉⍫䄏㧉⺷炻㍉ 95%ᾉ岜⋨攻ᷳ暁“㩊⭂㕡⺷ἄ⇒怠柴䚖ᷳ⍫侫ὅ㒂炻 ↉ Z ↮㔠ṳ㕤±1.96 ᷳ攻侭炻Ḱᾅ䔁炻⍵ᷳ⇯⇒昌ˤ⛐ 82 枭㊯㧁䘬 Z ↮㔠ᷕ炻⇒昌 Ḵ枭㊯㧁䘬 Z ↮㔠句⛐.05 ᾉ岜⋨攻ᷳ⢾炻㔜ᾳ㊯㧁橼䲣ℙ妰 80 ᾳ㫉㊯㧁ˤ㍍叿两 临忚埴䞼墥㊯㧁䚠⮵㪲慵⓷⌟ˤ 炷Ḵ炸ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞烉㊯㧁䚠⮵㪲慵˭⓷⌟ 㛔䞼䨞 80 枭㊯㧁䴻㧉䱲Ⰼ䳂↮㜸⼴炻㟡㒂娚枭㫉㊯㧁䘬慵⽫ῤ妰䬿↢䚠⮵㕤㭷 ᶨᷣ㊯㧁䘬䚠⮵㪲慵炻㇨㯪⼿䘬䚠⮵㪲慵ㅱ䓐㕤婧㞍⓷⌟䘬妰↮ˤ 炷ᶱ炸ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁婧㞍⓷⌟˭ 㛔䞼䨞㍉䓐 Cronbach’s ῤἮ侫槿㛔⓷⌟䘬ᾉ⹎炻㔜橼⓷⌟䘬 Cronbach’s ῤ 䁢.977炻⚃ᾳ㊯㧁Ⰼ朊悐↮䘬 Cronbach’s ῤ↮⇍烉ˬ⮰㤕䳈梲˭䁢.959ˣˬ⮰㤕ΐ 䎮˭䁢.958ˣˬ⮰㤕㚵⊁˭䁢.946ˣˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭䁢.946ˤ㭷ᾳⰌ朊⍲㔜橼⓷⌟䘬 ῤ⛯⛐.90 ẍᶲ炻栗䣢㛔⓷⌟䘬ᾉ⹎枿Ἓ炻㛔⓷⌟℟㚱列⤥䘬ℏ悐ᶨ农⿏ˤ

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堐 3 20 ỵ⮰⭞⇌㕟䘬㧉䱲Ⰼ䳂↮㜸䳸㝄ᶨ奥堐 ㊯㧁Ⰼ朊 㧉䱲㪲慵 慵⽫ 䚠⮵㪲慵 䳗䧵㪲慵 ⮰㤕䳈梲Ⰼ朊 炷0.12, 0.26, 0.52, 1.08炸 0.50 0.36 0.36 ⮰㤕ΐ䎮Ⰼ朊 炷0.12, 0.25, 0.49, 1.05炸 0.48 0.35 0.71 ⮰㤕㚵⊁Ⰼ朊 炷0.05, 0.11, 0.22, 0.48炸 0.21 0.16 0.78 ⮰㤕䘤⯽Ⰼ朊 炷0.04, 0.09, 0.18, 0.41炸 0.18 0.13 1 姣烉㧉䱲䈡⽝ῤ烌炷3.11, 3.73, 4.43, 5.42炸 㧉䱲ᶨ农⿏㊯㧁烌炷-0.30, -0.09, 0.14, 0.47炸 ᶨ农⿏㊯㧁烌0.59 㧉䱲ᶨ农⿏㭼䌯烌炷-0.33, -0.10, 0.16, 0.53炸 ᶨ农⿏㭼䌯䦳⹎烌0.57

έȃᄂࢊแוġ

㛔䞼䨞侫慷⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁⺢㥳ℏ⭡ᷳ⭊奨⿏ˣ⮎䓐⿏炻 ⃰忚埴⚳ℏ⢾㔁做姽揹冯⮰㤕⊾䚠斄㔯䌣ᷳ㍊妶炻勱㒔⇅㬍ᷳ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹 Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁ℏ⭡炻德忶⓷⌟婧㞍㱽炻↮昶㭝⮎㕥炻⊭㊔䫔ᶨ昶㭝䘬⮰⭞ℏ⭡㓰 ⹎⓷⌟炻䫔Ḵ昶㭝䘬⎗䓐⿏㊯㧁姽⭂⓷⌟⍲㊯㧁䚠⮵㪲慵⓷⌟炻䫔ᶱ昶㭝姽揹Ṣ⒉ ⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁䎦㱩婧㞍䫱ˤ⮰⭞シ夳䘬㔜⎰㗗德忶㧉䱲⽟㆟埻⍲㧉䱲Ⰼ䳂↮㜸㱽Ἦ忚 埴䴙妰↮㜸炻⬴ㆸ㊯㧁橼䲣⺢㥳ᷳ⼴炻⇯德忶⍫冯姽揹⥼⒉⍲⍿姽Ṣ⒉䘬婧㞍⓷⌟ Ἦ堉慷㛔㊯㧁橼䲣ᷳ䫎⎰䦳⹎ˤ

Ѳȃၥਟ೎౩ġ

㛔䞼䨞ㅱ䓐 FuziCale 1.51a 䇰ˣMicrosoft Excel 2003 䇰ˣ⍲ SPSS for Window 15.0 䇰䫱⣿墅庇橼忚埴ᶳ↿䴙妰↮㜸烉 炷ᶨ炸ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭⮰⭞ℏ⭡㓰⹎⓷⌟烉㫉㔠↮惵冯 䘦↮㭼烉憅⮵⮰⭞⬠侭⛐㛔䞼䨞⮰⭞ℏ⭡㓰⹎⓷⌟婧㞍㇨⼿䳸㝄炻妰䬿℞⛐ˬᾅ䔁˭ˣ ˬᾖ㓡⼴ᾅ䔁˭⍲ˬ⇒昌˭ᶲᷳ㫉㔠↮惵冯䘦↮㭼炻↮㜸㛔⓷⌟䘬⮰⭞㓰⹎ˤ 炷Ḵ炸⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞烉⎗䓐⿏㊯㧁⓷⌟烉⇑ 䓐 FuziCale 1.51a 䇰⣿墅庇橼㔜⎰ 20 ỵ⮰⭞䘬シ夳炻妰䬿㭷枭㊯㧁䘬㧉䱲⇌㕟⋨攻 ⍲慵⽫ῤ炻ℵ⇑䓐 SPSS for Window 15.0 䇰⣿墅庇橼妰䬿㭷枭㊯㧁䘬 Z ↮㔠ˤ

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炷ᶱ炸⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞烉䚠⮵㪲慵⓷⌟烉㛔䞼 䨞⇑䓐 Microsoft Excel 2003 䇰⣿墅庇橼炻妰䬿⚃⣏Ⰼ朊⎬䳂㊯㧁ㆸ⮵㭼庫䞑昋䘬㧉 䱲㚨⣏䈡⽝ῤˣ㧉䱲䈡⽝⎹慷ˣ㧉䱲ᶨ农⿏㊯㧁冯ᶨ农⿏䦳⹎ˣ㧉䱲㪲慵冯慵⽫⍲ 䚠⮵㪲慵冯䳗䧵㪲慵ˤ䴻忶ᶨ农⿏㩊⭂忶䦳炻⇼昌ᶵ䫎⎰ᶨ农⿏㩊⭂ᷳ屯㕁炻↮⇍ ⯙ᶵ⎴栆✳姽⭂侭ᷳ屯㕁炻㯪⍾⎬䳬㊯㧁ᷳ䚠⮵㪲慵炻⺢䩳ᶵ⎴栆✳姽⭂侭ˬ㔁做 姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭ᷳ䚠⮵㪲慵ˤ 炷⚃炸⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁婧㞍⓷⌟烉憅⮵ℐ橼⍿娎侭⛐ˬ⚳ 㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭シ夳婧㞍⓷⌟⼿↮炻㯪℞⸛⛯㔠⍲㧁㸾ⶖ炻ẍ Ḯ妋⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹⥼⒉⍲⍿姽⬠㟉⮵⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁ᷳ 䚳㱽炻᷎≈ẍ妋慳ˤ

ဓȃंـ๖ݎϷݙᇄଆ፣ġ

㟡㒂ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭ᷳ慵天䳸㥳ˣℏ㵝冯䚠⮵㪲慵ᷳ 斄Ὢ炻⍲⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹⥼⒉冯⍿姽⬠㟉⮵姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾ᷳ䚳㱽炻忚埴䞼䨞 䳸㝄ᷳ↮㜸冯妶婾ˤ

Ιȃȶ୽ҕϛωᏰఀىຟᠦΡষடཾϽࡾ኿ȷ࡚ᄺϞ๖ݎϷݙᇄଆ፣ġ

ὅ㒂㛔䞼䨞⮰⭞ℏ⭡㓰⹎⓷⌟⍲⎗䓐⿏㊯㧁⓷⌟ᶲ䘬ˬ攳㓦シ夳˭ˣㆾˬ䵄⎰シ 夳˭ˣㆾˬ⺢嬘ḳ枭˭炻ẍℏ⭡↮㜸㱽⮯⎴栆ˣ䚠Ụᷳシ夳㬠Ἕ烊⮵ᶵ⎴ᷳシ夳ㆾ䚳 㱽炻⇯Ḱ㔜䎮㬠䲵ˤ勚婒㖶⤪ᶳ烉 炷ᶨ炸慵㕘ᾖ㬋㊯㧁橼䲣ᷳ䳸㥳 ⍇姕妰ˬ⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭䘬⚃ᾳⰌ䳂ᷕ炻⇒昌枭䚖昶Ⰼ炻⮯㔜橼㊯㧁Ⰼ䳂䯉⊾䁢 ᶱᾳⰌ䳂炻↮⇍㗗Ⰼ朊ˣᷣ㊯㧁ˣ⍲㫉㊯㧁ˤ㊯㧁Ⰼ朊ᾖ㬋䁢ˬ⮰㤕䳈梲˭ˣˬ⮰㤕 ΐ䎮˭ˣˬ⮰㤕㚵⊁˭ˣˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭䫱⚃⣏Ⰼ朊ˤˬ⮰㤕䳈梲Ⰼ朊˭ᶳ䳘↮䁢 6 枭ᷣ㊯ 㧁ˣˬ⮰㤕ΐ䎮Ⰼ朊˭ᶳ䳘↮䁢 3 枭ᷣ㊯㧁ˣˬ⮰㤕㚵⊁Ⰼ朊˭ᶳ䳘↮䁢 5 枭ᷣ㊯㧁ˣ ˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽Ⰼ朊˭ᶳ䳘↮䁢 4 枭ᷣ㊯㧁炻ℙ䳘↮ 18 枭ᷣ㊯㧁炻℞ᶳℵ䳘↮劍⸚㫉㊯ 㧁炻㔜橼㊯㧁䲣䴙ℙ䳘↮䁢 82 枭㫉㊯㧁ˤ 炷Ḵ炸ᷣ㊯㧁⍲㫉㊯㧁㔯⫿冯Ⱄ⿏ᷳᾖ㓡⍲㔜Ἕ

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㟡㒂⮰⭞⬠侭Ᾱシ夳炻忚埴ᷣˣ㫉㊯㧁㔯⫿⭂佑⍲Ⰼ䳂Ⱄ⿏ᷳᾖ㓡冯㔜Ἕ炻℞ 䳸㝄⤪ᶳ烉 1. ᷣ㊯㧁ᾖ㓡䁢⮰Ⱄ⎵娆烉ὅ⎬Ⰼ朊ᷳℏ㵝䈡刚䶐墥⿏岒䚠斄䘬ᷣ㊯㧁炻ᷣ㊯㧁⎵ 䧙⭂佑ẍ㖶䡢䘬⮰Ⱄ⎵娆䁢⍇⇯炻ᾖ㓡⍇㛔䘬㊯㧁⎵䧙ˤ 2. 㫉㊯㧁ᾖ㓡䁢シ佑㖶䡢䘬⬴㔜㔯⎍烉㟡㒂⮰⭞⬠侭ᷳシ夳炻ᾖ㓡㫉㊯㧁䘬㔯⎍炻 ἧᷳㆸ䁢シ佑㖶䡢䘬⬴㔜㔯⎍炻䴻ᾖ㓡䘬㫉㊯㧁ℙ妰 74 枭ˤ 3. ὅⰌ朊⍲㊯㧁䘬⿏岒ἄ怑䔞䘬㔜Ἕ烉炷1炸⇒昌⍇㝞㥳䘬ˬ㑘⮓姽揹⟙⏲䘬傥≃˭ ᷣ㊯㧁炻℞ᶳ䘬 4 枭㫉㊯㧁Ἕℍˬ屯㕁嗽䎮傥≃˭ᷣ㊯㧁炻᷎⮯℞ᶳ㫉㊯㧁ἄ怑 䔞㔜Ἕ⍲⇒昌ᷳ⼴ℙ妰 6 枭㫉㊯㧁ˤ炷2炸慵㕘∫↮䁢ˬ⮰㤕ΐ䎮˭⍲ˬ⮰㤕㚵⊁˭ ḴᾳⰌ朊炻᷎㉥⍾ˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽Ⰼ朊˭ᶳ䘬ⶍἄ㈧媦炻䲵ℍˬ⮰㤕㚵⊁˭Ⰼ朊烊ᾖ 㬋䳸㝄娛夳⚾ 2ˤ炷3炸㛔㊯㧁㝞㥳ℙ婧㔜 5 枭㫉㊯㧁⛐ᷣ㊯㧁ᷳỵ伖炻⎰Ἕ 6 枭 㫉㊯㧁䁢 3 枭㫉㊯㧁炻⇒昌 5 枭㫉㊯㧁炷娛夳堐 4炸ˤ ⚾ 2 ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁橼䲣⚾ ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁橼䲣ġ ⮰㤕䳈梲Ⰼ朊ġ ⮰㤕ΐ䎮Ⰼ朊ġ ⮰㤕䘤⯽Ⰼ朊ġ 昶Ⰼ 1 昶Ⰼ烁 昶Ⰼ烂ġ 㫉 ㊯ 㧁 Ĵıġ ġ ġ ġ 炽 ġ ġ ġ ġ 炽 ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ ġ 炽 ġ 㫉 ㊯ 㧁 IJ 㫉 ㊯ 㧁 IJķġ ġ ġ ġ 炽 ġ ġ ġ ġ 炽 ġ 㫉 ㊯ 㧁 IJ ġ 㫉 ㊯ 㧁 ijıġ ġ ġ ġ 炽 ġ ġ ġ ġ 炽 ġ ġ ġ ġ 炽 ġ 㫉 ㊯ 㧁 IJ ķ 屯 㕁 嗽 䎮 傥 ≃ ġ Ķ Ṣ 晃 斄 Ὢ 傥 ≃ ġ ĵ 夷 ∫ 䭉 䎮 傥 ≃ ġ Ĵ 䞼 䨞 㕡 㱽 䞍 嬀 ġ ij 㔁 做 ⮰ 㤕 䞍 嬀 ġ IJ 姽 揹 ⮰ 㤕 䞍 嬀 ġ ⮰㤕㚵⊁Ⰼ朊ġ Ĵ 䣦 㚫 ΐ 䎮 ġ ij Ṣ 晃 ΐ 䎮 ġ IJ ⶍ ἄ ΐ 䎮 ġ ĵ 䣦 㚫 娵 ⎴ ġ Ĵ ⮰ 㤕 屯 㬟 ġ ij ⮰ 㤕 忚 ᾖ ġ IJ ⮰ 㤕 䳬 ䷼ Ķ 㚵 ⊁ ⮶ ⎹ ġ ĵ ⮰ 㤕 ㈧ 媦 ġ Ĵ ⮰ 㤕 䱦 䤆 ġ ij ⮰ 㤕 屔 ả ġ IJ ⮰ 㤕 ン ⹎ 㫉 ㊯ 㧁 IJķġ ġ ġ ġ 炽 ġ ġ ġ ġ 炽 ġ 㫉 ㊯ 㧁 IJ

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堐 4 ⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁ᾖ㬋婧㔜䳸㝄ᶨ奥堐 婧㞍㫉㔠 ㊯㧁婧㔜ね⼊ ㊯㧁㔠慷ᷳ嬲⊾ 䫔ᶨ㫉 ⮰⭞ℏ⭡ 㓰⹎⓷⌟ ᾅ䔁烉3 枭ᷣ㊯㧁ˣ10 枭㫉㊯㧁 ᾖ㬋烉61 枭㫉㊯㧁 婧㔜烉5 枭㫉㊯㧁婧㔜ỵ伖 ⎰Ἕ烉6 枭㫉㊯㧁⎰Ἕ䁢 3 枭㫉㊯㧁 㕘⡆烉1 枭Ⰼ朊炻3 枭ᷣ㊯㧁ˣ3 枭㫉㊯㧁 ⇒昌烉1 枭ᷣ㊯㧁炻5 枭㫉㊯㧁 Ⰼ朊烉3 ᾳ⡆≈䁢 4 ᾳ 枭䚖烉ℐ悐⇒昌 ᷣ㊯㧁烉20 枭㷃䁢 18 枭 㫉ᷣ㧁烉87 枭㷃䁢 82 枭 䫔Ḵ㫉 ⎗䓐⿏㊯ 㧁⓷⌟ ⇒昌烉2 枭㫉㊯㧁 Ⰼ朊烉ᶵ嬲 ᷣ㊯㧁烉ᶵ嬲 㫉㊯㧁烉82 枭㷃䁢 80 枭 炷ᶱ炸⼁㔜㕘⡆㊯㧁シ夳炻⡆↿⎰怑㊯㧁 㛔䞼䨞⡆↿䘬㊯㧁⊭㊔烉ˬ䃉㱽娵⎴䘬㕡㟰姽揹䎮⾝炻ㅱ㉺䳽㍍⍿姽揹ả⊁˭↿ ℍˬ⮰㤕ン⹎˭ᷣ㊯㧁ᷳᶳ烊ˬ傥䁢⍿姽╖ỵ娖慳姽揹䳸㝄冯㍸↢㓡┬䘬⺢嬘˭↿ℍ ˬ⮰㤕屔ả˭ᷣ㊯㧁ᷳᶳ烊ˬ⭊奨娖慳姽揹䳸㝄ᶼ℔媠㕤ᶾ炻ẍ䌚⼿䣦㚫娵⎴˭↿ℍ ˬ䣦㚫娵⎴˭ᷣ㊯㧁ᷳᶳˤ㛔䞼䨞䴻忶⮰⭞ℏ⭡㓰⹎㩊㟠ᷳ⼴炻䶐ᾖ⍇㚱䘬㊯㧁⓷ ⌟炻ℙ㕘⡆ 1 ᾳⰌ朊ˣ3 枭ᷣ㊯㧁ˣ⍲ 3 枭㫉㊯㧁ˤ

Πȃȶ୽ҕϛωᏰఀىຟᠦΡষடཾϽࡾ኿ȷࣺᄇ᠌१ᜰ߽Ϟ๖ݎϷݙ

ᇄଆ፣ġ

ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭䚠⮵㪲慵婧㞍↮㜸䳸㝄炻䳸㝄↮㜸⤪ ᶳ烉 炷ᶨ炸㊯㧁Ⰼ朊⍲℞㪲慵↮惵 ⛐ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭㔜橼㊯㧁㪲慵↮惵ᷕ炻䫔ᶨⰌ䳂㊯ 㧁ᷳ㪲慵↮惵䓙檀侴Ỷὅ⸷䁢ˬ⮰㤕䳈梲Ⰼ朊˭㪲慵ῤ 36%ˣˬ⮰㤕ΐ䎮Ⰼ朊˭㪲慵 ῤ 35%ˣˬ⮰㤕㚵⊁Ⰼ朊˭㪲慵ῤ 16%ˣˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽Ⰼ朊˭㪲慵ῤ 13%炻㔜橼㊯㧁㪲 慵ῤ⍲℞㌺⸷㫉⸷㔜䎮⤪⚾ 3炻㬌㪲慵↮惵䳸㝄栗䣢⛐⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕 ⊾㊯㧁ℏ㵝ᷕ炻⮰⭞⬠侭ᶨ农娵䁢㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉℟⁁ˬ⮰㤕䳈梲˭㗗⮰㤕⊾堐䎦䘬 椾天㊯㧁炻℞㫉䁢ˬ⮰㤕ΐ䎮˭炻⚈䁢⮰㤕䳈梲㗗⮰㤕⊾堐䎦䘬䞍傥側㘗炻侴⮰㤕ΐ 䎮⌣㗗⮰㤕⊾埴䁢堐䎦䘬⭊奨堉慷㸾⇯ˤ

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炷Ḵ炸ᷣ㊯㧁昶Ⰼᷳ㊯㧁⍲℞㪲慵↮惵 䫔ḴⰌ䳂䁢ᷣ㊯㧁䘬䳸㝄䘤䎦炻⋩ℓ枭ᷣ㊯㧁ᷕ炻ẍˬⶍἄΐ䎮˭ᷣ㊯㧁ᷳ㔜 橼㪲慵ῤ 18.2%㚨檀炻℞㫉ˬ姽揹⮰㤕䞍嬀˭䁢 10.8%炻ℵ㫉ᷳˬ㔁做⮰㤕䞍嬀˭䁢 9.4%炻⎬ᷣ㊯㧁䘬㔜橼㪲慵ῤὅ⸷↮⇍烉ˬ䣦㚫ΐ䎮˭8.8%ˣˬṢ晃ΐ䎮˭8.1%ˣˬ䞼 䨞㕡㱽䞍嬀˭⍲ˬ夷∫䭉䎮傥≃˭⛯䁢 4.7%ˣˬ⮰㤕屔ả˭4.2%ˣˬ⮰㤕ン⹎˭3.8%ˣ ˬ⮰㤕䱦䤆˭3.7%ˣˬṢ晃斄Ὢ˭⍲ˬ⮰㤕屯㬟˭⛯䁢 3.6%ˣˬ⮰㤕䳬䷼˭3.5%ˣˬ䣦 㚫娵⎴˭3.0%ˣˬ屯㕁嗽䎮傥≃˭⍲ˬ⮰㤕忚ᾖ˭⛯䁢 2.9%ˣˬ⮰㤕㈧媦˭2.7%炻ẍ ˬ㚵⊁⮶⎹˭ᷣ㊯㧁ᷳ㔜橼㪲慵ῤ 1.6%㚨Ỷ烊㬌㪲慵↮惵䳸㝄栗䣢⮰⭞⬠侭ᶨ农娵 䁢⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁ᷳ⺢䩳炻㚨慵天㗗姽揹Ṣ⒉ㅱᾉ⬰⮰㤕夷䭬 ⍲䥱㊩⮰㤕䞍傥冯ΐ䎮炻ㇵ傥 ↢⮰㤕䘬⇌㕟ˤ㬌䞼䨞䳸㝄冯惕䎖䏛炷2005炸⍲哉 䏳㗞炷2007炸䘬䞼䨞䘤䎦䚠Ụˤ 炷ᶱ炸㫉㊯㧁昶Ⰼᷳ㊯㧁⍲℞㪲慵↮惵 䫔ᶱⰌ䳂㫉㊯㧁䘬䳸㝄䘤䎦炻⛐ℓ⋩枭㫉㊯㧁ᷕ炻ẍˬ⣂⃫㞍嫱屯㕁䘬㬋䡢⿏˭ 㫉㊯㧁ᷳ㔜橼㪲慵ῤ 4.7%㚨檀烊℞检⎬㫉㊯㧁䘬㔜橼㪲慵ῤ㌺⸷ 2-10 ⎵ὅ⸷↮⇍ 䁢烉ˬ〒思姽揹ᾅ⭮⍇⇯˭4.2%ˣˬℐ䦳⍫冯㔜ᾳ姽揹忶䦳˭⍲ˬ嫡⬰姽揹䘬♜嫡夷 䭬˭⛯䁢 3.5%ˣˬ℟⁁姽揹⮎⊁䞍嬀˭3.1%ˣˬḮ妋㔁做㓧䫾⍲⮎㕥㕡㟰䘬䚠斄ℏ⭡˭ ⍲ˬ℟⁁⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠婚䦳冯㔁⬠ᷳ䚠斄䞍嬀˭⛯䁢 2.6%ˣˬ℟⁁姽揹䎮婾䞍嬀˭⍲ˬ姒 姽㛇攻ㅱ徜性ảỽ⼊⺷䘬㊃⼭ㆾ棥岰˭⛯䁢 2.4%ˣˬḮ妋㔁做朑㕘ᷳ䚠斄䞍嬀˭2.3%炻 ⛐⇵⋩枭慵天䘬㫉㊯㧁ᷕ炻↮⇍晠Ⱄ㕤ˬⶍἄΐ䎮˭ˣˬ姽揹⮰㤕䞍嬀˭⍲ˬ㔁做⮰ 㤕䞍嬀˭䫱ᷣ㊯㧁ˤ侴㔜橼㪲慵ῤ㌺⸷㚨⼴⋩枭㫉㊯㧁↮⇍㗗烉ˬ傥㊯↢姽揹⟙⏲䘬 旸⇞⍲ἧ䓐䘬天溆˭ˣˬ䃉㱽娵⎴䘬㕡㟰姽揹䎮⾝炻ㅱ㉺䳽㍍⍿姽揹ả⊁˭ˣˬ傥ℐ≃ 䁢姽揹ⶍἄ侴届䌣⮰攟˭ˣˬ傥ᶵ㕟䞼䨞∝㕘炻㍸檀姽揹䘬ⶍἄ㓰傥˭ˣˬ⍫冯姽揹䳬 ䷼ᷳ忚ᾖ㳣≽ㆾ䞼佺˭ˣ⍲ˬ军⮹⍫≈ 18 ⮷㗪ẍᶲ䘬姽揹䚠斄婚䦳˭⛯䁢 0.5%ˣˬ傥 怑䔞⺽忚䣦㚫屯㸸Ἦ⋼≑⍿姽╖ỵ˭⍲ˬ傥㌴㎉⮰㤕䘤⯽䘬傰䴉炻᷎⽆ḳ䓇㵗䘤⯽ 夷∫˭⛯䁢 0.4%ˣˬ℟㚱⇑䓐暣儎嗽䎮屯㕁䘬傥≃˭⍲ˬ℟㚱忳䓐㔯⫿ˣ⚾堐 ㆸ姽 揹⟙⏲䘬傥≃˭⛯䁢 0.3%炻⛐⼴⋩枭㫉㊯㧁ᷕ炻↮⇍晠Ⱄ㕤ˬ屯㕁嗽䎮傥≃˭ˣˬ⮰ 㤕ン⹎˭ˣˬ⮰㤕㈧媦˭ˣˬ㚵⊁⮶⎹˭ˣˬ⮰㤕忚ᾖ˭ˣ⍲ˬ⮰㤕屯㬟˭䫱ᷣ㊯㧁ˤ 䵄⎰ᶲ徘炻㛔䞼䨞㇨⺢㥳䘬⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁ℏ㵝ᷕ炻⮰⭞ ᶨ农娵䁢㊯㧁㪲慵↮惵ẍˬ⮰㤕䳈梲˭⍲ˬ⮰㤕ΐ䎮˭䁢椾天䘬㊯㧁Ⰼ朊炻侴℞ᷣ ㊯㧁⍲㫉㊯㧁䘬㪲慵↮惵ḇ⏰䎦冯㊯㧁Ⰼ朊䘬䚠⮵ㅱ斄Ὢˤ⚈㬌 Kudva 娵䁢烉䣦㚫 天㯪䘬⮰㤕⮎⊁㧉⺷Ὢẍ䞍嬀䁢➢䢶炻᷎ᶼ栏⭊䁢⮶⎹䘬㚵⊁炷⺽冒䌳⤪⒚炻2000炸ˤ

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嫅㔯ℐ炷2004炸娵䁢烉⮰㤕Ṣ⒉⽭枰妪⭂ᾉ⬰⮰㤕夷䭬炻⼭Ṣ嗽ḳ思⽒㬋佑ˤ⮰㤕 Ṣ⒉ㅱ䥱㊩℞⮰㤕䞍傥冯ΐ䎮炻 ↢⮰㤕⇌㕟炻ᶵ⎗⚈⍿ᶵ⎰䎮䘬朆⮰㤕⚈䳈ᷳ⼙ 枧炻侴㉳㡬⮰㤕冒ᷣˤ⛐⮎⊁㕡朊炻伶⚳姽揹⋼㚫⍲≈㊧⣏姽揹⋼㚫Ḵᾳ姽揹⮰㤕 ⛀橼炻⮵㕤姽揹Ṣ⒉⛐忻⽟ΐ䎮⍲⮰㤕傥≃堐䎦㕡朊炻⛯⶚妪㚱㖶䡢⮰㤕⊾䘬夷㸾ˤ 㛔䞼䨞䳸㝄䫎ㅱḮᶲ徘⬠侭䘬婾溆⍲⮎⊁䓴䘬ἄ㱽ˤ㬌⢾炻⍫惴⏪ᶾ῱炷2007炸ˣ㛶 ⱓ暚炷2006炸ˣ⏛Ἓ䅩炷2005炸ˣ␐ⲯ₺炷2008炸ˣ⼸ㄏ⫃炷2007炸ˣ∱㘢尒炷2004炸ˣ 哉䏳㗞炷2007炸ˣ惕䎖䏛炷2005炸⍲ Hamilton炷2003炸䫱Ṣᷳ⌂䡑⢓婾㔯䘬䞼䨞䘤䎦炻 忁ṃ䞼䨞侭䘬䞼䨞䳸㝄朊⎹ῷ慵⛐㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕傥≃⍲⮰㤕堐䎦䘬ᾳ⇍朊⎹炻 ἳ⤪烉∱㘢尒炷2004炸䘬䞼䨞㗗⺢㥳姽揹⥼⒉⮰㤕傥≃㊯㧁炻哉䏳㗞炷2007炸⍲惕 䎖䏛炷2005炸䫱ḴṢ⇯㗗䞼䨞姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕ΐ䎮㸾⇯ᷳ⺢㥳炻㛔䞼䨞䳸㝄冯ᶲ徘ᶱ ỵ䞼䨞侭䘬䞼䨞䳸㝄ℏ⭡㚱悐ấ栆Ụˤ⛐㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕䘤⯽Ⰼ朊炻㛔䞼䨞䳸㝄 冯⏛Ἓ䅩炷2005炸⍲⼸ㄏ⫃炷2007炸䘬䞼䨞䳸㝄㚱悐ấ栆Ụˤ⛐㊯㧁㔜橼ℏ㵝㝞㥳 㕡朊炻㛔䞼䨞䳸㝄冯␐ⲯ₺炷2008炸⍲ Hamilton炷2003炸䘬䞼䨞䳸㝄㚱悐↮栆Ụˤ

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⚳ 㮹 ᷕ ⮷ ⬠ 㔁 做 姽 揹 Ṣ ⒉ ⮰ 㤕 ⊾ ㊯ 㧁 ⮰㤕䳈梲 Ⰼ朊 36% 姽揹⮰㤕䞍嬀 10.8 % 䞼䨞㕡㱽䞍嬀 4.7% 㔁做⮰㤕䞍嬀 9.4 % 1.℟⁁姽揹⮎⊁䞍嬀 3.1% 2.℟⁁姽揹䎮婾䞍嬀 2.4% 3.℟⁁姽揹䭉䎮䞍嬀 1.9% 4.Ḯ妋⎬栆㔁做姽揹㧉⺷䘬⃒仢溆冯旸⇞ 1.8% 5.℟⁁㕡㟰姽揹夷∫䘬䚠斄䎮婾䞍嬀 1.5% 1.℟⁁岒⿏冯慷⊾䞼䨞䘬䞍嬀 1.3% 2.℟⁁㑘⮓⟙⏲冯⁛㑕姽揹䳸㝄䘬䞍嬀 1.3% 3.℟⁁屯㕁↮㜸䘬䞍嬀 1.1% 4.℟⁁屯妲吸普冯䭉䎮䞍嬀 1.0% 1.Ḯ妋㔁做㓧䫾⍲⮎㕥㕡㟰䘬䚠斄ℏ⭡ 2.6% 2.℟⁁⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠婚䦳冯㔁⬠ᷳ䚠斄䞍嬀 2.6% 3.Ḯ妋㔁做朑㕘ᷳ䚠斄䞍嬀 2.3% 4.℟⁁㔁做䎮婾⍲䞍嬀 1.8% 屯㕁嗽䎮傥≃ 2.9% Ṣ晃斄Ὢ傥≃ 3.6% 夷∫䭉䎮傥≃ 4.7% 1.℟㚱夷∫姽揹⮰㟰䘬傥≃ 1.0% 2.℟㚱怷廗冯㈡⇌⿏⿅侫㈨ⶏ 0.8% 3.℟㚱䫾䔍䘤⯽䘬傥≃ 0.7% 4.℟㚱䷦㓰䭉䎮䘬傥≃ 0.7% 5.℟㚱⺢㥳姽揹ⶍ℟䘬傥≃ 0.7% 6.℟㚱㔜⎰冯䭉䎮Ṣ≃ˣ䴻屣⍲屯㸸䘬傥≃ 0.7% 1.℟㚱列⤥䘬㹅忂傥≃ 1.2% 2.傥䆇忈⛀橼⎰ἄ䘬䑘⠫冯㯋㯃䘬傥≃ 1.0% 3.㚱⛀昲ⶍἄ冯⋼⎴忳ἄ䘬傥≃ 0.8% 4.℟㚱⊾妋堅䨩䘬傥≃ 0.6% 1.℟㚱↮㜸岒⿏冯慷⊾屯㕁䘬傥≃ 0.6% 2.傥㟡㒂姽揹䳸㝄㍸↢℟橼⎗埴䘬⺢嬘 0.6% 3.傥䵄⎰㬠䲵姽揹䳸㝄炻 ㆸ姽揹䳸婾 0.6% 4.傥㊯↢姽揹⟙⏲䘬旸⇞⍲ἧ䓐䘬天溆 0.5% 5.℟㚱⇑䓐暣儎嗽䎮屯㕁䘬傥≃ 0.3% 6.℟㚱忳䓐㔯⫿ˣ⚾堐 ㆸ姽揹⟙⏲䘬傥≃ 0.3% 1.⣂⃫㞍嫱屯㕁䘬㬋䡢⿏ 4.7% 2.〒思姽揹ᾅ⭮⍇⇯ 4.2% 3.嫡⬰姽揹䘬♜嫡夷䭬 3.5% 4.ℐ䦳⍫冯㔜ᾳ姽揹忶䦳 3.5% 5.姒姽㛇攻ㅱ徜性ảỽ⼊⺷䘬㊃⼭ㆾ棥岰 2.4% 1.冯⮷䳬ㆸ⒉ˣ⥼妿╖ỵˣ⍿姽╖ỵ攻⺢䩳⮲慵冯Ḻᾉ斄Ὢ1.8% 2.⮲慵姽揹妶婾㚫嬘䘬ℙ嬀䳸㝄 1.8% 3.⁦倥᷎⮲慵⍿姽Ṣ⒉䘬婒㖶 1.6% 4.㛒䴻⎴シᶵ⼿⺽徘ㆾ廱徘℞Ṿㆸ⒉䘬⮰㤕シ夳 1.5% 5.䵕㊩列⤥䘬⎴₽⎰ἄ斄Ὢ 1.4% ⶍἄΐ䎮 18.2% Ṣ晃ΐ䎮 8.1% 䣦㚫ΐ䎮 8.8% ⮰㤕ΐ䎮 Ⰼ朊 35% 1.⮎⛘姒姽㗪炻ㅱ性⃵⸚㒦⍿姽╖ỵ㬋ⷠ㳣≽䘬忚埴 2.1% 2.姽揹忶䦳ᷕ炻朊⮵ℑ暋⓷柴ㅱ䘤㎖忻⽟≯㯋 1.8% 3.姽揹忶䦳ᷕㅱ➭⬰ᷕ䩳⭊奨䘬䩳⟜ 1.8% 4.ㅱ䡢娵冒幓䘬䣦㚫屔ả冯⮰㤕奺刚 1.7% 5.姽揹忶䦳ᷕㅱ性⃵㓧㱣⚈䳈䘬⸚㒦 1.3%

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⚳ 㮹 ᷕ ⮷ ⬠ 㔁 做 姽 揹 Ṣ ⒉ ⮰ 㤕 ⊾ ㊯ 㧁ġ ⮰㤕㚵⊁ Ⰼ朊 16% ⮰㤕ン⹎ 3.8% ⮰㤕䱦䤆 3.7% ⮰㤕屔ả 4.2% 1.傥娵⎴姽揹ⶍἄ㗗㚱₡ῤ䘬⮰㤕炻᷎䴎Ḱ㬋⎹䘬姽₡1.5% 2.姽揹忶䦳ᷕ傥ᷣ≽䧵㤝⍫冯炻᷎⽆ᷕ䌚⼿ㆸ⯙デ1.0% 3.⮵姽揹⮰㤕ả⊁冯≇傥℟㚱➭⭂ᾉẘ冯㦪奨ン⹎0.8% 4.䃉㱽娵⎴䘬㕡㟰姽揹䎮⾝炻ㅱ㉺䳽㍍⍿姽揹ả⊁0.5% 1.傥䥱㊩姢㕟ˣ⋼≑ˣ㓡┬㔁做䎦㱩䘬䱦䤆 1.1% 2.姽揹忶䦳ᷕㅱ性⃵ᷣ奨シ嬀 0.9% 3.傥㟡㒂䞍傥冯䴻槿忚埴⮰㤕⇌㕟冯㰢⭂ 0.8% 4.傥➭㊩⮰㤕屔ả炻性⃵⢾≃䘬⸚枸 0.8% ⮰㤕䳬䷼ 3.5% 㚵⊁⮶⎹ 1.6% ⮰㤕㈧媦 2.7% 1.姽揹忶䦳ᷕ炻傥䤨㊩㬋䚜冯℔⸛䘬ン⹎埴ḳ 1.0% 2.傥䁢姽揹䘬䳸㝄屈屔 0.7% 3.傥ℐ≃䁢姽揹ⶍἄ侴届䌣⮰攟 0.5% 4.傥ᶵ㕟䞼䨞∝㕘炻㍸檀姽揹䘬ⶍἄ㓰傥 0.5% 1.℟㚱⇑Ṿ㚵⊁ᾉ⾝ 0.6% 2.姽揹忶䦳ᷕ傥Ὣ忚䣦㚫㬋佑冯℔⸛⍇⇯ 0.6% 3.傥怑䔞⺽忚䣦㚫屯㸸Ἦ⋼≑⍿姽╖ỵ 0.4% 1.⍫冯姽揹䳬䷼䘬⬠佺䣦佌炻忚埴⮰㤕⮵娙 0.8% 2.⍫≈冯姽揹䚠斄䘬⬠埻䞼妶㚫炻ẍ㍸⋯⮰㤕䞍傥0.6% 3.䴻ⷠ⍫冯姽揹⮰㤕䘬⛐借妻䶜 0.6% 4.⍫冯姽揹䳬䷼ᷳ忚ᾖ㳣≽ㆾ䞼佺 0.5% 5.傥㌴㎉⮰㤕䘤⯽䘬傰䴉炻᷎⽆ḳ䓇㵗䘤⯽夷∫ 0.4% 1.忂忶姽揹⮰㤕䳬䷼䘬姽揹Ṣ⒉屯㟤娵⭂ 0.9% 2.℟㚱ᶨ⸜ẍᶲ⍫冯姽揹䚠斄ⶍἄᷳ䴻槿 0.8% 3.℟㚱寸⭴䘬㔁做⮰㤕屯㬟 0.7% 4.℟⁁䚠斄柀➇䡑⢓⬠ỵẍᶲ䘬⬠㬟 0.7% 5.军⮹⍫≈ 18 ⮷㗪ẍᶲ䘬姽揹䚠斄婚䦳 0.5% 1.⍾⼿姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕嫱䄏ㆾ忂忶娵嫱 1.1% 2.⭊奨娖慳姽揹䳸㝄ᶼ℔媠㕤ᶾ炻ẍ䌚⼿䣦㚫娵⎴ 1.0% 3.农≃䵕嬟姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕冯倚嬥 0.8% ⮰㤕忚ᾖ 2.9% ⮰㤕屯㬟 3.6% 䣦㚫娵⎴ 3.0% ⮰㤕䘤⯽ Ⰼ朊 13% 1.傥䁢⍿姽╖ỵ娖慳姽揹䳸㝄冯㍸↢㓡┬䘬⺢嬘 1.0% 2.傥冯⮰㤕䳬䷼ㆸ⒉忚埴℔攳䞍嬀冯䴻槿↮ṓ 0.9% 3.傥⽆ḳ䞼䨞冯⮎槿ⶍἄ炻Ὣ忚⮰㤕朑㕘䘤⯽ 0.8% 4.傥 冒ㆹ㩊㟠冯⚆棳炻ẍ㍸㖯㚵⊁⑩岒 0.8% 5.傥䘤堐姽揹⮰㤕⬠埻㔯䪈炻⟙⮶⮰㤕妲〗 0.6% 1.思⬰姽揹䳬䷼䘬⮰㤕㧁㸾夷䭬 1.4% 2.℟㚱姽揹⮰㤕䳬䷼ㆸ⒉䘬幓↮ 1.1% 3.⭂㛇⍫≈姽揹⮰㤕䳬䷼䘬㳣≽ 1.0% ⚾ 3 ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭㔜橼㪲慵↮惵⚾

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έȃȶ୽ҕϛωᏰఀىຟᠦΡষடཾϽࡾ኿ȷᄂᜌंـϞ๖ݎϷݙᇄଆ፣ġ

㛔䞼䨞啱䓙㧉䱲⽟㆟埻⍲㧉䱲Ⰼ䳂↮㜸ᷳ㕡⺷⺢㥳Ḯˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭炻ℵ⮯㊯㧁䘤⯽ㆸˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭婧㞍⓷⌟炻 忚埴冢⊿ⶪ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁䫎⎰ね⼊ᷳ䎦㱩婧㞍炻ẍḮ妋㔁做 姽揹Ṣ⒉⍲⍿姽⬠㟉Ṣ⒉⮵㛔㊯㧁ᷳ䚳㱽炻䚖䘬⛐ἧ⬠埻䞼䨞冯⮎⊁䎦㱩䚠䳸⎰炻 ⮯吸普䘬㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉冯⍿姽⬠㟉ᷳ䎦㱩婧㞍屯㕁炻啱䓙⸛⛯㔠ˣ㧁㸾ⶖἄ↮㜸炻 ℑ侭䘬䳸㝄⤪堐 5烉 堐 5 ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁䚠⮵㪲慵冯⸛⛯㔠㌺⸷㭼庫堐 ⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁Ⰼ朊 䚠⮵㪲慵 㪲慵㌺⸷ ⸛⛯㔠 ⸛⛯㔠㌺⸷ ⮰㤕䳈梲Ⰼ朊 36% 1 4.31 3 ⮰㤕ΐ䎮Ⰼ朊 35% 2 4.61 1 ⮰㤕㚵⊁Ⰼ朊 16% 3 4.44 2 ⮰㤕䘤⯽Ⰼ朊 13% 4 3.87 4 ⮰㤕⊾ᷣ㊯㧁 䚠⮵㪲慵 㪲慵㌺⸷ ⸛⛯㔠 ⸛⛯㔠㌺⸷ 1 姽揹⮰㤕䞍嬀 10.8% 2 4.20 13 2 㔁做⮰㤕䞍嬀 9.4% 3 4.47 7 3 䞼䨞㕡㱽䞍嬀 4.7% 6 4.28 12 4 夷∫䭉䎮傥≃ 4.7% 6 4.19 14 5 Ṣ晃斄Ὢ傥≃ 3.6% 11 4.49 6 6 屯㕁嗽䎮傥≃ 2.9% 15 4.30 10 7 ⶍἄΐ䎮 18.2% 1 4.58 3 8 䣦㚫ΐ䎮 8.8% 5 4.60 2 9 Ṣ晃ΐ䎮 8.1% 4 4.64 1 10 ⮰㤕屔ả 4.2% 8 4.29 11 11 ⮰㤕ン⹎ 3.8% 9 4.45 8 12 ⮰㤕䱦䤆 3.7% 10 4.54 4 13 ⮰㤕㈧媦 2.7% 17 4.53 5 14 㚵⊁⮶⎹ 1.6% 18 4.42 9 15 ⮰㤕屯㬟 3.6% 11 4.14 15 16 ⮰㤕䳬䷼ 3.5% 13 3.76 17 17 䣦㚫娵⎴ 3.0% 14 3.77 16 18 ⮰㤕忚ᾖ 2.9% 15 3.73 18 䓙堐 5 䳸㝄栗䣢炻⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁㔜橼䘬⸛⛯㔠檀忼 4.31炻 堐䣢㔜橼㊯㧁冯䎦㱩忼⇘⣏悐↮䫎⎰䘬ね⼊ˤ⚃ᾳⰌ朊ᷕ炻ˬ⮰㤕䳈梲˭ˣˬ⮰㤕ΐ

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䎮˭ˣˬ⮰㤕㚵⊁˭ᷳ⸛⛯㔠⛯檀㕤 4.31炷㔜橼㊯㧁⸛⛯㔠炸炻⯌℞ẍˬ⮰㤕ΐ䎮˭Ⰼ 朊⸛⛯㔠檀忼 4.61 堐䎦㚨Ἓ炻℞检ὅ㫉䁢⮰㤕㚵⊁ˣ⮰㤕䳈梲炻栗䣢㔁做姽揹姒夾 ⥼⒉⍲⍿姽⬠㟉⛯娵䁢㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁冯䎦㱩䘬䫎⎰ね⼊忼⇘⣏悐↮䫎⎰ 䘬䦳⹎ˤ侴⛐⚃ᾳⰌ朊ᷕẍˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭Ⰼ朊⸛⛯㔠 3.87 Ỷ㕤 4.00炻晾ṵⰔ⯂䧙䫎 ⎰䘬䦳⹎炻Ữ䚠庫℞Ṿ㊯㧁Ⰼ朊炻ˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭堐䎦䚠⮵庫⻙炻℞⍇⚈䴻⼁㔜㓞⚆婧 㞍⓷⌟ᷳ攳㓦シ夳⼿䞍炻⍿娎侭炷⯌℞㗗⍿姽⬠㟉炸堐䣢烉姽揹⥼⒉䘬⮰㤕䘤⯽ね 㱩ⰔᾳṢ䳪䓇⬠佺ㆸ攟悐↮炻⍿娎侭-⍿姽⬠㟉⛐⍫冯姽揹忶䦳ᷕ庫暋ẍ彐嬀炻⚈㬌 ⼙枧姽Ộˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭Ⰼ朊㊯㧁䫎⎰ね⼊䘬⼿↮ˤ ⛐ 18 枭ᷣ㊯㧁ᷕ炻㚱 15 枭ᷣ㊯㧁䘬⸛⛯㔠⛯檀㕤 4.10 ᷳᶲ炻℞ᷕ炻ẍˬṢ晃 ΐ䎮˭ᷣ㊯㧁䘬⸛⛯㔠 4.64 䁢㚨檀炻㫉ᷳ䁢ˬ䣦㚫ΐ䎮˭4.60ˣℵ㫉䁢ˬⶍἄΐ䎮˭ 4.58烊℞䫎ㅱᶲᶨ㭝句ᷳ䳸㝄炻ˬ⮰㤕ΐ䎮˭Ⰼ朊㔜橼堐䎦䁢㚨Ἓˤ侴ˬ⮰㤕䳬䷼˭ˣ ˬ䣦㚫娵⎴˭ˣ⍲ˬ⮰㤕忚ᾖ˭䫱 3 枭ᷣ㊯㧁䘬⸛⛯㔠ṳ㕤 3.73~3.77炻䚠庫℞Ṿᷣ㊯ 㧁䚠⮵庫⻙炻Ṏ䫎ㅱᶲᶨ㭝句ᷳ䳸㝄炻ˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭Ⰼ朊⸛⛯㔠䁢 3.87炻Ỷ㕤 4.00炻 堐䎦䚠⮵庫⻙炻℞⍇⚈䴻⼁㔜㓞⚆婧㞍⓷⌟ᷳ攳㓦シ夳⼿䞍炻ᷣ天㗗⍿姽⬠㟉⍿娎 侭⮵姽揹⥼⒉㗗⏎⍫冯⮰㤕䳬䷼ˣ䣦㚫娵⎴ˣ⮰㤕忚ᾖね㱩庫暋⇌㕟冯彐嬀炻⚈㬌炻 ⼙枧姽Ộ忁 3 枭ᷣ㊯㧁䫎⎰ね⼊䘬⼿↮ˤ ⍰⽆堐 5 ⼿䞍炻ᶵ婾㗗㊯㧁Ⰼ朊ㆾᷣ㊯㧁炻⛐䚠⮵㪲慵⸷ỵ⍲⸛㔠⸷ỵ⛯⏰䎦 䚠䔘䘬ね⼊炻栗䣢⽟㆟埻䘬⮰⭞⮷䳬ㆸ⒉⍲㔁做姽揹⥼⒉冯⍿姽⬠㟉ㆸ⒉⮵ˬ⚳㮹 ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭䘬怑↯⿏䚳㱽㚱㇨ⶖ䔘炻℞⍇⚈⎗傥㗗烉⮰⭞⮷ 䳬ㆸ⒉娵䁢⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁䓐Ἦ堉慷姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕堐䎦炻ὅ℞㊯㧁⿏岒Ἦ姽㟠ᶨỵ姽 揹Ṣ⒉ㅱ℟⁁⮰㤕⊾䞍傥冯埴䁢堐䎦炻⚈㬌炻㭷ᶨ枭㊯㧁ẋ堐叿傥≃堐䎦䘬㸾⇯炻 ⮰⭞⮷䳬ㆸ⒉姽Ộ↢⎬枭ᷣ㊯㧁⛐㔜橼㊯㧁橼䲣ᷕ䘬䚠⮵慵天⿏ˤỮ㗗炻⮵姽揹⥼ ⒉冯⍿姽⬠㟉ㆸ⒉侴妨炻㛔䞼䨞㊯㧁㗗䓐Ἦ㩊夾ᶨỵ姽揹⥼⒉䘬⮰㤕⊾堐䎦㗗⏎䫎 ⎰㛔㊯㧁天㯪炻⛐斄㲐䘬奺⹎ᶵ⎴炻忈ㆸℑ䳬Ṣ⒉䚳㱽ᷳⶖ䔘炻⼊ㆸ㊯㧁䘬䚠⮵慵 天⿏⸷ỵᷳᶵ⎴炻军㕤㗗⏎ṵ㚱℞Ṿ⼙枧⚈䳈炻⇯⯂⼭⼴临㍊䨞ˤ 㛔䞼䨞德忶㧉䱲⽟㆟埻⍲㧉䱲Ⰼ䳂↮㜸㱽⺢㥳Ḯˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰ 㤕⊾㊯㧁˭橼䲣炻ℵ啱䓙⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⍲⍿姽⬠㟉Ṣ⒉忚埴㊯㧁冯䎦㱩 䫎⎰ね⼊ᷳ㩊㟠ˤ䳸㝄䘤䎦炻㛔䞼䨞㊯㧁Ⰼ朊ᷳ攻冯⎬ᷣ㊯㧁ᷳ攻㗗ℑℑ䚠斄炻℞ 斄倗⿏⛯忼.01 栗叿㯜㸾炻侴䚠斄Ὢ㔠ṳ㕤.867 军.355 ᷳ攻炻㚱ℓㆸẍᶲ䘬㊯㧁攻䚠 斄Ὢ㔠⛐.6 ẍᶲ炻栗䣢㊯㧁ᷳ攻䘬斄倗⿏堐䎦列⤥炻嵐⎹ᷕ⹎䚠斄ẍᶲˤ䵄妨ᷳ炻 㛔䞼䨞㇨⺢㥳䘬㊯㧁ℏ㵝㝞㥳㗗⎗月⹎Ἓˣ怑↯䦳⹎列⤥ˣ䚠⮵斄倗⿏檀ˤ

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ӂȃ๖፣ᇄ࡚ដġ

㟡㒂㔯䌣↮㜸⍲䞼䨞䳸㝄↮㜸炻䌚⼿ẍᶳ䘬䳸婾冯⺢嬘烉

Ιȃ๖፣ġ

炷ᶨ炸ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭䲣䴙炻䳸㥳ᶲ⊭⏓⚃ᾳⰌ朊ˣ18 ᾳᷣ㊯㧁ˣ80 ᾳ㫉㊯㧁ˤ⚃⣏Ⰼ朊ẍˬ⮰㤕䳈梲˭Ⰼ朊㪲慵㭼䌯䁢㚨檀 㟡㒂Ḵ昶㭝䘬⓷⌟婧㞍ᷳ䳸㝄炻㛔䞼䨞㇨⺢㥳䘬ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰ 㤕⊾㊯㧁˭䲣䴙ᷕ炻⛐䳸㥳ᶲ䫔ᶨ昶Ⰼ㗗Ⰼ朊㊯㧁悐↮炻⊭⏓ˬ⮰㤕䳈梲˭ˣˬ⮰㤕 ΐ䎮˭ˣˬ⮰㤕㚵⊁˭ˣ⍲ˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭䫱⚃⣏Ⰼ朊烊䫔Ḵ昶Ⰼ㗗ᷣ㊯㧁昶Ⰼ炻ℙ↮䁢 18 ᾳᷣ㊯㧁烊䫔ᶱ昶Ⰼ㗗㫉㊯㧁昶Ⰼ炻↮䁢 80 ᾳ㫉㊯㧁ˤ⛐㊯㧁䘬ℏ⭡ᶲ炻⇯德忶 慷⊾䘬䴙妰↮㜸炻怠⍾怑⎰䦳⹎忼 85%ẍᶲᷳ㊯㧁炻᷎⼁㔜岒⿏䘬攳㓦シ夳炻ᾖ㓡 ㊯㧁䘬ℏ⭡炻⬴ㆸ㔜橼㊯㧁䲣䴙ˤ䓙㕤㊯㧁䘬怠⍾冯⺢㥳䴻忶ヶ慵䘬夷∫⍲♜嫡䘬 䴙妰↮㜸炻⼊ㆸ䞼䨞⮵尉䘬ℙ嬀ᷳ⼴炻䓊䓇㛔䞼䨞䘬㔜橼㊯㧁䲣䴙ˤ⚈㬌炻㛔䞼䨞 ㇨⺢㥳ᷳˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭ℏ㵝㝞㥳⎗月⹎Ἓˣ怑↯䦳⹎列 ⤥炻℟㚱⮎䓐䘬₡ῤˤ 㔜橼㊯㧁䲣䴙䘬⚃⣏Ⰼ朊䚠⮵㪲慵↮惵炻ẍˬ⮰㤕䳈梲˭Ⰼ朊㚨檀炻㪲慵㭼䌯 䁢 36%ˣˬ⮰㤕ΐ䎮˭Ⰼ朊㫉檀炻㪲慵㭼䌯䁢 35%ˣˬ⮰㤕㚵⊁˭Ⰼ朊㪲慵㭼䌯䁢 16%ˣ ˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭Ⰼ朊䁢㪲慵㭼䌯 13%ˤ䓙ᶲ徘䞼䨞䳸㝄⎗䞍炻ˬ⮰㤕䳈梲˭⍲ˬ⮰㤕ΐ 䎮˭ḴᾳⰌ朊䘬㪲慵㭼䌯⎰妰䁢 71%炻㬌㪲慵↮惵斄Ὢ䳸㝄栗䣢姽⭂⮰⭞Ᾱᶨ农娵 䁢㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁ẍᾳṢ䘬⮰㤕䳈梲䁢椾天炻姽揹Ṣ⒉℟⁁⮰㤕䳈梲ℏ 㵝ᷳ⼴炻⛐姽揹忶䦳ᷕ⯌℞㲐慵姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕ΐ䎮ᾉ⾝⍲埴䁢堐䎦炻侴ˬ⮰㤕䳈 梲˭⍲ˬ⮰㤕ΐ䎮˭Ⰼ朊㊯㧁㗗⼙枧㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾堐䎦䘬ᷣ天斄挝ˤ 炷Ḵ炸⮰㤕䳈梲Ⰼ朊⊭⏓ℕᾳᷣ㊯㧁ˣ 29 ᾳ㫉㊯㧁炻℞ᷕẍˬ姽揹⮰㤕䞍嬀˭ ᷣ㊯㧁㪲慵㭼䌯䁢㚨檀 ˬ⮰㤕䳈梲˭䁢ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭䲣䴙䘬椾天㊯㧁Ⰼ朊炻 㛔Ⰼ朊㊯㧁ᷳᶳ炻↮⇍⊭⏓ˬ姽揹⮰㤕䞍嬀˭ˣˬ㔁做⮰㤕䞍嬀˭ˣˬ䞼䨞㕡㱽䞍嬀˭ˣ ˬ夷∫䭉䎮傥≃˭ˣˬṢ晃斄Ὢ傥≃˭ˣ⍲ˬ屯㕁嗽䎮傥≃˭䫱 6 ᾳᷣ㊯㧁炻⎬枭ᷣ㊯ 㧁ᷳᶳℵ䳘↮劍⸚㫉㊯㧁炻㛔Ⰼ朊ℙ妰䳘↮ 29 ᾳ㫉㊯㧁ˤ㊯㧁ℏ⭡ᷣ天⛐姽Ộᶨỵ

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⮰㤕㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⽭⁁䘬⮰㤕䞍嬀冯傥≃ˤ 㛔Ⰼ朊ᷣ㊯㧁䘬䚠⮵㪲慵↮惵ẍˬ姽揹⮰㤕䞍嬀˭ᷣ㊯㧁䘬㪲慵㚨檀炻Ỽ 30%炻 ℞㫉㗗ˬ㔁做⮰㤕䞍嬀˭ᷣ㊯㧁炻Ỽ 26%炻ℵ㫉ᷳ㗗ˬ䞼䨞㕡㱽䞍嬀˭ᷣ㊯㧁冯ˬ夷 ∫䭉䎮傥≃˭ᷣ㊯㧁炻䘮Ỽ 13%炻军㕤ˬṢ晃斄Ὢ傥≃˭ᷣ㊯㧁䘬㪲慵䁢 10%炻ˬ屯 㕁嗽䎮傥≃˭ᷣ㊯㧁䘬㪲慵䁢 8%ˤᷣ㊯㧁ᷳᶳ䘬⎬ᾳ㫉㊯㧁䘬䚠⮵㪲慵斄Ὢ炻ẍˬ℟ ⁁姽揹⮎⊁䞍嬀˭㫉㊯㧁䘬㪲慵㚨檀炻⛐㔜橼㪲慵↮惵Ỽ 3.1%烊侴ˬ℟㚱忳䓐㔯⫿ˣ ⚾堐 ㆸ姽揹⟙⏲䘬傥≃˭⍲ˬ傥㊯↢姽揹⟙⏲䘬旸⇞⍲ἧ䓐䘬天溆˭㫉㊯㧁䘬㪲 慵㚨Ỷ炻⛐㔜橼㪲慵↮惵Ỽ 0.3%ˤẍᶲ䞼䨞䳸㝄栗䣢炻㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉㗗⏎℟⁁姽揹 ⮎⊁䞍嬀⮯㗗⼙枧㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾堐䎦䘬慵天⚈䳈ˤ 炷ᶱ炸⮰㤕ΐ䎮Ⰼ朊⊭⏓ᶱᾳᷣ㊯㧁ˣ15 ᾳ㫉㊯㧁炻℞ᷕẍˬⶍἄΐ䎮˭ᷣ㊯ 㧁㪲慵㭼䌯䁢㚨檀 ˬ⮰㤕ΐ䎮˭䁢ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭䲣䴙䘬㫉天䘬㊯㧁Ⰼ 朊炻㛔Ⰼ朊ᷳᶳ炻↮⇍⊭⏓ˬⶍἄΐ䎮˭ˣˬṢ晃ΐ䎮˭ˣ⍲ˬ䣦㚫ΐ䎮˭䫱 3 ᾳᷣ㊯ 㧁炻⎬枭ᷣ㊯㧁ᷳᶳℵ䳘↮劍⸚㫉㊯㧁炻㛔Ⰼ朊ℙ妰䳘↮ 15 ᾳ㫉㊯㧁ˤ㊯㧁ℏ⭡ᷣ 天⛐姽Ộᶨỵ⮰㤕㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⛐㔜ᾳ姽揹忶䦳ᷕ⽭⁁䘬ΐ䎮夷䭬冯忻⽟₡ῤ奨ˤ 㛔Ⰼ朊ᷣ㊯㧁䘬䚠⮵㪲慵斄Ὢẍˬⶍἄΐ䎮˭ᷣ㊯㧁䘬㪲慵㚨檀炻Ỽ 52%炻℞ 㫉㗗ˬ䣦㚫ΐ䎮˭ᷣ㊯㧁炻Ỽ 25%炻ℵ㫉ᷳ㗗ˬṢ晃ΐ䎮˭ᷣ㊯㧁炻Ỽ 23%ˤᷣ㊯ 㧁ᷳᶳ䘬⎬ᾳ㫉㊯㧁䘬䚠⮵㪲慵斄Ὢ炻㛔Ⰼ朊ẍˬ⣂⃫㞍嫱屯㕁䘬㬋䡢⿏˭㫉㊯㧁 䘬㪲慵㚨檀炻⛐㔜橼㪲慵↮惵Ỽ 4.7%烊侴ˬ姽揹忶䦳ᷕㅱ性⃵㓧㱣⚈䳈䘬⸚㒦˭㫉 ㊯㧁䘬㪲慵㚨Ỷ炻⛐㔜橼㪲慵↮惵Ỽ 1.3%ˤẍᶲ䞼䨞䳸㝄栗䣢炻㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⛐㔜 ᾳ姽揹忶䦳ᷕ傥⏎㌴㎉⍿姽侭屯㕁䘬㬋䡢⿏⮯㗗⼙枧㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾堐䎦䘬䃎 溆ˤ 炷⚃炸⮰㤕㚵⊁Ⰼ朊⊭⏓Ḽᾳᷣ㊯㧁ˣ20 ᾳ㫉㊯㧁炻℞ᷕẍˬ⮰㤕屔ả˭ᷣ㊯ 㧁㪲慵㭼䌯䁢㚨檀 ˬ⮰㤕㚵⊁˭䁢ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭䲣䴙䘬䫔ᶱ慵天䘬㊯ 㧁Ⰼ朊炻㛔Ⰼ朊ᷳᶳ炻↮⇍⊭⏓ˬ⮰㤕ン⹎˭ˣˬ⮰㤕屔ả˭ˣˬ⮰㤕䱦䤆˭ˣˬ⮰㤕㈧ 媦˭ˣ⍲ˬ㚵⊁⮶⎹˭䫱 5 ᾳᷣ㊯㧁炻⎬枭ᷣ㊯㧁ᷳᶳℵ䳘↮劍⸚㫉㊯㧁炻㛔Ⰼ朊ℙ 妰䳘↮ 20 ᾳ㫉㊯㧁ˤ㊯㧁ℏ⭡ᷣ天⛐姽Ộᶨỵ⮰㤕㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⛐㔜ᾳ姽揹忶䦳 ᷕ炻ㅱ㍸ὃ⒒ṃ㚵⊁枭䚖⍲℟⁁⒒ṃ㚵⊁₡ῤ奨冯埴䁢夷䭬炻ㇵ㗗⮰㤕㚵⊁䭬䔯炻 ḇㇵ傥䫎⎰姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㚵⊁䘬堐䎦ˤ 㛔Ⰼ朊ᷣ㊯㧁䘬䚠⮵㪲慵↮惵ẍˬ⮰㤕屔ả˭ᷣ㊯㧁䘬㪲慵㚨檀炻Ỽ 26%炻℞

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㫉㗗ˬ⮰㤕ン⹎˭ᷣ㊯㧁炻Ỽ 24%炻ℵ㫉ᷳ㗗ˬ⮰㤕䱦䤆˭ᷣ㊯㧁炻Ỽ 23%炻侴ˬ⮰ 㤕㈧媦˭ᷣ㊯㧁炻Ỽ 17%炻ˬ㚵⊁⮶⎹˭ᷣ㊯㧁炻Ỽ 10%ˤᷣ㊯㧁ᷳᶳ䘬⎬ᾳ㫉㊯㧁 䘬䚠⮵㪲慵斄Ὢ炻㛔Ⰼ朊ẍˬ傥娵⎴姽揹ⶍἄ㗗㚱₡ῤ䘬⮰㤕炻᷎䴎Ḱ㬋⎹䘬姽₡˭ 㫉㊯㧁䘬㪲慵㚨檀炻⛐㔜橼㪲慵↮惵Ỽ 1.5%烊侴ˬ傥怑䔞⺽忚䣦㚫屯㸸Ἦ⋼≑⍿姽 ╖ỵ˭㫉㊯㧁䘬㪲慵㚨Ỷ炻⛐㔜橼㪲慵↮惵Ỽ 0.4%ˤᶲ徘䞼䨞䳸㝄栗䣢炻㔁做姽揹 Ṣ⒉⛐㔜ᾳ姽揹忶䦳ᷕ炻傥⏎ẍ㬋⎹ン⹎Ἦ嗽䎮䷩慵姽揹ḳ⊁炻傥⏎⮵姽揹ⶍἄ堐 䎦↢䅙⾙冯屈屔炻⮯㗗姽Ộ㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉㚵⊁⮰㤕⊾堐䎦䘬慵天斄挝ˤ 炷Ḽ炸⮰㤕䘤⯽Ⰼ朊⊭⏓⚃ᾳᷣ㊯㧁ˣ16 ᾳ㫉㊯㧁炻℞ᷕẍˬ⮰㤕屯㬟˭ᷣ㊯ 㧁㪲慵㭼䌯䁢㚨檀 ˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭䁢ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭䲣䴙䘬䫔⚃慵天䘬㊯ 㧁Ⰼ朊炻㛔Ⰼ朊ᷳᶳ炻↮⇍⊭⏓ˬ⮰㤕䳬嬀˭ˣˬ⮰㤕忚ᾖ˭ˣˬ⮰㤕屯㬟˭ˣ⍲ˬ䣦㚫 娵⎴˭䫱 4 ᾳᷣ㊯㧁炻⎬枭ᷣ㊯㧁ᷳᶳℵ䳘↮劍⸚㫉㊯㧁炻㛔Ⰼ朊ℙ妰䳘↮ 16 ᾳ㫉 ㊯㧁ˤ㊯㧁ℏ⭡ᷣ天⛐姽Ộᶨỵ㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉天ㆸ䁢⮰㤕Ṣ⒉⽭枰⽆ḳ⒒ṃ⮰㤕⊾ 䘬䓇㵗夷∫冯⮰㤕屯㬟⃭ᷳ⮎ˤ 㛔Ⰼ朊ᷣ㊯㧁䘬䚠⮵㪲慵↮惵ẍˬ⮰㤕屯㬟˭ᷣ㊯㧁䘬㪲慵㚨檀炻Ỽ 28%炻℞ 㫉㗗ˬ⮰㤕䳬䷼˭ᷣ㊯㧁炻Ỽ 27%炻ℵ㫉ᷳ㗗ˬ䣦㚫娵⎴˭ᷣ㊯㧁炻Ỽ 23%炻侴ˬ⮰ 㤕忚ᾖ˭ᷣ㊯㧁炻Ỽ 22%ˤᷣ㊯㧁ᷳᶳ䘬⎬ᾳ㫉㊯㧁䘬䚠⮵㪲慵斄Ὢ炻㛔Ⰼ朊ẍˬ思 ⬰姽揹䳬䷼䘬⮰㤕㧁㸾夷䭬˭㫉㊯㧁䘬㪲慵㚨檀炻⛐㔜橼㪲慵↮惵Ỽ 1.4%烊侴ˬ傥 ㌴㎉⮰㤕䘤⯽䘬傰䴉炻᷎⽆ḳ䓇㵗䘤⯽夷∫˭㫉㊯㧁䘬㪲慵㚨Ỷ炻⛐㔜橼㪲慵↮惵 Ỽ 0.4%ˤᶲ徘䞼䨞䳸㝄栗䣢炻⮰㤕䘬䓇㵗䘤⯽夷∫㗗Ὣἧ㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉怩⎹⮰㤕⊾ 䘤⯽䘬慵天徼⼹炻䃞侴炻⛐㔜ᾳ姽揹忶䦳ᷕ炻姽揹Ṣ⒉傥⏎⯽䎦℞⮰㤕屯㬟㇨℟⁁ ⮰㤕傥≃炻傥⏎思⬰姽揹䳬䷼䘬⮰㤕㧁㸾夷䭬炻䵕嬟姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕⼊尉炻䌚⼿䣦 㚫⣏䛦䘬娵⎴炻⮯㗗姽Ộ㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾堐䎦䘬䃎溆ˤ 炷ℕ炸冢⊿ⶪ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹姒夾⥼⒉⍲⍿姽⬠㟉⛯娵䁢ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁 做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭冯䎦㱩忼⇘⣏悐↮䫎⎰䘬䦳⹎ 䓙䳸㝄䘤䎦炻冢⊿ⶪ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹姒夾⥼⒉⍲⍿姽⬠㟉⛯娵䁢ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭冯䎦㱩䘬䫎⎰ね⼊炻⛐㔜橼㊯㧁䲣䴙ᶲ炻⸛⛯㔠䁢 4.31烊ˬ⮰㤕䳈梲˭Ⰼ朊炻⸛⛯㔠䁢 4.31烊ˬ⮰㤕ΐ䎮˭Ⰼ朊炻⸛⛯㔠䁢 4.61烊ˬ⮰㤕 㚵⊁˭Ⰼ朊炻⸛⛯㔠䁢 4.44烊ˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭Ⰼ朊炻⸛⛯㔠䁢 3.87ˤ䓙㬌栗䣢炻ˬ⚳㮹 ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭冯䎦㱩䘬䫎⎰ね⼊Ⱄ㕤⣏悐↮䫎⎰䘬䦳⹎ˤ侴⛐ 18 枭ᷣ㊯㧁㕡朊炻℞⸛⛯㔠ṳ㕤 3.73 军 4.64 ᷳ攻炻ṎⰔ⣏悐↮䫎⎰䘬䦳⹎炻℞ᷕ㚱

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15 枭ᷣ㊯㧁䘬⸛⛯㔠⛯檀㕤 4.10 ᷳᶲ炻ẍˬṢ晃ΐ䎮˭ᷣ㊯㧁䘬⸛⛯㔠 4.64 䁢㚨檀炻 Ữẍˬ⮰㤕忚ᾖ˭ᷣ㊯㧁䘬⸛⛯㔠 3.73 䁢㚨Ỷˤ

Πȃ࡚ដġ

炷ᶨ炸㍉䓐㛔䞼䨞㇨⺢㥳ᷳ⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁炻⮎㕥㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉冒ㆹ姢㕟㨇⇞炻⮯ 㚱⇑㕤䒬怠⎰怑䘬⮰㤕㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉ 㟡㒂䞼䨞䳸㝄⼿䞍炻ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭冯䎦㱩忼⇘Ⱄ㕤⣏ 悐↮䫎⎰䘬䦳⹎ˤ⚳ℏ㔁做姽揹忂ⷠ㗗䓙ᷣ䭉㔁做㨇斄冒埴夷∫彎䎮ㆾ⥼妿姽揹䲣 ㇨ㆾ姽揹⮰㤕⛀橼彎䎮ˤᶵ婾⎬䷋ⶪ㓧⹄㔁做⯨ㆾ姽揹⮰㤕⛀橼㭷⸜⛐彎䎮㔁做姽 揹㗪炻悥㚫倀婳䚠斄䘬⬠侭⮰⭞ㆾ屯㶙㟉攟㑼ả姽揹Ṣ⒉炻㛔䞼䨞㇨⺢㥳䘬姽揹Ṣ ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁⎗㍸ὃ⎬➟埴姽揹㨇㥳 䁢怜怠姽揹Ṣ⒉ᷳ⍫侫ˤ⎎⢾炻䚖⇵⚳ℏ䘬 㔁做姽揹⼨⼨仢᷷⼴临䘬徥希冯⼴姕姽揹炻㛒傥㚱㓰姽Ộ㔁做姽揹䘬ㆸ㓰炻ὅ㒂㛔 䞼䨞㇨⺢㥳ᷳ⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁炻㬋⤥⎗ἄ䁢㔁做埴㓧㨇‍ℐ姽揹䚋䜋㨇⇞ᷳ⍫侫炻⯌℞ 㗗ἄ䁢姽揹Ṣ⒉冒ㆹ㩊㟠堐炻嬻姽揹Ṣ⒉⛐㭷㫉⬴ㆸ姽揹ᷳ⼴⠓⮓炻ẍ䡢娵冒⶙䘬 堐䎦㗗⏎䫎⎰⮰㤕⊾天㯪烊㬌⢾炻⎴₽ᷳ攻⎗忚埴Ḻ姽炻㩊夾⼤㬌⛐姽揹忶䦳ᷕ冯 ➟埴姽揹ⶍἄ㗪ᷳ仢ㅦ嗽炻ẍ⺢䩳列⤥䘬䚋䜋㨇⇞炻ẍ性⃵⚈姽揹侭ᾳṢ䘬⚈䳈炻 侴⼙枧㔁做姽揹䘬℔ᾉ≃ˤ 炷Ḵ炸⻟⊾㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬妻䶜ˣ➡做冯⛐借忚ᾖ炻㍸⋯㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾ 䳈岒 㟡㒂䞼䨞䳸㝄⼿䞍炻㛔䞼䨞㇨⺢㥳䘬ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭ ᷕ炻ˬ⮰㤕䳈梲˭Ⰼ朊⛐㔜橼㊯㧁䘬㪲慵㭼䌯䁢㚨檀炷36%炸炻Ữˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭Ⰼ朊⛐ 㔜橼㊯㧁䘬㪲慵㭼䌯䁢㚨Ỷ炷13%炸ˤ侴冢⊿ⶪ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹姒夾⥼⒉⍲⍿姽 ⬠㟉娵䁢ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭冯䎦㱩䘬䫎⎰ね⼊炻⛐㔜橼㊯㧁 䲣䴙ᶲ炻⸛⛯㔠䁢 4.31烊ˬ⮰㤕䳈梲˭Ⰼ朊炻⸛⛯㔠䁢 4.31烊Ữˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭Ⰼ朊炻 ⸛⛯㔠䁢 3.87ˤ䓙䳸㝄栗䣢烉姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕䳈梲㗗㘖念⍿慵夾䘬炻Ữẍ⚳ℏ䚖⇵䘬 姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕䘤⯽ね⼊⌣䔍㚱ᶵ嵛ᷳ嗽ˤ⚈㬌炻⮰㤕Ṣ⒉䘬梲ㆸ㔁做㗗攟㛇冯㊩ 临䘬炻➟埴姽揹㨇㥳ㆾ姽揹⮰㤕⛀橼偑屈叿⻟⊾㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬妻䶜ˣ➡做冯⛐借 忚ᾖ䘬屔ả炻➟埴姽揹㨇㥳ㆾ姽揹⮰㤕⛀橼彎䎮姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬妻䶜ˣ➡妻冯⛐借忚ᾖ 㗪炻⎗ẍ⍫侫㛔䞼䨞㇨⺢㥳䘬⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁ᷳℏ㵝炻夷∫⬴┬䘬➡妻婚䦳⍲㔁㛸炻ẍ ㍸⋯㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾䳈岒ˤ

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炷ᶱ炸夷∫⮎㕥㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾⇞⹎ᷳ惵⣿㕡㟰炻⋼≑㍸⋯㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉ ⮰㤕⊾傥≃ 㟡㒂䞼䨞䘤䎦炻ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭⊭⏓烉ˬ⮰㤕䳈梲˭ˣˬ⮰ 㤕ΐ䎮˭ˣˬ⮰㤕㚵⊁˭ˣ⍲ˬ⮰㤕䘤⯽˭䫱⚃⣏Ⰼ朊炻㚱≑㕤ㆹ⚳㔁做姽揹怩⎹⮰㤕 ⊾䘤⯽ᷳ晃炻ᷣ䭉㔁做㨇斄ˣ姽揹⮰㤕⛀橼ˣ⍲姽揹⬠埻╖ỵ䞼妪ㆹ⚳㔁做姽揹⮰ 㤕⊾䘤⯽栀㘗ˣ㸾夷冯⮎㕥䫾䔍ᷳ⍫侫ˤ⯌℞㗗➟埴㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉炻㚜ㅱ䷅⭮夷∫ ⮎㕥㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾⇞⹎䘬䚠斄惵⣿㕡㟰⍲㍒㕥炻ἳ⤪烉夷∫⺢伖姽揹Ṣ⒉嫱 䄏ㆾ娵嫱㨇⇞炻䞼妪怑⎰⚳ね䘬姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕ΐ䎮㸾⇯⍲⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁炻姕伖姽揹⮰ 㤕婚䦳夷㸾䫱㕡㟰炻ẍ㍸⋯㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬⮰㤕⊾傥≃炻᷎䡢ᾅ姽揹䳸㝄䘬⑩岒冯 ℔ᾉ≃ˤ 炷⚃炸⡆姕㔁做姽揹䚠斄䲣㇨炻夷∫㔁做姽揹⮰㤕婚䦳炻➡妻姽揹⮰㤕Ṣㇵ 㟡㒂䞼䨞䘤䎦炻㛔䞼䨞㇨⺢㥳䘬ˬ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾㊯㧁˭ᷕ炻ˬ⮰ 㤕䳈梲˭Ⰼ朊⛐㔜橼㊯㧁䘬㪲慵㭼䌯䁢㚨檀炷36%炸炻℞Ⰼ朊⊭⏓ˬ姽揹⮰㤕䞍嬀˭ˣ ˬ㔁做⮰㤕䞍嬀˭ˣˬ䞼䨞㕡㱽䞍嬀˭ˣˬ夷∫䭉䎮傥≃˭ˣˬṢ晃斄Ὢ傥≃˭ˣ⍲ˬ屯㕁 嗽䎮傥≃˭䫱 6 枭ᷣ㊯㧁炻䓙㬌⎗夳炻姽揹Ṣ⒉⽭枰嵛⣈䘬⮰㤕䞍嬀⍲姽揹䘬㈨傥炻 ㇵ傥㚱㓰䘤㎖㔁做姽揹䘬≇傥炻䫎⎰䣦㚫䘬暨㯪冯㛇姙ˤ⚳ℏ䚖⇵姕㚱㔁做姽揹䚠 斄䲣㇨㚱㕘䪡㔁做⣏⬠㔁做⬠䲣䡑⢓䎕䘬㔁做埴㓧冯姽揹䳬炻⍲冢⊿ⶪ㔁做⣏⬠ 䘬㔁做埴㓧冯姽揹䞼䨞㇨炻军㕤炻℞Ṿ䲣㇨⇯ῷ⎹㕤㔁做埴㓧ㆾ㓧䫾栆䳬烊䃞侴炻 ⚳ℏ䘬㔁做姽揹䧖栆䷩⣂炻暨天⣏慷䘬⮰㤕姽揹Ṣ⒉炻⚈㬌炻⺢嬘⎗ẍℵ⡆姕㔁做 姽揹䚠斄䲣㇨炻姕妰⮰㤕䘬婚䦳炻㚱䲣䴙⛘攟㛇➡做姽揹Ṣ⒉炻ẍ䡢ᾅ姽揹Ṣ⒉䘬 䳈岒⍲㔁做姽揹ㆸ㝄䘬㓰䙲⿏炻᷎䫎⎰⣏慷䘬Ṣㇵ暨㯪ˤ

୤ՃМᝦġ

䌳⤪⒚炷2000炸ˤ䞍嬀䭉䎮䘬䎮婾冯ㅱ䓐烉ẍ㔁做柀➇⍲℞朑㕘䁢ἳˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉Ḽ⋿ˤ 䌳㓧⼍炷1995a炸ˤ⎘䀋⛘⋨ㆸṢ㔁做埴㓧⮰㤕⊾ᷳ⎗埴䫾䔍ˤㆸṢ㔁做炻24炻18-26ˤ 䌳㓧⼍炷1995b炸ˤㆸṢ㔁做⮰㤕㨇㥳䘬⺢䩳ˤ庱㕤ᷕ厗㮹⚳ㆸṢ㔁做⬠㚫炷ᷣ䶐炸ˤ ㆸṢ㔁做⮰㤕⊾炷枩 161-199炸ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉㬋ᷕˤ ⏪ᶾ῱炷2007炸ˤ⣏⬠㟉昊䲣㇨姽揹⥼⒉⮰㤕傥≃冯⮰㤕堐䎦ᷳ䞼䨞炷㛒↢䇰ᷳ䡑⢓ 婾㔯炸ˤ⚳䩳⯷㜙㔁做⣏⬠炻⯷㜙䷋ˤ

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⏛Ἓ䅩炷2005炸ˤ⸤䧂⚺姽揹⥼⒉➡妻㕡㟰ᷳ⺢㥳炷㛒↢䇰ᷳ䡑⢓婾㔯炸ˤ⚳䩳㕘䪡 㔁做⣏⬠炻㕘䪡ⶪˤ ⏛㶭Ⱉ炷1998炸ˤ⺢䩳㔁ⷓ㔁做㪲⦩ᷳ㍊䳊——婯㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䞍傥ˣ⮰㤕冒ᷣ冯⮰㤕ΐ 䎮ˤ⇅䫱㔁做⬠↲炻6炻41-58ˤ ⏛㶭Ⱉˣ䌳㸀㞿炷2004炸ˤ㔁做姽揹䘬㤪⾝冯䘤⯽ˤ㔁做屯㕁普↲炻29炻1-26ˤ ⏛㶭㯜炷1999炸ˤㆹ⚳⚾㚠棐⮰㤕Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⛘ỵ婾烉⽆⮎⊁朊↮㜸ˤ⚳䩳ᷕ⣖⚾㚠棐 冢䀋↮棐棐↲炻5炷4炸炻42-58ˤ 㛶ⱓ暚炷2006炸ˤ冢⊿䷋⸤䧂⚺姽揹㕡㟰烉姽揹⥼⒉䘬奨溆炷㛒↢䇰ᷳ䡑⢓婾㔯炸ˤ ⚳䩳㕘䪡㔁做⣏⬠炻㕘䪡ⶪˤ ␐ⲯ₺炷2008炸ˤ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㟉⊁姽揹⮰㤕ℏ㵝⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞炷㛒↢䇰ᷳ⌂⢓婾㔯炸ˤ 冢⊿ⶪ䩳㔁做⣏⬠炻冢⊿ⶪˤ 㜿ᷫㄏ炷1999炸ˤㆹ⚳ㆸṢ㔁做⮰㤕⊾䘬⯽㛃冯句⮎ˤ㔁做屯㕁㔯㐀炻43炷6炸炻164-185ˤ 㜿⣑䣸炷2004炸ˤ㟉⊁姽揹⮰㤕⊾䘬㍊妶ˤ庱㕤⻝㖶廅炷ᷣ䶐炸炻㔁做㓧䫾冯㔁做朑 㕘炷枩 319-340炸ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉⽫䎮ˤ 㜿⣑䣸炷2006炸ˤ姽揹ΐ䎮ˤ姽揹暁㚰↲炻4炻14-15ˤ 㜿⽿∃炷1993炸ˤㆹ⚳䣦㚫㔁做Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾ᷳ䞼䨞炷㛒↢䇰ᷳ䡑⢓婾㔯炸ˤ⚳䩳冢䀋 ⷓ䭬⣏⬠炻冢⊿ⶪˤ 㜿㴟㶭炷2000炸ˤ㔁做埴㓧⮰㤕⊾剣嬘ˤ冢ᷕⷓ昊⬠⟙炻14炻229-244ˤ 傉⣊殐炷1995炸ˤㆸṢ㔁做⮰㤕Ṣㇵ䘬➡做烉ᶨᾳㆸṢ㔁做⬠䎮婾㧉✳䘬↮㜸ˤ庱㕤 ᷕ厗㮹⚳ㆸṢ㔁做⬠㚫炷ᷣ䶐炸ˤㆸṢ㔁做⮰㤕⊾炷枩 65-104炸ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉㬋ᷕˤ 傉⣊殐炷2001炸ˤㆸṢ㔁做䎦ẋ⊾冯⮰㤕⊾ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉ⷓ⣏㚠剹ˤ ⼸㖲㜚ˣ㚦㵹よˣ姙⒚䓟ˣ哉㚄⤪炷2007炸ˤ檀借⬠㟉⢾悐姽揹Ṣ⒉姽揹傥≃⍲⺢䩳 䫾䔍ᷳ䞼䨞ˤ⬠㟉埴㓧暁㚰↲炻48炻133-150ˤ ⼸ㄏ⫃炷2007炸ˤㆹ⚳㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉嫱䄏⇞⹎⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞炷㛒↢䇰ᷳ䡑⢓婾㔯炸ˤ冢 ⊿ⶪ㔁做⣏⬠炻冢⊿ⶪˤ 屉⛀㱽Ṣ檀䫱㔁做姽揹ᷕ⽫➢慹㚫炷2006炸ˤ ⤥⣏⬠䲣㇨姽揹烉姽揹⥼⒉⮰㤕ΐ䎮 ♜㈲斄ˤ姽揹暁㚰↲炻4炻17-20ˤ 楔よ⧋ˣ㛶㕘悱炷2007 ⸜ 12 㚰炸ˤ忳䓐⛀橼≽≃㍐≽㔁ⷓ⮰㤕䘤⯽冯姽揹ᷳ䞼䨞ˤ ⏛㶭Ⱉ炷ᷣ㊩Ṣ炸炻㔁ⷓ姽揹烉㊹㇘ˣ⚈ㅱ冯⯽㛃ˤ2007 ⸜㚫㙐⬠埻䞼妶㚫炻⚳ 䩳䶐嬗棐ˤ 昛⣶ㅁ炷1993炸ˤ㔁做䣦㚫⬠䞼䨞ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉ⷓ⣏㚠剹ˤ 昛⚳⮏炷1992炸ˤ⌂䈑棐⮰㤕冯⮰㤕妻䶜ˤ⌂䈑棐⬠⬋↲炻6炷4炸炻3-8ˤ 㚦㵹よ炷2002炸ˤ㔁做㕡㟰姽揹ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉ⷓ⣏㚠剹ˤ

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㚦㵹よ炷2006炸ˤ姽揹⮰㤕⊾䘬㤪⾝冯䘤⯽⮵ㆹ⚳㔁做姽揹⮰㤕⊾䘬┇䣢ˤ㔁做䞼䨞 冯䘤⯽㛇↲炻2炷3炸炻171-192ˤ 望䞍⊌炷2001炸ˤ⽆⬠䥹㔁⬠䞍嬀䘬奨溆婾䥹⬠⌂䈑棐㔁做⮰㤕Ṣ⒉䘬奺刚冯⭂ỵˤ ⌂䈑棐⬠⬋↲炻15炷2炸炻75-81ˤ 湫㚁㜙炷2007炸ˤ㔁做姽揹夷∫Ṣ⒉傥≃ℏ㵝ᷳ䞼䨞ˤ㕘䪡㔁做⣏⬠㔁做⬠⟙炻24炷1炸炻 109-126ˤ ∱㗍㥖炷2004炸ˤ㔁做姽揹㕡㟰ᷳ⺢㥳ˤ㔁做屯㕁普↲炻29炻119-138ˤ ∱㘢尒炷2004炸ˤ⚳㮹⮷⬠㟉⊁姽揹⥼⒉姽揹⮰㤕傥≃㊯㧁⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞炷㛒↢䇰ᷳ䡑 ⢓婾㔯炸ˤ⚳䩳剙咖ⷓ䭬⬠昊炻剙咖䷋ˤ ∱䤷挼ˣ㜿㶭㔯炷2007炸ˤ檀ᷕ借庼⮶㔁ⷓ⮰㤕㈧媦慷堐䶐墥⟙⏲ˤ媖⓮庼⮶⬠⟙炻 17炻65-96ˤ 哉➡㛹炷1995炸ˤ婾㜸ㆹ⚳ㆸṢ㔁做⮰㤕⊾⍲℞䘤⯽嵐⊊ˤ庱㕤ᷕ厗㮹⚳ㆸṢ㔁做⬠ 㚫炷ᷣ䶐炸ˤㆸṢ㔁做⮰㤕⊾炷枩 201-232炸ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉㬋ᷕˤ 哉䏳㗞炷2007炸ˤ⚳㮹ᷕ⮷⬠㟉⊁姽揹⥼⒉⮰㤕ΐ䎮㸾⇯⺢㥳ᷳ䞼䨞炷㛒↢䇰ᷳ䡑⢓ 婾㔯炸ˤ⚳䩳冢⊿㔁做⣏⬠炻冢⊿ⶪˤ 啃⸛㴟炷2001炸ˤ⎘䀋⛘⋨℔䩳⌂䈑棐⮰㤕Ṣ⒉㗱䓐ᷳ⇅㍊ˤ䎦ẋ伶埻⬠⟙炻4炻 225-245ˤ 惕䎖䏛炷2005炸ˤㆹ⚳㔁做姽揹Ṣ⒉⮰㤕ΐ䎮㸾⇯ᷳ⺢㥳炷㛒↢䇰ᷳ䡑⢓婾㔯炸ˤ冢 ⊿ⶪ㔁做⣏⬠炻冢⊿ⶪˤ 岜㵹⌧炷2004炸ˤ伶埻棐㔁做Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⊾䘤⯽ᷳ䞼䨞烉ẍ⎘䀋℔䩳伶埻棐䁢ἳ炷㛒↢ 䇰ᷳ䡑⢓婾㔯炸ˤ⚳䩳㕘䪡ⷓ䭬⬠昊炻㕘䪡ⶪˤ 櫷よ⧇炷1995炸ˤㆸṢ㔁做⮰㤕⊾䘬ℏ㵝冯⮎㕥ˤ庱㕤ᷕ厗㮹⚳ㆸṢ㔁做⬠㚫炷ᷣ䶐炸ˤ ㆸṢ㔁做⮰㤕⊾炷枩 45-63炸ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉㬋ᷕˤ 嫅㔯ℐ炷2004炸ˤ㔁做埴㓧⬠ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉檀䫱㔁做ˤ 伭㔯廅炷1998炸ˤ㕘倆Ṣ⒉⮰㤕⿏烉シ㵝䓴⭂冯慷堐⺢㥳ˤ冢⊿ⶪ烉㓧⣏⁛㑕⬠昊ˤ Altschuld, J. W. (1999a). The certification of evaluators: Highlights form a report submitted to the board of directors of the American evaluation association. American

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