組織文化、智慧資本、知識運用能力與組織績效之動態關係

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行政院國家科學委員會

獎勵人文與社會科學領域博士候選人撰寫博士論文

成果報告

組織文化、智慧資本、知識運用能力與組織績效之動態關

核 定 編 號 : NSC 98-2420-H-004-175-DR 獎 勵 期 間 : 98 年 08 月 01 日至 99 年 07 月 31 日 執 行 單 位 : 國立政治大學企業管理研究所 指 導 教 授 : 林月雲 博 士 生 : 廖婉鈞 公 開 資 訊 : 本計畫涉及專利或其他智慧財產權,2 年後可公開查詢

中 華 民 國 100 年 08 月 17 日

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2011. 8

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ABSTRACT

Most previous studies have examined the relationship between intellectual capital (IC) and performance. However, possessing IC is not enough. Firms have to apply IC for value creation first. The means which can prompt employees to utilize IC better still remain elusive. Based on the resource-based theory and the institutional theory, this study proposes that the interaction effects between organizational culture and knowledge process capability, such as (1) acquisition process capability, which renews organizational knowledge and (2) protection process capability, which protects knowledge from theft, may strengthen the positive effect of IC further.

Based on time-lag, multiple-informant data of 160 listed organizations, we found that the interaction effects between organizational culture and knowledge process capability indeed change the performance effect of IC. The results of human capital are particularly important because human capital may be negatively associated with performance if firms overlook the acquisition process capability.

In order to examine the industrial difference, this study divides the sample into three industries for investigation. The results display different combinations of organizational culture and knowledge process capability strengthen the positive performance effect of IC in different industry. This study further provides the

theoretical and managerial implication. The performance effect of IC is more complex than what previous study assumed. The moderating effects of organizational culture and knowledge process capability have a critical influence on the relationship between IC and performance.

Keywords: Intellectual capital, organizational culture, acquisition process capability, protection process capability.

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... 1 ... 4 ... 4 ... 8 ... 11 ... 17 ... 20 ... 20 ... 20 ... 21 ... 28 ... 29 ... 30 ... 38 ... 38 ... 64 ... 77 ... 77 ... 85 ... 88 ... 92 ... 93 ... 94 110 ... 135 ... 141

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1 ... 11 2 ... 20 3 ... 40 4 ... 40 5 ... 43 6 ... 43 7 ... 44 8 ... 44 9 ... 46 10 ... 46 11 ... 47 12 ... 47 13 ... 50 14 ... 50 15 ... 53 16 ... 53 17 ... 55 18 ... 55 19 ... 59 20 ... 59 21 ... 60 22 ... 60 23 _ ... 69 24 _ ... 69 25 _ ... 69 26 _ ... 72 27 _ ... 72 28 _ ... 74 29 _ ... 74 30 _ ... 76 31 _ ... 76

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(The World Bank) 1999 (The World Development Report)

OECD (The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) 50 GDP (Davidson & Voss, 2002; Scheider & Samkin, 2008)

(Drucker, 1993)

( ) ( ; Holsapple & Joshi, 2002; Liebskind, 1996; Yang & Lin, 2009)

(Lin & Edvinsson, 2008; Garcia-Ayuso, 2003) (intangible elements; Carmeli & Tishler, 2004) (knowledge assets; Spender & Grant, 1996; Teece, 1998) (Knowledge-based resources; Wiklund & Sheperd, 2003)

(intellectual capital; Reed, Lubatkin, & Srinivasan, 2006; Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)… (Schiuma, Lerro, & Santitate, 2008)

(Hitt & Ireland, 2002; Yang & Lin, 2009; Sharabati, Jawad, & Bontis, 2010)

(1)

(Bontis, 1998; Edvinsson & Malone, 1997; Nazari & Herremans, 2007) (2)

(Barney, 1991; Hitt, Bierman, Shimizu, & Koghhar, 2001; Teece, Pisano, Shuen, 1997)

(11)

2

(resource-based theory)

(Bontis, 1998; Kang & Snell, 2009; Mavridis, 2004; Reed et al., 2006; Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005; Tovstiga & Tulugurova, 2007) (3)

(Bukh, 2003; Bruggen, Vergauwen, & Dao, 2009) (4)

(Herremans & Isaac, 2004; Kujansivu & Lonnqvist, 2008)

1 (Bontis, 1998; Mavridis, 2004; Tovstiga & Tulugurova, 2007)

(Barney, 1991; Ray, Barney, & Muhanna, 2004; Herremans & Isaac, 2004)

(Oliver, 1997) (organizational culture)

(Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Kayworth & Leidner, 2003) (Denison, 1996; Ginsberg, 1994; Oliver, 1997) (Child, 1981; Greve, Engelen, & Brettel, 2009)

-(Bontis, 1999; Kayworth & Leidner, 2003)

(

(12)

Quinn, 1999) Lin Whetten (2008) (fit)

(competing values framework, Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1981, 1983; Quinn, 1988; Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Ralston,

Terpstra-Tong, Terpstra, Wang, & Egri, 2006)

2

(Barney, 1991; Jansen, Van Den Bosch, & Volberda, 2005; Oliver, 1997; Ray et al., 2004; Hitt & Ireland, 2002; Sharabati et al., 2010)

- (Drucker, 1993; Holsapple & Joshi, 2002; Nafukho,Graham, & Muyia, 2009)

Wick & Leon, 1993, p. 19

Crossan, Lane, & White, 1999;Vera & Crossan, 2004

(Chan, Shaffer, & Snape, 2004; Madsen & Desai, 2010; Ulrich, 1998)

(Barney, 1991; Liebeskind, 1996; Lee, Chang, Liu, & Yang, 2007)

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4

(acquisition process capability)

(protection process capability) (Gold, Malhotra, & Segars, 2001) -(1) (2)

Galbraith(1969) 1990 ( ) 20 0.82 1.69(Edvinsson & Malone, 1997) Edvinsson Malone 1997 Skandia Navigator

(Edvinsson, 1997; Garcia-Ayuso, 2003; Goh, 2005; Marr, Gray, & Neely, 2003; Sveiby, 2000)

(14)

SSCI

(Bontis, Crossan, & Hulland, 2002; Mayo, 2000; Pennings, Lee, & Witteloostuijn, 1998; Reed et al., 2006; Ruta, 2009; Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

(DeCarolis & Deeds, 1999; Huber, 1991)

(Barney, 1991; Edelman, Brush, & Manolova, 2005; Nonaka, 1994)

( 2005; Bontis, Keow, & Richardson, 2000; Mata, Fuerst, & Barney, 1995; Quinn, Anderson, & Finkelstein, 1996)

(Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

(Human Capital) (Organizational Capital Structural Capital) (Roos & Roos, 1997; McElroy, 2002)

(Social Capital Customer Capital Relational Capital) (Bozbura, 2004; Castro & Saez, 2008; Moon & Kym, 2006; Stewart, 1997; Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

(Innovational /Renewal Capital) (Van Buren, 1999; Joia, 2000; Nazari & Herremans, 2007)

(1) (Human Capital) (skill) (capability)

(2) (Organizational Capital)

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6

(Bontis, 1999; Campisi & Costa, 2008; Hitt et al., 2001; Isaac, Herremans, & Kline, 2009; Mayo, 2000; Nahapiet & Ghoshal, 1998; Roos, Roos, Dragonetti, & Edvinsson, 1997;

Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005; Sharabati et al., 2010; Zheng, 2010)

(Quinn et al., 1996; Stewart, 1997; Ulrich, 1998; Campisi & Costa, 2008)

(Armstrong, 2003; Reed et al., 2006)

(Bozbura, 2004; Moon & Kym, 2006; Wu, Lin, & Hsu, 2007) Subramanian & Youndt (2005)

Reed et al. (2006)

(Bontis et al. 2002; Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

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1

Edvinsson & Malone(1997)

Bontis et al.(2000) Maviridis(2004)

Goh(2005)

Subramaniam & Youndt(2005)

Moon & Kym(2006)

Nazari & Herremans(2007)

Tovstiga & Tulugurova(2007)

Campisi & Costa(2008)

Ruta(2009)

Huang & Wu(2010)

Sharabati et al.(2010)

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8

(Baron, 1997; Schein, 1992)

(Baron, 1997; Chatman & Jehn, 1994; Howard,1998; Holsapple & Joshi, 2002; Ravasi & Schultz, 2006; Schein, 1985; 2002)

(assumption) (vision) (what is important) (belief)

(how things are done) (Barney, 1986; Eker & Eker, 2009)

(Barney, 1986; Chow & Liu, 2009; Eker & Eker, 2009)

(Arogyaswamy & Byles, 1987; Barney, 1986; Chatman & Jehn, 1994; Gold et al., 2001; Holsapple & Joshi, 2002; Ravasi & Schultz, 2006; Schein, 1985)

(Chatman & Spataro, 2005; Erdogan, Liden, & Kraimer, 2006; O’Reilly & Chatman, 1996;

Sorensen, 2002)

(Aycan, 2005; Chow & Liu, 2009)

(Chatman & Jehn, 1994)

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(Schein, 1984; Kotter & Heskett, 1992) Hofstede(1980)

(power distance) (uncertainty avoidance) (individualism) (masculinity) O’ Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell(1991) 54 …

(Cameron & Quinn, 1999) (competing values framework)

(Cameron & Quinn, 1999)

(Lin & Whetten, 2008; Deshpand´e & Farley, 2004; Kwan & Walker, 2004; Ralston et al., 2006) (

)

(Cameron, 1986; Buenger, Daft, Colon, &Austin,1996; Denison & Spreitzer, 1991; Livari & Huisman, 2007; Ralston et al., 2006)

(Van Vuuren, Veldkamp, Jong, & Seydel, 2007; Ostroff, Shin, & Kinicki, 2005) (Deshpandé, Farley, & Webster, 1993) (Zammuto, Gifford, & Goodman, 2000; Obendhain & Johnson, 2004) TQM

(Prajogo & McDermott, 2005) (AMT) (McDermott & Stock, 1999; Zammuto & O’connor, 1992)

(1) —

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10

(Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Denison & Spreitzer, 1991; Livari & Huisman, 2007; Quin & Rohrbaugh, 1983; Prajogo & McDermott, 2005)

( 1) (1) (Clan culture) (mentor) (parent) (2) (Hierarchy culture) (3) (Market culture) (aggresive) (4) (Adhocracy culture) (decentralized management) (Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Cameron, Quinn, Degraff, & Thakor, 2007; Denison & Spreitzer, 1991; Quin & Rohrbaugh, 1983; Ralston et al., 2006; Prajogo & McDermott, 2005;

Zammuto & O’connor, 1992)

(1) (Walton & Dawson, 2001)

(ideal types)

( )

( ) (Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Denison & Spreitzer, 1991; Quin & Rohrbaugh, 1983; Prajogo & McDermott, 2005; Zammuto & O’connor, 1992) Ralston et al. (2006)

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(2)

(Denison & Spreitzer, 1991; Howard, 1998; Goodman, Zammuto, & Gifford, 2001)

1

(Barney, 1991, p.106)

(Bontis, 1999; Bontis et al., 2002; Cohen & Kaimenakis, 2007)

(Clan Culture) (Adhocracy Culture)

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12

(Barney, 1986; Chow & Liu, 2009; Chatman & Jehn, 1994; Ravasi & Schultz, 2006; Schein,

1985) (Barney, 1991) (Oiver, 1997) (isomorphic force) (1) (coercive process) (artifact)(Schein, 1984) ; (2) (mimetic process) ; (3) (normative process)

(DiMaggio & Powell, 1983; Kondra & Hurst, 2009)

(Chan et al., 2004; Ford & Baucus, 1987; López, Peon, & Ordas, 2004; Leonard & Swap, 2004)

(Pil & Leana, 2009)

(Kondra & Hurst, 2009; Lepak & Snell, 1999; Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Prajogo & McDermott, 2005; Ralston et al., 2006)

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(Hitt et al., 2001; Pil & Leana, 2009)

(Cameron et al., 2007; Ralston et al., 2006; Bontis, 1999; Campisi & Costa, 2008; Hitt et al., 2001; Zheng, 2010)

(Kondra & Hurst, 2009)

(Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

(Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Kondra & Hurst, 2009; Prajogo & McDermott, 2005; Ralston et al., 2006)

(23)

14

(Pennings et al., 1998) (Ralston et al., 2006)

(Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Quin & Rohrbaugh, 1983; Larson & Christensen, 1993; Tesluk, Farr, & Klein, 1997)

(Senge, Roberts, Ross, Smith, & Kleiner, 1994; Van de Ven, 1993)

(Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

R D

(Artz, Norman, Hatfield, & Cardinal, 2010; Salavou, 2002; Prajogo, 2006)

(24)

(Kondra & Hurst, 2009; Martin, 2000)

(Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Prajogo & McDermott, 2005)

(Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Kondra & Hurst, 2009; Prajogo & McDermott, 2005; Ralston et al., 2006)

(Katila, 2002; Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

(Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Larson & Christensen, 1993; Stuart & Podolny, 1996) (exploitation)

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16

(Crossan et al., 1999; March, 1991)

(Molina-Morales & Martínez-Fernández, 2010)

(Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Kondra & Hurst, 2009; Prajogo & McDermott, 2005; Zammuto & O’connor, 1992)

(Ralston et al., 2006)

(Molina-Morales & Martínez-Fernández, 2010)

(Cabrera & Cabrera, 2002; Lane & Lubatkin, 1998; Molina-Morales & Martínez-Fernández, 2010; Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998)

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2002)

(Spencer, 2003; Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

(Ralston et al., 2006)

(Ralston et al., 2006)

(Gold et al., 2001; Madsen & Desai, 2010; Matusik & Heeley, 2005; Norman, 2004)

(acquisition process capability)

( )

( benchmarking)

(Barney, 1991; Gold et al., 2001; Yli-Renko, Autio, & Sapienza, 2001; Anh, Baughn, Hang, & Neupert, 2006; Jansen et al., 2005)

(27)

18

(Ford & Baucus, 1987; López et al., 2004; Leonard & Swap, 2004) (Bontis et al., 2002)

( )

( )

(Gold et al., 2001; Greve et al., 2009; Tsai, 2001)

(Barney, 1986; Liebeskind, 1996) (Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005) (Grant, 1996)

(Liebeskind, 1996; Gold et al., 2001; Teece, 1998)

(protection process capability)

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2001) (deferred incentives)

(Lee et al., 2007; Liebeskind, 1996)

(Edelman et al., 2005)

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20

2 2 TEJ 2009 11 2009 12 2008 (Van Buren, 1999; Joia, 2000; Nazari & Herremans, 2007; Gold et al., 2001)

(Cameron & Quinn, 1999) (1)

(30)

2008 7-11 ( ) 27 ( 3 24 ) 2010 02 331 1048 23 94 ( ( ) ) 2010 3 504 1036 2010 4 29 389 1243 16 22 169 43 39 87 t t=0.062, p=0.530 t=0.263, p=0.511 t=0.043, p=0.598 (t=.973, p=.259) ( ) Cameron Quinn(1999)

(translation and back translation) 20

(1 9 )

Cameron Quinn(1999) 2008

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22

James, Demaree Wolf (1984, 1993)

(within-group interrater reliability)Rwg Rwg < 0.7(George, 1990) 9 Rwg 0.77-0.99 0.97

(Intraclass Correlation Coefficient) ICC(1)=0.290 ICC(2)=0.551

(Schneider, White, & Paul, 1998) 160

Rwg<0.7 2008

(Baron, 1997; Schein, 1992, 2004)

( )

(1) (Direct intellectual capita, DIC)

(2) (Market capitalization methods, MCM)

(3) (Return on assets, ROA) ROA (4) (Scorecard)

(indicator) (Campisi & Costa, 2008)

(Sveiby, 1997, 2000)

(32)

1 7 ( 7)

(Lin & Edvisson, 2008; Lin & Whetten, 2008) 2008

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24

2

( )

1 Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005; 2006

饋 Ulrich, 1998; Van Buren, 1999

3 Bontis, 1998; 2000

4 Dzinkowski, 2000; 2005

5 Bontis, 1998; Bozbura, 2004

6 Edvinsson & Malone, 1997; (2004)

7 Bontis et al., 2000; 2005

1

( )

Ax& Marton, 2008; Bozbura, 2004; Chiucchi, 2008; Scheider & Samkin, 2008; Van Buren, 1999

TEJ

2

( )

Edvinsson & Malone, 1997; , 2004

3 ( )

Belliveau, O’Reilly, & Wade, 1996; Bozbura, 2004; Hogan & McPheters, 1980; , 2005

4

( )

Bozbura, 2004; Chiucchi, 2008; Edvinsson & Malone, 1997; Moon & Kym, 2006; Scheider & Samkin, 2008; Seetharaman, Low, & Saravanan, 2004

TEJ

5 ( )

Ax & Marton, 2008; Castro & Saez, 2008; Chiucchi, 2008; Moon & Kym, 2006; Seetharaman et al., 2004

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3

( )

1 2004; Chen,

Lin, & Chang, 2006

饋 Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005; 2006

3 Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005; 2006

4 … Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005; 2004

5

( )

Pablos, 2004; Scheider & Samkin, 2008;

2004

6 Bontis, 1998; Chen et al., 2006

7 Subramaniam & Youndt 2005; Van Buren 1999;

2004

1 ( ISO RoHS) Pablos, 2004; Roos et al., 1997; 2004; 2005 饋 Chiucchi, 2008; Seetharaman et al., 2004 TEJ 3 Chiucchi, 2008; Seetharaman et al., 2004 TEJ

4 ( ) Scheider & Samkin, 2008; Pablos, 2004

5

( 50 )

(35)

26 4 ( ) 1 Chen et al., 2006; 2004

饋 Bontis,1998; Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005

3 Bozbura, 2004; Brooking, 1996; Castro & Saez, 2008; Chiucchi, 2008; Scheider & Samkin, 2008

4 Bozbura, 2004; Chen et al., 2006; Chiucchi, 2008

5 Bozbura, 2004; Castro & Saez, 2008; Chiucchi, 2008; Moon & Kym, 2006

6 Bozbura, 2004; Castro & Saez, 2008

7 Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005; Csstro & Saez, 2008

1

( )

Haanes & Lowendahl, 1997; Tsai & Ghoshal, 1998; , 2005

TEJ

(TCRI)

( 50 )

Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005; , 2005

3

( )

Acquaah, 2007; Mizruchi & Stearns, 1988; , 2005

4 Fischer & Pollock, 2004; Phan & Lee, 1995

5 Acquaah, 2007; Mizruchi & Stearns, 1988

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( )

(contingency perspective)

Drazin Van de Ven 1985 (fit) (selection fit, interaction fit, and systems fit)

interaction fit

(selection fit or congruence, Fry & Smith, 1987) (systems fit)

Venkatraman 1989 (1) (Degree of specificity of the functional form of fit-based relationship)

(2) (Choice of anchoring the specification of fit-based relationship) - criterion-specific

Fit as Moderation

(moderator) (Drazin & Van de Ven, 1985; Fry & Smith, 1987; Venkatraman, 1989)

( )

Gold 2001

(translation and back translation) 14

(1 7

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28

( )

2008

2008 2009 6 TEJ

(Al-Tamimi, 2010; Bullen & Eyler, 2010)

( 1.908 63.61 )

( )

TEJ 2008

log (1,0) (0,1)

(0,0) (Bontis et al., 2002; Chatman & Jehn, 1994; Youndt & Snell, 2004) (outlier) (Shiffler, 1988; Stevens, 1990; Pedhazur, 1997) SEM (Hinkin, 1998)

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Aiken West(1991)

(centering) VIF 10

(Hair, Anderson, Tatham Black, 1995)

169 9 160 43 36 81 9 12 771 1507.6 500 100-500 47 26 15.4 30 10-20 47 500 200 36 89,687,253 343,499,730 5 : 160 43 36 81 : 9 : 12 771 26.7 89,687 <100 33 21 <10 22 14 <200 59 36 100-500 75 47 10-20 47 29 200-500 30 19 501-1000 24 15 21-30 29 18 501-1000 21 13 1001-5000 24 15 31-40 30 19 1001-5000 30 19 >5000 4 2 >41 32 20 >5000 20 13

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30 Conway Huffcutt (2003) 0.4 (cross loading) 6 8 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (Clarkson, 1995; 2009) (House, Hanges, Ruiz-Quintanilla, Dorfman, Javidan, Dickson, & Associates, 1999)

9

RMSEA = 0.00 NNFI = 0.88 GFI= 0.89 AGFI= 0.74 (Browne & Cudeck, 1993; Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1993)

10

(Quinn et al., 1996; Ulrich, 1998; Campisi & Costa, 2008)

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0.5 Jöreskog Sörbom(1993)

1 1

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32 6 _ 1. .680 .059 .311 2. .845 .132 .254 3. .582 .215 .171 4. .834 .197 .124 5. .738 .288 .092 6. .776 .269 .144 11. … .304 .758 .106 12. ( ) .386 .695 .163 14. .128 .763 .313 15. .113 .299 .732 16. .242 .194 .790 17. .280 .058 .723 7.923 1.000 1.282 % 46.604 52.489 60.031

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7 _ 1. ( : ) .740 .008 2. (feedback) .752 .058 3. .852 .034 4. .852 .096 5. ( ) .823 .056 6. .686 .105 8. .736 .023 9. .039 .776 10. .130 .994 11. .056 .851 12. .139 .696 13. .093 .809 14. .082 .772 7.445 1.801 % 57.268 71.125

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34 8 _ 1. : .921 .101 .144 .022 15. : .876 .204 .239 .075 4. : .044 .766 .297 .064 11. : .117 .869 .274 .010 16. : .226 .831 .207 041 2. : .166 .146 .788 .054 5. : .125 .178 .841 .064 13. : .148 .303 .791 .073 20. : .109 .343 .729 .091 3. : .031 .089 .023 .950 8. : .039 .067 .085 .945 1.088 1.847 4.515 1.275 % 79.327 57.840 41.047 69.435

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9

Factor loading Cronbach's Alpha

1. 0.68 .900 2. 0.86 3. 0.66 4. 0.83 5. 0.76 6. 0.79 11. … 0.71 .789 12. ( ) 0.76 14. 0.78 15. 0.80 .761 16. 0.78 17. 0.66 1. 0.77 .916 2. (feedback) 0.80 3. 0.82 4. 0.77 5. ( ) 0.84 6. 0.74 8. 0.73 9. .78 .931 10. .86 11. .81 12. .79 13. .87 14. .84

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36

Factor loading Cronbach's Alpha

1. : 0.68 .851 15. : 0.85 4. : .71 .841 11. : .89 16. : .83 2. : .72 .854 5. : .80 13. : .82 20. : .73 3. : .87 .891 8. : .88 9

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10 *: P< 0.05 **: P< 0.01 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13 14. 1. ( ) 4.33 .57 2. 3.59 .72 .542** 3. 3.64 .71 .491** .687** 4. ( ) 5.93 1.12 .188* -.054 -.067 5. 6.14 .90 .209** .030 .009 .410** 6. 5.64 1.58 -.120 -.185* -.183* .048 -.030 7. 6.85 .78 .265** .190* .177* .491** .595** -.036 8. ( ) 5.15 .90 .450** .393** .370** .100 .247** -.106 .024 9. 5.20 1.02 .292** .396** .299** .048 .014 -.037 -.012 .612** 10. (Z ) .00 .89 .294** .423** .366** -.125 .047 -.091 .064 .073 -.011 11. 1 (dummy) 0.27 .445 .121 .255** .110 -.002 .148 -.395** .230** .103 .065 .091 12. 2 (dummy) 0.22 .419 .111 .107 .190* -.048 -.104 -.556** -.078 -.023 -.024 .141 -.327** 13. (log) 2.46 .58 .173* .443** .531** -.134 -.038 -.095 .183* .144 .059 .105 -.323** -.122 14. 26.68 15.35 .124 .144 .274** -.042 .033 -.293** .194* -.031 -.013 .027 -.397** .060 .530** 15. (log) 5.47 .81 .292** .242** .305** .477** .484** -.149 .650** .140 .014 .096 -.206** .055 .241** .285**

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38

( 11) Model1 Model 2 - Model 4

Model5 Aiken

West (1991) / / ( 3 4)

( 12 - 20) Model2 Model3

(Gerge & Zhou, 2007) Aiken West (1991)

(simple slope test)

(Aiken &West, 1991; Hitt et al., 2001; Huang & Iun, 2006)

( 6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20&22)

11 Model 5

3

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11

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3 Model4 Model5

1 .160† .069 .291† .142 .064 2 .216* .069 .380* .166† .155 .140 -.125 .097 -.140 -.061 -.140 -.039 -.144 -.046 -.055 .057 .044 .111 .013 .054 .153† .154† .118 .297** .284** .292** .176† .164† .201† -.209† -.175† -.134 .032 -.013 -.111 .072 .097 .064 .232† .133 .071 x -.056 x -.221† x .063 x .147 x .084 x .056 x -.124 x .276** x -.115 R2 .061 .234 .108 .262 .378 Adj-R2 .031 .193 .054 .202 .283 Model F 2.016† 5.752** 2.011* 4.348** 3.991**

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40 3 4 12 Model 2 Model 3 5 6 t=6.748, p<0.00 t=0.981, p=0.33 t=2.947, p<0.00 t=2.358, p<0.05

(50)

( ) 7 8 ( ) 13 ( 9) 10 11 ( 12)

(51)

42

12

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3

1 .160† .158 .159 2 .216* .112 .135 .140 -.168 -.162 -.140 -.036 -.067 .057 -.019 .020 .062 .055 .328** .332** .230* .298** -.209* -.257** .149 .158 .144 .138 -.104 -.097 -.071 -.105 -.192* -.225* x -.186* -.170* x .160† x .165† x -.026 x .167† x x .242* x x .201* R2 .061 .340 .341 Adj-R2 .031 .265 .257 Model F 2.016† 4.034** 4.062**

(52)

< > < > 5 6 t=2.534, p<0.05 t=3.799, p<0.00 t=2.534, p<0.05 t=3.895, p<0.00

(53)

44 < > < > 7 8 t=2.803, p<0.00 t=2.033, p<0.05 t=3.023, p<0.00 t=0.140, p=0.88

(54)

13

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3

1 .160 .167 .174 2 .216† .146 .160 .140 -.161 -.206 -.140 -.038 -.058 .057 .011 .018 .074 .105 .333** .345** .185 .284* -.139 -.140 -.164 -.120 .113 .131 .173 .135 -.104 -.075 -.168† -.243* x -.096 -.044 x .077 x .222* x -.052 x -.017 x x .325** x x .177* R2 .061 .353 .320 Adj-R2 .031 .271 .233 Model F 2.016† 4.276** 3.681**

(55)

46 < > < > 9 10 t=4.420, p<0.00 t=4.459, p<0.00 t=3.547, p<0.00 t=-1.051, p=0.29

(56)

< > < > 11 12 t=0.751, p=0.45 t=3.315, p<0.00 t=2.650, p<0.00 t=1.887, p=0.061

(57)

48 14 Model2 13 ( 14) ( 15) 16 Model 2 15 ( 16) ( 17 Model2) ( 17) ( 18)

(58)

14

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3

1 .160 .149 .136 2 .216† .147 .145 .140 -.163 -.163 -.140 -.029 -.063 .057 .020 .032 .024 .101 .348** .368** .226* .246* -.112 -.137 -.079 -.062 .050 .079 .153 .103 -.065 -.071 -.184† -.242* x .000 .044 x .106 x .084 x -.053 x -.023 x x .239** x x .144 R2 .061 .331 .305 Adj-R2 .031 .246 .216 Model F 2.016† 3.874** 3.439**

(59)

50 < > < > 13 14 t=2.908, p<0.00 t=3.881, p<0.00 t=1.981, p<0.05 t=-0.703, p=0.48

(60)

15

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3

1 .160 .178 .137 2 .216† .140 .116 .140 -.176 -.166 -.140 -.088 -.071 .057 -.008 .012 .076 .100 .345** .365** .277* .235† -.129 -.142 -.089 -.065 .127 .125 .146 .098 -.090 -.064 -.184† -.236* x .126 .026 x .053 x -.178† x -.046 x -.090 x x -.113 x x -.090 R2 .061 .325 .307 Adj-R2 .031 .239 .218 Model F 2.016† 3.768** 3.465**

(61)

52

16

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3

1 .160 .132 .127 2 .216† .169 .134 .140 -.119 -.188† -.140 -.043 -.033 .057 .027 -.003 .103 .115 .284* .364** .124 .201† -.112 -.068 -.212† -.079 .110 .076 .189 .101 -.168 -.076 -.195† -.218* x -.019 .187† x .081 x .150 x -.149† x .010 x x .450** x x .054 R2 .061 .415 .329 Adj-R2 .031 .340 .243 Model F 2.016† 5.546** 3.837**

(62)

< > < > 15 16 t=-1.367, p=0.174 t=3.806, p<0.00 t=7.856, p<0.00 t=-0.499, p=0.619

(63)

54

17

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3

1 .160 .093 .085 2 .216† .143 .126 .140 -.134 -.159 -.140 -.043 -.043 .057 .039 .027 .109 .127 .218* .359** .214† .223* -.136 -.135 -.055 -.050 .009 .035 .121 .091 -.059 -.089 -.177† -.187† x .143 .223* x .107 x .005 x -.007 x -.095 x x .246** x x .089 R2 .061 .371 .343 Adj-R2 .031 .290 .259 Model F 2.016† 4.614** 4.091**

(64)

< > < > 17 18 t=.942, p=.348 t=7.187, p<0.00 t=2.016, p<0.05 t=.549, p=.584

(65)

56 18 ( 19) 21 ( 22) 19 20 21

(66)
(67)

58

18

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3

1 .160 .182 .143 2 .216† .186 .130 .140 -.162 -.160 -.140 -.076 -.073 .057 -.019 -.009 .123 .110 .342** .403** .151 .150 -.126 -.120 -.092 -.085 .129 .147 .202† .138 -.090 -.062 -.218* -.300** x -.031 -.085 x .123 x -.075 x -.051 x .130 x x -.205* x x -.212* R2 .061 .346 .331 Adj-R2 .031 .262 .246 Model F 2.016† 4.138** 3.876**

(68)

< > < > 19 20 t=5.910, p<0.00 t=1.817, p=0.07 t=1.223, p=.223 t=1.627, p=.106

(69)

60 < > < > 21 22 t=5.661, p<0.00 t=0.715, p=0.476 t=0.865, p=0.39 t=3.533, p<0.00

(70)

19

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3

1 .160 .116 .115 2 .216† .196† .183 .140 -.142 -.124 -.140 -.047 -.050 .057 .055 .050 .082 .102 .315** .313** .195† .249** -.093 -.070 -.108 -.133 .046 .075 .157 .148 -.042 -.098 -.139 -.111 x .199* .324** x .219** x -.001 x .205* x -.092 x x .108 x x .010 R2 .061 .390 .395 Adj-R2 .031 .312 .317 Model F 2.016† 5.012** 5.107**

(71)

62

20

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3

1 .160 .168 .139 2 .216† .193 .151 .140 -.208† -.190 -.140 -.049 -.035 .057 .058 .033 .078 .084 .321** .346** .239* .273* -.145 -.128 -.107 -.082 .119 .116 .147 .118 -.008 -.040 -.156† -.165† x .057 .038 x .281** x -.007 x .174* x -.020 x x .091 x x .110 R2 .061 .346 .323 Adj-R2 .031 .262 .237 Model F 2.016† 4.137** 3.744**

(72)

21 x x x H1 & H10 H2 & H10 H3 & H10 x x x H1 & H10 H2 & H10 H3 & H10 x x x x H1 & H10 H1 & H10 H2 & H10 H3 & H10 x x x x x H1 & H11 H1 & H11 H2 & H11 H1 & H11 H2 & H11 x x x x x H5 & H10 H6 & H10 H7 & H10 H5 & H10 H6 & H10 x x H7 & H11 H7 & H11 ( : H8-H9 & : H10-H11) x H8

(73)

64 22 H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H9 H10 H11

(Chatman & Jehn, 1994; Dastmalchian, Lee, & Ng, 2000; Grthrie & Datta, 2008; Yli-Renko et al., 2001)

(43 ) (36 ) (81 )

( : t=-1.446 p=0.149 : t=-0.048 p=0.962 : t=-1.433, p=.158)

(74)

23 24 Model 2 ( 25) 23 24 26 ( ) 25 ( ) 43 36 81 1131 838 550 36.7 28.3 20.6 36,976 328,031 11,738

(75)

66 ( 27 Model 2) 26 ( 28 Model 3) ( 29 Model 3) 28 30 30

(76)

24 _

†:p<0.1; **:p<0.05; ***:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3 Model4 Model5

.451* .092 .438* .107 .028 -.177 -.076 -.189 -.086 -.077 .087 .067 .101 .084 .241 -.166 -.132 -.084 .518* .497 .505 .091 .060 .007 -.127 -.053 -.081 -.049 -.034 -.126 .154 .069 .054 .097 .044 .119 x -.052 x -.116 x -.069 x -.056 x .067 x -.087 x -.024 x .507 x .165 R2 .188 .319 .215 .323 .465 Adj-R2 .126 .205 .058 .111 .022 Model F 3.019* 2.805* 1.368 1.527 1.051

(77)

68

25 _

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3 Model4 Model5

.161 -.093 .151 -.064 .021 -.542* -.258 -.531* -.285 -.344 .169 .077 .153 .069 .135 .107 .088 -.187 .255 .305 .612* .188 .223 .410* -.174 -.167 -.149 -.002 -.121 -.222 .219 .361 .225 -.003 -.103 -.133 x -.234 x .217 x .286 x .384 x -.677* x .646* x -.051 x -.016 x -.224 R2 .209 .385 .240 .445 .858 Adj-R2 .134 .257 .050 .223 .689 Model F 2.811† 3.021* 1.262 2.007† 5.088**

(78)

23 _ 24 _ 25 _ t=1.936, p=0.062 t=2.288, p<0.05 t=4.369, p<0.00 t=0.971, p=.339 t=2.995, p<0.00 t=2.070, p<0.05

(79)

70

26 _

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3 Model4 Model5

-.009 -.040 -.055 -.100 -.093 .161 .177 .106 .109 .246* -.134 -.198 .077 .047 -.008 .183 .231† .170 .140 .079 .082 -.082 -.037 -.034 -.238 -.275† -.163 -.058 -.056 -.194 -.049 -.082 -.001 .161 .120 .143 x -.094 x -.158 x -.090 x .045 x .096 x -.138 x .300* x .297* x -.255 R2 .035 .089 .103 .160 .412 Adj-R2 -.002 .016 .017 .040 .228 Model F .944 1.212 1.199 1.334 2.246**

(80)

27 _

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3

.161 -.186 -.066 -.542* -.018 -.202 .169 -.130 -.060 .065 .049 .143 .179 .241 .399 -.311 -.100 .016 -.148 .197 .195 .158 -.039 .364 .080 -.363 -.049 x -.018 .434 x .584* x .044 x .191 x -.344 x x .564* x x .194 R2 .209 .698 .619 Adj-R2 .134 .444 .299 Model F 2.811† 2.743* 1.932†

(81)

72 < > < > 26 _ 27 _ t=1.495, p=.139 t=0.832, p=0.148 t=2.124, p<0.05 t=0.970, p=0.340

(82)

28 _

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3

-.009 -.163 -.167 .161 .140 .070 -.134 .087 .151 .378** .290** .103 .080 .237 .218 -.357** -.353** -.454** -.327** .258† .172 .123 .134 -.436** -.467** -.143 -.102 x -.466** -.380** x .003 x .422** x -.059 x .221* x x .157 x x .346** R2 .035 .466 .543 Adj-R2 -.002 .333 .428 Model F .944 3.492** 4.746**

(83)

74 < > < > 28 _ 29 _ t=-1.177, p=.243 t=.485, p=.629 t=5.294, p<0.00 t=-1.792, p=0.077

(84)

29 _

†:p<0.1; *:p<0.05; **:p<0.01 :

Model 1 Model 2 Model3

-.009 -.184 -.176 .161 .020 .030 -.134 .095 .105 .305* .282* .168 .179 .212 .169 -.284† -.259† -.236 -.214 .068 .036 .099 .079 -.388* -.316* -.131 -.147 x .097 .099 x -.068 x -.137 x -.021 x -.066 x x -.161 x x -.265* R2 .035 .335 .347 Adj-R2 -.002 .168 .184 Model F .944 2.011* 2.127*

(85)

76 < > < > 30 _ 31 _ t=2.527, p<0.05 t=-.317, p=.752 t=3.450, p<0.00 t=-.955, p=.343

(86)

30 ( ) x x x H5 H6 H8 & H10 x x x x x H7 H7 H3 & H11 H4 & H11 H4 & H11

(87)

78

( )

1 :

(Brockman & Morgan, 2006; Simberova, 2009)

(88)

(Ramirez & Li, 2009)

(Hitt et al. 2001)

(Cameron & Quinn, 1999)

Deshpandé (1993)

(crony capitalism)

(Anderson, Banker, & Janakiraman, 2003; Lins & Servaes, 2002; 2008)

(Deshpandé et al., 1993; Brockman & Morgan, 2006; Simberova, 2009)

(Howard, 1998; Goodman et al., 2001)

(Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Lund, 2003)

(89)

80

(Cameron et al., 2007; Kondra & Hurst, 2009; Ralston et al., 2006; Hitt et al., 2001; Zheng, 2010)

(Gold et al., 2001)

(Reed et al., 2006)

(Reus, Ranft, & Adams, 2009)

(Liebeskind, 1996; Grant, 1996) (Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

(Ketkar & Sett, 2010; Wright & Snell, 1998)

(90)

(Miller, Fern, & Cardinal, 2007)

3 :

(Kondra & Hurst, 2009; Prajogo & McDermott, 2005; Ralston et al., 2006)

(Gold et al., 2001; Greve et al., 2009; Ralston et al., 2006)

4 :

(91)

82

( )

1 :

(Ketkar & Sett, 2010; Wright & Snell, 1998)

(Gold et al., 2001; Reus et al., 2009)

2 :

(Barney, 1991)

3 :

(92)

2007)

(Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

(Stuart & Podolny, 1996)

(Liebeskind, 1996; Grant, 1996)

( )

1 :

(93)

84

(Bontis, 1999; Campisi & Costa, 2008; Hitt et al., 2001; Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

(Gold et al., 2001)

2 :

(Miller et al., 2007; Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

( )

(Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

(94)

: ( ) :

(95)

86

1982 (Dankbaar, 1997;

Shah & Ward, 2003; Han & Liao, 2010)

( ) :

(Skaggs & Youndt, 2004)

(Katila, 2002; Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

5 25 85 (Reichheld & Sasser, 1990)

(96)

(Stuart & Podolny, 1996; Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005)

(Barney, 1991)

(Lee et al., 2007; Liebeskind, 1996; Edelman et al., 2005)

(97)

88

(Barney, 2001)

(Cameron, 1986; Buenger, et al., 1996; Denison & Spreitzer, 1991; Livari & Huisman, 2007; Ralston et al.,

2006)

(Denison, 1996; Ginsberg, 1994; Oliver, 1997)

(Child, 1981; Greve et al., 2009)

(98)

Hitt 2001

(Cameron & Quinn, 1999) Cameron Quinn

(99)

90

(Reus et al. , 2009) (Goodman et al., 2001)

(100)

31

( 禛

( 禛

(101)

92

(Barney, 1991; Ray et al., 2004)

(1)

(McClelland & Judd, 1993)

(George & Zhou, 2007) (2)

(subculture) (Saffold, 1988) Cameron Quinn 1999

(3) (Podsakoff & Organ, 1986)

(102)

(Aiken & West, 1991) (4) ( 43 36 81 ) (5) 2009 2008 (contextual performance ) (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993; Organ, 1988)

(Alavi, Kayworth, & Leidner, 2006; Gupta, Iyer, & Aronson, 2000; Kitchell, 1995; McDermott & Stock, 1999)

?

(Gold et al., 2001)

(103)

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