學校組織中領導者與圈內成員間的上下關係對組織公民行為影響之研究---組織公平、組織自尊與工作滿意度之中介變項分析(I)

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(1) (organizational citizenship behavior, OCB) 

(2) Organ(1990) . !. "#$%&'()*+,- . / 0123456789:;$<=>?@ABCDE FG

(3) HI@JBorman & Motowidlo, 1993)KLOrganJ1990MN OPQR()STUV@WXYZ[U \U]^ ()_`abcdef3ghi^jk/012lADH G mn)oCpq&'lrCs tpq6uv

(4) 89Cwxy^%zpqCN{|}~€:WXY| pq()‚ƒ„ †‡€:ˆ‰ Š‹Œx Ž€(Settoon, Bennett & Liden, 1996; Sears, 2005)‰Že‘’ “”•‹c3deN{–—(Organ & Konovsky, 1989)˜s6b|.G_™š<<›œ”•‹,až Ÿ +c3x¡¢”•£¤“¥6b¦.G_™š‹Œ– —U \§¨WXY|pq()‚ žŸ€C + ˜ ©ªWXY|pq()e«¬WXY¦pqC­®Z¯<°. ‚±(1) WXY¦g²pqC­‚³(2) WXY¦ gpq´hC­. 1.

(5) ‚³(3) WXY¦µg

(6) ¶²pq´hC­‚(Schriesheim, Castro & Cogliser, 1999)‰Ž·p¸ WXY|pq()e”•c¹º»‹¼WX ¦pqC­g½ g½‚¾ ‚¿@Š†kÀÁc3E” •WXY|ÂD‚ ¼ÃÄÅgCÆÇDÈÉÊËÌÍGU \§¨ªH(Dienesch & Liden, 1986; Graen & Scandura, 1987; Gerstner & Day, 1997):©ª”•#”•WÎÏÐÑ¢”•Ò <§¨WXY|pq()‚JÓcWXY|ÂDÔՁ‚M Ö× C€ƒØcdÙ<“¥6b|.G_™šG‹Œ–— CI@tڟCÛÜÝÞ. . 

(7) —  ß”•NàXY|pq()‚^ˆ‰ Š‹Œ–—:€ (Settoon, Bennett & Liden, 1996; Sears, 2005):áSandy¥Lynn¦Robert (1997)t«?â‹ãä®å±àXY|pq()‚(LMX)Ïæp qçèé^/ êëì.GDí³îCàXY|pq()‚(LMX)Ïï ðñò^óëì.G‹ êôõ— (Sears, 2005; Hepperlen, 2002; Hui, 1999) ·p¸WXeöc<WXY t

(8) pqjk÷øùWXEW. 2.

(9) XY|pq()eJLMXMúöc<WXY $K†û$Küš ‚JGraen ý Uhl-Bien1995M þe< gWX]^()}‹

(10) Špq|äWXY†û()‚:

(11) Š½|äWXY†û  ()‚ |pqC()‚WXY|pqC‚®¸µ· ±ÆÇÂDJin-gruopM| ÆÇÂsJout-groupM

(12) ¼ÂD|WXY ÏæC()‚;

(13) }|Æ<Dç ^ÍWXYϜ|JLiden & Graen1980M 

(14) y¦ .G‚t Ï()‚WXY ¼ÂDjk |ƒ KÒ¾

(15). Ì!")#$%|&'. :žŸÏ.G_™šJNorthouse2001M(pqš:oZ) *<=>‹U:jksCysá]^NKe JSocial Identity TheoryM+¹N g½ ,Ø6-å./ gëh -)ëh­0SÆÇ-®1DÂsC²ƒ<de|ŸžŸG2 JTajfel & Turner1986M3gh{4z5ëhD67ù8·¼5ëh­67 ù8úgh(^þH9G¸.!"ƒG6-q¼þëh : JHogg & Williams2000M:WXY#^|ÂDÐ;< => ‚JKim & Organ1982My=>‚T)WXY^xpq?q¼Â D:

(16) t$KÂDØÍz@œcA@œBC@œw %JBass1990M:ÂsÍzcA®Z(6 ÏÐäð‰ 3.

(17) DEi®|WXY(FJGraen1976M

(18) ¼¢”•c¹<¼WXY| D¥ÂsC$KÔՁ‚ Cjk

(19) t€x:« ”• ±. H1

(20) 

(21)  . — !" Graen ¦ Cashman(1975) t «   W X Y | p q ( )  ‚ G â (Leader-Member Exchange Theory³LMX)NàXYØçpq¸5ÂD8 |5Âs8; HgëhtjkIàX

(22) tJK3  “GâIKâLMtÍ NONPJ“QL®Z^RpqJ“ dSysAryee, Tan ¦ Budhwar (2002)N š6bghTš 6bgh s<õU@V#ÏíWžŸÔîXMa ÂD:|WXYY

(23) ‚LpqØ^4Zz6- ¼.G c3ú6Á^jk˜ ©ª Tanner Q½(1997) ”•?@Y%ÔՁ‚½(aÂDY)ßß# .G¾WX Y[_™:.G_™šY,a‘É TU

(24) €%(Organ & Ryan ,1995)xy\¬§¨WXY|ÂDCÔՁ‚|­ „ ‚¢”•,]“¥6b¥.G_™š|^Y¯<_x 4.

(25) U¨`a“¥6b|.G_™šŠx®GWXY| ÂDCÔՁ‚|­‹Œ–—bcãä ¼WXY|ÂD CÔՁ‚ €¬ÄÕd(“¥6b| .G_™š°g–—Ce¾6c3ɑ?@G eÞGf \”•C e!". #$%#organizational justice$ “ (organizational justice) §¨‹g½Oëh ¼! "¸gJVh!¥ij ^M7+Nr?“{4¾ä þN{tk †¿øîX|JSimon et al., 2002M“ññ‹tdl m:|“6lmVh!¸g¥ij ^nQ¥op“ùQQ ,ñ¦ÔqYC­rsË"(Sheppard, Lewicki, & Minton, 1992) 6 1960 tuËvY”•œØ“Awxy+z{|}¦r s¾~ÔÕ­€³fËúؔ•cdÙ<“ pq x€§¨JLengnick-Hall, 2002M Organ¦Konovsky(1989)JOCBMüš#‚¼ Åh NP“ùN{o Moorman¥Blakely¦Niehoff (1998)†küƒ“ ˆ‰€ {4Ë JOCBMžŸG2˜s‰Ž ”•j„ “4Z< ½†‡ˆ‰‹6Mc3;|. 5.

(26) JOCBM

(27) (Farh et al.,1997)Keller¦Dansereau (1995)Øüƒ|¸g“|W XY|pq()‚JLMXMŠ¬÷?Mansour-Cole¦Scott (1998)NWXY ¼üƒ“4Z1€%[‹ØçAWXY|pq()‚JLMXM †û‰ü‹tžŸç‹C ?@pqjkLMX‚LŒH ü ƒ“v

(28) Ï4Z:WXY|pq()‚JLMXM#k ÊË%z“ NŽj„M

(29) WXY|pq()‚JLMXM t« ‘’bL #“ö1Lee (2001) #†kWXY|pq() ‚JLMXM|üƒ¥¸g“H÷WXY|pq()‚JLMXM €¬ “ù4Z: “ù4Z#€¬JOCBM Scandura (1999)ہ‚R pq@œ”>#xy’U¬üƒ “Ôޮ坓®GWXY|pqCÔՁ‚| C‹Œ–—¡¢”•«”•^±. H2

(30) . !"#$%&'

(31) . 

(32) ()*+,-.. #$&'#organizational-based self-esteem$ 6b(organizational based self-esteemOBSE)‚<çM ‹ 6-6ã{4 •r16b:y <•rˆ‰Õt1 6b®X2¼– 6”•JGardner & Pierce, 1998M Pierce Q½(1989) 6.

(33) pq^ ç<ˆ‰Õ1ä 6u—Š— ¼.G6Ç ¥Sš|

(34) ˜™š_6b›„½ä™œz6<•rÕ. ̃|

(35) žDËjkä ¼6bf4ü. šJVan Dyne, 2000M@U \˟v

(36) š6b66- ¼c3¥

(37) Z%äN6-<‹

(38). Ì ä:. o6Mc3x5  6u Ì|NK<x‰Ž”• „$K16ãe—Jself-conceptM¡V±6b¢£÷ 6u| ‹Œ(Brown & Smart, 1991; Markus & Wurf,1987)˜s#

(39) ”•†k6 b|JOCBM

(40) 6¯<v

(41) š6bghTv

(42) š 6bgh@

(43) ®ZjkJOCBM (Van Dyne, Vandewalle, Kostova, Latham & Cummings, 2000; as cited in Aryee et al., 2002)Aryee¥Tan ¦ Budhwar (2002)Ø6b|JOCBM÷?Ë”•?@¬ 6b¤¦¬ LMX | OCB ‚KL†k š6bghTš 6bgh s<õU@V#ÏíWžŸÔîX:M š 6bgh¥¦6uL#Ø çpq‚@bVÁ :MÁ#®åx¼ LMX €¬6bpq|çWXY<ÔՁ‚ 6Æ{4ÔY

(44) ‚LpqØ^4Zz6- ¼.Gc3¥

(45) ™¥

(46) €%¥ÌÍ¡®å6b<ÔՁ‚¾ C­¢£ö‹Œ¡¢”•«”•°± 7.

(47) H3

(48) /0. !"#$%&'

(49) . 

(50) ()*+,-.. #($)*+,-#job satisfaction $ .G_™š®rpq ¼.G_™|§*üš¨ªù©9#®r  ¼.GÔ} ªS<«h¬ªO•r¬ªÔ_`(Tett & Meyer, 1993).G_™š®aA «hù­ 2Ë.G‹t¯< _™O$_™³O ®¯­ ç‹` .G¥h!¥.G°¥ Ô±¥.G¢¥Kõ¥ij ^|²¨_™üš(Cook et al., 1981; Tett & Meyer, 1993; Spector, 1997)SchermerhornQ½(1994)N.G_`‚g½<ç. G¦.G°³´ÕtžŸ}~ùîX-Ag½ ç.GtµCªO ¶ª4üš˜Robbins(1998)Þ.G_`pq çtµ êùSšpq.G_`-j„ .GµªSš³îC-j„ . G$_¶ªCSš ‰Ž6”•3.G_™9·úpq¸¹¾.GºI# ^·(Farrell & Rusbult, 1981);»1™¼ú^½ (Moorman, Niehoff & Organ, 1993).G_™ }~¾Sç¢ S9 S9^X¿ pq†Ÿ(Organ & Ryan, 1995)Bateman ¦OrganJ1983M¾ Smith¥Organ¦NearJ1983MÀ«Mpq%z.G_™Lä 8.

(51) Jhelping behaviorM(^’b:y ÁÂC(OCB)M y’b^€7à pqoă;^’U.GºI#(^½ ½ »1Ř ©ªVan DyneQ½(1994)Ng½x^€ JOCBM Šx`¬ ¼<.G6¬ªÔ}_™³´U \˟ Organ¦Ryan (1995)†kSš6x`.G_™šQ| JOCBM

(52) ˜TannerQ½(1997)”•?@ ¼.G| WXY_ ™üšµ—|LMX6c3ž:ƎY%‚½KÇ# [_™îCÈP ‚½ßß# .G¾WXY[$_™ÔÞ ®†kÔՁ‚^ .G_™šR€:.G_™šÉ^€ CxyÔÞ¨«”•ʱ. H4

(53) 12345. !"#$%&'

(54) . 

(55) ()*+,-.. °¥6b¥“¦.G_™šC­(Ɓ‚ Ë Ë 6bJorganization-based self-esteemM|.G_™š6ù˜< ›œ”•‹º®†käC­÷

(56) ”•6b|.G6Sš Jwork-related attitudesMÌk6:6b|.G_™š6ù6MÍ Àá.23 z.70 C­Î

(57) JBowden, 2002M ys< g§¨.G_™š¾. Gjk¿¸Ï”•‹†k.G_™š|Êgx‚>Ðç‹ gx 9.

(58) (6b:ÑÒӑ¬‰Ž”• ¼.G_™š¾6b6JJudge & Bono, 2001M “(organizational justice)<|g½6OÔÕ6Sš Ö?@_™š¥.G_™š¥¸×Q

(59) Á:çØx:ÛÜÆ©ƒ$ ¼–;Ö¥ÙÚ¥¾¶ªîX–—(Colquitt, Conlon, Wesson, Porter & Ng, 2001)<¢”•‹†k.G_™š ¼

(60) ˜ ·€:6b|“É ¼.G_™š

(61) r6xyÔ Þ†é¸Ï«Û. H56&'(LMX)789:;) 6(JUS)7  6/0(RES)7 <=612345(SAT)7+,:;)>8?@:;ABCDEF61234 57G+,)H$6(OCB)7I (JG. ÜDsɑ”•†é¢”•«5WXY|pq‚8Ýޖ— 5“8¥56b8¾5.G_™š8‹Œ–—¥58 ?@–—C? ©üÛ灂߯ÜDs†é§¨¢”•«Û ®Z ¯Û±. 10.

(62) RES. LMX. SAT. JUS Ë Ë Ë . . .. RES. LMX. OCB. SAT. JUS. /1. 01. . . . . . . . . . . .. /2. 01. RES. LMX. . . .. RES. SAT. JUS. LMX. OCB. SAT. JUS. /3 01(. . . . . . . . . . . . . /4. 012. RES. LMX. SAT. JUS . . .. OCB. OCB. /5. 013. 11. OCB.

(63)

(64)   4567 ¢”•Ü‹vàá1. Ö×”• â ÖãpJ2006M. äåæÊvtš!ç–èétÃêCÜ‹vë

(65) 717tì\íîï¶10 tðñï¶ë707tç‹òp¶Îvó250tô35.36%‹p¶Îvó197 tô27.86%õp¶Îvó216tô30.55%öp¶Îvó44tô6.22% y¢”•C÷´h‚Ê·¶Î707óCÜ‹vvóàá1 Ö×¢”•ø©C”•Ç¢¸¬ù úǶθ¬ú#10%vó;G Ç¢ò¶ú#24tvó‹¶ú#18tvóõ¶ú#20tvóö¶ú# 4tvó¯ëvóÇ¢;66óûó¸²ú#àá1 á1. Ö×8½Êà. Ö×8½«Ç¢;1056½Jmüý75%792½M.  89: Ë Ë WXY|pqÔՁ‚©973þ2Liden¦Maslyn(1998)LMX9 jbþ9jØLMX¸5}8¥58¥5èé8¦5b8 ÊgHš«ë

(66) 12EmÒ—áñ$K™zñK™þÛ¹9jë¸ Q§ ùx¸Ï?@9jÅhš0.934Ä C«– 958.791%˜ s

(67) ûq%¤Y ç.G1. ±àá1CÖ×OÊàá1Ö×. Ö×9j‚þ Somech ¦ Drach-Zahavy(2000)”•‹t†ûC. 12.

(68) þ9j¸°gHš¸² CJorganizational citizenship behavior-defending the organization, OCBOM ¥ KõC Jorganizational citizenship behavior-defending the individual colleagues, OCBICM ¦ vŸCJorganizational citizenship behavior-defending individual students, OCBISMx¸Ï¿Ä C«– 9 59.986%šú 0.932 Ë Ë “p¸C‚þ Colquitt (2001)t2Cþ9jØ“¸ üƒ“¥¸g“¥½“¾!“ÊgªH«ë

(69) 20 EmÒ —áñ$K™zñK™þÛ¹9jë¸Q§ ùx¸Ï?@9jÅ hš 0.958Ä C«– 9 75.104% 6bp)2Pierce¥Gardner¥Cummings ¦ Dunham (1989)t†û 9jþ9j`æg—ÒçÅhš0.9Ä C«– 953.605 .G_™špþ26(1985)t+5Ö×.G_™8ç C  Smith¥Kendall ¦ Hulin(1969)t†û.GÞ9j(Job Descriptive Index, JDI)9jCÅhš 0.924Ä C«– 9 63.850%.  ;<=>? @ABC Ë ( ½WXY|pq‚¸ Chou (2006)N®¸µ· .G. 13.

(70) ‚¾.G‚:.G‚É®¸ÔÕq‚¾ë쁂(Ü‹ vvó:oóŠvóáWXYç.GëìçÕqvóá½, -KLá1Ö×¢”•àá1CÖ×¾Êàá1 Ö׸vó‹ÂD|ÂsC¸  Ë Ë (vó‹ÂD¥ÂsCWXY|pq‚JLMXMŠTÝr†k LMX‹CÊgHšJ}¥¥èé¦bMÎ~›öJp<0.01M ÂDÂs<LMXÊgHšÔ“n;Ìk?@#VƎ êÂD ·¼ÂsJVÕjM j„ÂD|Âs<WXY|pq‚jkÔ àá1Ö×àXY|pq()‚Ïæ. j1Ë LMX––;C“n;|TÌ “n;. TÌ. Âs. 9.85. 5.896**. ÂD. 11.54. Âs. 8.43. ÂD. 10.06. Âs. 8.12. ÂD. 9.70. Âs. 9.93. LMX }Hš. Hš. èéHš. bHš. 14. 4.063**. 3.830**. 5.952**.

(71) ÂD. 11.66. ˜s(ÂD¥Âs<Åhjkpp<0.05~›ö :;°g¸²Hš(OCBO¥OCBIC¦OCBIS)“n;¦TÌ#ºÌkÂD ½¼Âs½?@Jj2MOCBIS<D– ;Ýr©ª p>0.05Ê~›ö›„ÂDÂsÖ×< vŸõ. Ôjk. 

(72) ›öï . j2Ë OCB––;C“n;|TÌ “n;. TÌ. Âs. 16.72. 4.325**. ÂD. 19.29. Âs. 12.77. ÂD. 13.66. Âs. 13.14. ÂD. 13.77. OCB OCBO. OCBIC. OCBIS. 2.072*. 1.754. D0E FG-HC

(73) ¼Ç¢!ç¸äC. S|!š"< %AB[·e7Äë#. JMaximum Likelihood, MLMU$;Äë¾eÛ|+Z!ç%gš¥ 15.

(74) Ó Bagozzi|YiJ1988M l¢”•á!¢%gš¥Åh%gš|D<?  %gš°©ªU? ©üÛCopJk6&'2006MŸ’VÕ±. IJFG-KL V@<Õë(?@‹†k)*Äëkâ+,tÍÕëÄë‚ ;

(75) mÕ° ®2ËoÄÛ?

(76) )*Äë}1± J1M¶ -ï– ;¯< J2M‡‚;/‰O. f 1J 0.95 /0M  J3M

(77) . ·-¢”•[1  ¬Ûg®ZÛÜç‹\¬2ÛgÛÜÛÜ ¥ ^¥°¥Ên

(78) 34‚;Ê~›;C}1¡Õ56 2ÛgÛÜC%gùŠ U \ÝÓ|§¨. RES .61. .13 .44. LMX. SAT. .25 .73. .50. JUS. .75. OCB.  6 

(79) . #$MN0EFGOPKL 16.

(80) ÅhÛ%gš®ŸÛs<‰Žo9ÛÅh%gº χ2 Ì›ö|?Á:χ2 ÌñùöÇ¢½;:7Ç\$¥ χ2 Ì›ö |?s¢”•#çJVj 2M opÅhÛ%gš j 3Ë ÅhÛ%g. . .

(81) 1~3. 2251.978. NFI. >0.90. 0.859. IFI. >0.90. .902.  . χ2.  . 2. χ /df.  . 2.98. Independence AIC. 16034.765. Model AIC. 2463.978. Saturated AIC. 1722.000. CFI. >0.90. 0.901. RFI. >0.90. 0.847. RMSEA. <0.10. RMR. <0.05. 0.048. . 0.067. (Ԗ—Åh%gš8Á¢Û χ2 Ì~›öEÅh: ›„¢Û|+Z!ç

(82) $9C%gš<Û:;š©ª¢ÛC AIC  ; 2463.9788<¼ Independence AIC ; 16034.765 E·¼ Saturated AIC ; 1722.000; χ2 Tý 2.98Š?@›„eÛ8 :;CÛ E

(83) üšÔ:; 17.

(84) #($0E<QRSFGOPKL  Bagozzi | YiJ1988MC l? Û%gšÝÓC`a$;©  Hù¥·<¾ R2¢”•t

(85) ? $;n~ .05 ›öJt = 3.78~13.81M ;©H|e­  ¿³“¥¥.G_™š|C R2 Ì ƒ.49¥.72¥.93¥.74\¬“ R2. Šº¼ .50 C. Åh:o¢ÛD<? %g©ª\¬“ R2. çop—Ò. º¯=34›„¢ÛD<>? 20ETQ UVW <ÝÓÅhÛ%gš|D<C¿@¬ÄA<–—­? ‚"f TϖA<–—C­I@ç`A<–—­C„ I@¥­ I@¦¨hI @Õ§¨–A<–—­CI@ ( ) WXY|pq‚ WXY|pq‚ “¥6b|.G_™šÎ

(86) „ H€ (¸².706¥.600¥.425)ƒˆ‰“¥6b|.G_™š  žŸ­ I@(.700):ç ¨hI@ú.700 (^) “ “ .G_™š„ ª€I@J.505M ú 18.

(87) S³8ÁVy^ˆ‰.G_™š žŸ­ €I@J.375M ¡¨hI@.373 (°) 6b 6b “Jβ32= .236M¾.G_™š(β32= .146)

(88) „ H €I@ úS³8ÁVy^ˆ‰“¥.G_™š žŸ­ €I@J.197M ¡¨hI@.197 (Ê) .G_™š .G_™š žŸ„ €I@Jβ32=.743Mç¨hI@ .743.   D,X Ë Ë ‰ŽC”•œáBš†Á:܋<ÖãCD õçt«E. qD CùE. F)G:$CDÒ. H¼¢Ô$K›œáBˆ‰‹†ûËWXeßßIJ K%2¼ãÜ܋<vó}CÉ ¢”•\¬ØCK Ü€x-“€–—Cs@Avó}C$KØWXY |pq‚¥6b¾.G_™šQ–—]¨¤L( leadership-outcome ­ÇS‚G @MUðñvóˆ‰Ä  19.

(89) Ë Ë ¢”•6 vó‹ÂDs|WXY‚¾j kG TϸÏ?@j„ÂD|Âs<WXY|pq‚¾Ü jkÔ

(90) ›öï àá1Ö×àXY|pq()‚Ïæƒa åÂD;àá1Ö×^

(91) Ïjk Ë Ë ˜s¢”•<[1߯†é§¨¿«5WXY|pq‚8Ý Þ–—5“8¥56b8¾5.G_™š8‹Œ–—¥5 8?@–—C? ©üÛ:灂߯NÜDs†é§¨

(92) Û. ®Z¯Û!ç¸Ï?@¢”•N%¯ðñ‹Qvó[æÛ ±5WXY|pq‚8Ýޖ—5“8¥56b8¾5. G_™š8‹Œ–—EÝ°g–—[¿ºfˆ‰5.G_™š8‹Œi 58R­ €)oC5WXY|pq‚8¥5 “8¥56b8C­°°6쁂ƒ vóÖ×5.G_™š8 R€:MÖ×5.G_™š80æLçjk58®Z# (0. YZ,X Öã|vóáWXYOP«QÖ×Rä.G_™š WXt3$%Ò:çz{®ZÔՁ‚«i¥“øáG¥c AÖ×wD|ïq¥«iç vóåqQQç‹ÌÍU \¨õ. 20.

(93) “ÊgHš‹ÖׁSÆǾ!Ô“:TDù“ Q ¹|ç–—

(94) öUXG2@3S™õ¢”•†kó ¼Â Ds

(95) tï ÇíWR V$}´žŸ˜ gWXY 3ŽW¥©HVNàc|ÂD|ÂsÖׁ‚QCU:¨ª«it

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