國民中學教師反績效行為與組織公民行為關係及其影響因素之研究

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(1)1. 國立政治大學「教育與心理研究」 2014 年 6 月,37 卷 2 期,頁 1-31 DOI. 10.3966/102498852014063702001. 國民中學教師反績效行為與組織公民行為 關係及其影響因素之研究 吳政達*. 摘. 要. 本研究主要目的有三:評估教師反績效行為與教師組織公民行為之間的關 聯;評估個人層級前置變項,如正向情緒、責任感對教師反績效行為與教師組織公 民行為的影響,以及組織承諾對此關係的中介效果;最後,評估組織層級前置變 項,如組織公平、組織政治知覺對教師反績效行為與教師組織公民行為的影響及組 織承諾對此關係的中介效果。 本研究主要研究對象為臺灣地區國民中學教師,並以分層隨機抽樣的方式選 取受試者。研究工具之問卷內容包括兩部分,第一部分為組織與個人之前置變項 (正向情緒、責任感、組織公平、組織政治知覺)及中介變項(組織承諾);第二 部分為反績效行為與組織公民行為。所得資料以多元迴歸分析探究組織與個人之前 置變項對反績效行為與組織公民行為的預測力,再透過逐步階層迴歸分析組織承諾 在組織與個人之前置變項對反績效行為與組織公民行為關係上的中介效果。 本研究在研究變項上,納入反績效行為之探討,並加以整合教師組織公民行. *. 吳政達:國立政治大學教育學系教授 誌謝: 本研究接受國科會專題研究計畫補助(計畫編號:NSC 101-2410-H-004-125),謹此 誌謝。 電子郵件:profwuchengta@gmail.com 收件日期:2013.10.21;修改日期:2013.11.28;接受日期:2013.12.06.

(2) 2. 為,並對教師的工作表現建構一完整的實證模型架構;在研究方法上,藉由探討組 織層面及個人層面,透過組織承諾對反績效行為與組織公民行為的影響,期能建構 學校反績效行為及組織公民行為因果理論模型。研究結果發現,個人前置變項:正 向情緒、責任感;以及組織前置變項:組織公平、組織政治知覺,皆對教師組織公 民行為和反績效行為有顯著預測力,可作為有關預防和干預反績效行為的實務工作 參考。. 關鍵詞: 反績效行為、正向情緒、組織公民行為、組織公平、組織政治知覺、組織承 諾.

(3) 3. Journal of Education & Psychology June, 2014, Vol. 37 No. 2, pp. 1-31. The Relationship Between Counterproductive and Citizenship Behavior for Junior High School Teachers in Taiwan: Meditators and Its Antecedents Cheng-Ta Wu*. Abstract. The present study aims to examine the relationship between counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), the impact of the antecedents. of. individual. and. organizational. level. (e.g.. positive. emotion,. conscientiousness) on CWB and OCB of teachers, and the organizational commitment as mediators in the CWB-OCB relationship. A survey research was conducted using a sample of junior high school teachers in Taiwan. The data will be collected from raters selected by stratified random sampling. Questionnaire of the measure comprise two sections. Antecedents of individual and organizational level (e.g. positive emotion, conscientiousness, organizational justice, perceptions of organizational politics) and the mediating variables (e.g. organizational commitment) are in the first half, while items of CWB and OCB are in the second half. The collected data was analyzed through multiple-regression analysis to know if the personal antecedents and organizational antecedents have an influence on OCB and. *. Cheng-Ta Wu: Professor, Department of Education, National Chengchi University E-mail: profwuchengta@gmail.com. Manuscript received: 2013.10.21; Revised: 2013.11.28; Accepted: 2013.12.06.

(4) 4. CWB of teachers. Then we used hierarchical regression analysis to examine the mediation. effect. of. organizational. commitment. in. personal. antecedents. and. organizational antecedents toward the relationship between OCB and CWB. Personal antecedents such as positive emotions, conscientiousness; and organize antecedents including organizational justice, perceptions of organizational politics, shows high significant predictive power on OCB and CWB of teachers, to use to prevent and intervene CWB in implemental reference. The proposed analytical framework adopting CWB and OCB shows a comprehensive empirical model of teacher’s job performance. Methodologically, we a)estimate the strength of the relationship between CWB and OCB at both individual and organizational level, b)determine whether their impact on CWB and OCB is mediated by organizational commitment to build a causal model consisting of CWB-OCB at school. Moreover, based on the results of the research, there will be practical reference and implication for the prevention and intervention of counterproductive work behavior.. Keywords: counterproductive, positive emotion, citizenship behavior, organizational justice, perceptions of organizational politics, organizational commitment.

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(24) 24 教育與心理研究 37 卷 2 期. 也會透過降低組織承諾的中介作用,增 加教師CWB與降低OCB。. 二、建議 本研究同時探討學校教師的OCB 與CWB表現,研究結果發現,個人前 置變項:正向情緒、責任感,以及組織 前置變項:組織公平、組織政治知覺, 皆對教師OCB和CWB有顯著預測力。 因此,就教師個人層面而言,教育行政 人員應形塑有利於促進教師正向情緒的 環境,並透過各種方式(如增能賦權) 提升教師責任感的特質,俾利學校成員 自 發 性 從 事 OCB , 同 時 降 低 CWB 表 現。 此外,若能進一步透過體察理解 教師整體工作需求,提高教師組織承 諾,亦能促使教師OCB更有效發揮、 消弭教師CWB。另就學校組織層面而 論,教育行政人員應致力於塑造組織公 平的氛圍,促進教師對組織使用公平方 式來分配報酬與對組織依據公平原則制 定決策的知覺程度有所提升,並減低組 織政治知覺對學校成員的負面影響,以 利於教師OCB的產生和CWB的降低。 同樣的,若能提高教師組織承諾,則對 提升教師OCB與降低CWB有更顯著的 影響力。. 參考文獻 吳政達(2005)。心理契約、組織公平、組. 織信任與組織公民行為之關連性研 究:以臺灣地區國民中小學學校組織 為例。行政院國家科學委員會專案研 究報告(NSC 94-2413-H-004-009)。 臺北市:國立政治大學。 【 Wu. C. T. (2005). The study of the relationships among psychological contract, organizational justice, organizational trust and organizational citizenship behavior in junior high school in Taiwan. National Science Council Research Project (NSC 94-2413-H-004009). Taipei, Taiwan: National ChengChi University.】. 吳政達、湯家偉、羅清水(2007)。心理契 約、組織公平、組織信任與OCB結構 關係之驗證:以台北地區國民中學學 校 組 織 為 例 。 教 育 政 策 論 壇 , 10 (1),133-159。 【Wu. C. T., Tang. C. W., & Luo, Q. S. (2007). The verification of a structural equation model on psychological contract, organizational justice, organizational trust and organizational citizenship behavior: An example of the junior high school organizations. Educational Policy Forum, 10(1), 133-159.】. 吳國鳳(2009)。組織政治知覺與組織承諾 關 係 之 研 究 ⎯⎯ 工 作 壓 力 之 中 介 效 果。人力資源管理學報,9(3),4565。 【Wu, K. F. (2009). Examining the mechanism linking organizational politics perceptions and organizational commitment: The mediating role of job stress. Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(3), 4565.】. 柯麗菲、黃遠僅、姚建明(2007)。服務性 企業員工OCB與組織承諾、組織公平 感關係實證研究。軟科學,2(15), 17-21。 【Ko, L. F., Huang, Y. G., & Yao, J. M. (2007). The empirical study of the relationships among organizational citizenship behavior, organizational commintment and.

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