— 「與少年同行同儕溝通有妙法」支援有情緒及行為問題的學生研討會(中學)

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「與少年同行 同儕溝通有妙法」

支援有情緒及行為問題的學生研討會 ( 中學 )

熊偉權 (教育心理學家)

香港教育心理服務中心 27-01-2021

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流程

Part 1:

學生常犯的溝通問題及其需要 個案分享

Part 2:

適用於不同需要學生的同儕溝通方法 改善學生情緒社交的校內支援策略

Q&A

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中學生 青少年階段 (Adolescence) –

•10-19 歲 (WHO)

• 身體、心理、情緒、社交

都會有大的轉變

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Adapted from Christine, D., & Viner, R. 2005. ABC of Adolescence. BMJ.

Physical Psychological Social & Emotional

Early Adolescence 10 to 13 years

Early puberty (growth spurt)

Concrete thinking but early moral concepts

Progression of sexual identity development

Begin emotional

distinction from parents

Start of strong peer identification

Mid- Adolescence 14 to 17 years

Girls: mid-late puberty and end of growth spurt;

development of female body shape

Boys: mid-puberty; voice breaks; start of growth spurt

Early abstract thinking

Growing verbal abilities

Identification of law with morality

Start of fervent ideology (religious, political)

Emotional distinction from parents

Strong peer identification

Sexual desires

Early vocational plans

Late adolescence 17 – 20 years

Boys: end of puberty;

continued increase in muscle bulk and body hair

Complex abstract thinking

Identification of difference between law and morality

Increased impulse control

Further development of personal identity

Development of social autonomy

Intimate relationships

Development of vocational capability

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Formal Operational stage (Piaget) 形式運思期

• Development of abstract thinking ability

• Some common changes:

a) Argumentativeness

b) Increased self-consciousness & self-focusing c) Idealism & criticism

Source: Berk, 2001. Development Through the Lifespan, 2Ed., p.374

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Identity vs. Role Confusion (Erikson) 自我認同 vs. 角色混淆

•Increased vulnerability and intimacy with peers

•Desire to “fit in”

•Cliques are formed

•Bullying

Source: Berk, 2001. Development Through the Lifespan, 2Ed., p.374

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External factors

•Family dynamic; position in family;

parenting style

•Electronics; social media; texting culture

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Internal factors

•Personalities; introvert vs. extrovert; gender differences

•Peer communication issues may be further

complicated in youth with special educational

needs (SEN)

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A utistic S pectrum D isorder 自閉症 A utistic S pectrum D isorder 自閉症

Impaired social communication and interaction

Restrictive, repetitive behaviour, interest

or activities

Takes things literally

Weak at reading intentions (weak “Theory of Mind”)

Stubborn

Adhere to routines

Criteria from DSM-5 (2013)

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Emotional Issues

•Stress

•Anxiety

•Depression

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Part 2:

適用於不同需要學生的同儕溝通方法

改善學生情緒社交的校內支援策略

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Techniques for effective communication

•Listening skills

•Empathy

•Assertive communication

Describe Demonstrate Practice

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Listening Skills

1. Non-verbal (e.g., body language, eye contact, facial expression)

2. Active listening (e.g., affirm, reflect)

3. Stay neutral (i.e., non-judgmental)

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Defining Attributes of Empathy

1. See the world as others see it (perspective taking) 2. Non-judgmental

3. Understand another person’s feelings 4. Communicate this understanding

1. See the world as others see it (perspective taking) 2. Non-judgmental

3. Understand another person’s feelings 4. Communicate this understanding

Wiseman, T. (1996). A concept analysis of empathy. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 23, 1162-1167. DOI:

10.1046/j.1365-2648.1996.12213.x

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Assertive Communication

Passive Assertive Aggressive

• Fail to express self honestly

• Apologetic & timid

• “Would you mind, uh… if I borrow your phone? Sorry…”

• Express self honestly and in a considerate manner

• “May I please borrow your phone?”

• Express self in a

demanding & hostile manner

• “Give me your phone

now.”

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4 steps of assertive communication

1. Say what you think about their behaviour.

2. Say how you feel.

3. Say how their behaviour affects you.

4. Say what you prefer them to do instead.

Adapted from “Assertive Communication”, Center for Integrated Healthcare, VA Health Care

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Examples of “I” statements

I feel… when… because… I would like…

I feel angry when you take

my things without asking me

because I’d like to be respected.

I would like you to ask me first if you want to borrow

my things.

I feel

disappointed when I don’t get a reply from you

because it makes it harder for me to plan what I should do.

I would like you please reply,

even just to say that you got my message.

I feel frustrated when I keep

asking me to go to the event

because I really don’t like to be pressured into

doing something I don’t want to do.

I would like you to please stop

asking me to go.

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Social Skills Training

•Explicitly teach social skills and rules by:

• Explanation

• Modelling

• Guided observation (pictures, video, live)

• Practicing through role play

• Provide immediate feedback during and after practice

• Reward for showing appropriate social behaviour

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朋友的種類

• 點頭之交

• 偶然相遇,有時只是感到很面善,但說不出對方名字。很多時只 是點頭打招呼而已

• 普通朋友

• 見面時談天說地,東拉西扯。但話題不深,不見面時也很少會想 及對方

• 好朋友

• 雙方熟悉,能親切交談、互相分享感受及了解對方

• 知己

• 能彼此信任、深入瞭解、互相傾訢,無條件 接納對方

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School-wide strategies

•Foster a positive school environment

•Social Emotional Learning

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Positive school environment

•Peer support

•Foster relationships and understanding between peers

•Empathy development

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計劃內容

領袖訓 練工作

坊 實習 檢討成 效

1. 了解領袖的特質及自己的強弱

2. 學習溝通及處理人際關係的技巧

3. 學習了解及欣賞別人

1. 協助有需要的同學

2. 與他們一起解決問題

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良好溝通

良溝 通好

雙向 互動 手口 並用

互相 信任

同理 心

專注 聆聽

細心 觀察

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過往參加者心聲與得著

工作坊使我進一步認清自己的長處以及不足之處,讓

我既可以發揮自己的長處幫助有困難的同學,又能夠

就自己不足之處作出改善,對我自己以及協助有需要

的同學方面均有幫助。

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Social Emotional Learning

•“… reduces disruptive behaviors like conflicts, aggression, bullying, anger,

and hostile attribution bias; and it improves academic achievement, creativity, and

leadership.”

- Divecha, D. 2019. What are the best ways to prevent bullying in schools? Greater Good Magazine

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Social Emotional Learning

•Resource

•Social and Emotional Learning: Fostering Children’s Whole-person Development

•nets.edb.hkedcity.net/individual.php?p=84

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