當形容詞用的過去分詞 pp. 有被動、已經、感到……的意思。
*我不會照顧正在哭的嬰兒。 I can’t take care of a crying baby. 主動正在哭的 我父親是一位退休的將軍。My father is a retired general. 已經退休的 這是一項令人振奮的消息。This is a piece of exciting news. 令人振奮的 激動的暴民縱火燒大樓。 The excited mob set fire to the building. 感到激動的 口語英文比較難。 Spoken English is more difficult 被說的
2. 因用來表達必要、急迫，語義中含有「應該」之意，因此在 that 子句需加 should，久而久
例 1: It is urgent that the problem (should) be addressed immediately.
例 2: It is critical that the government (should) deal with the problem in no time.
例 2. God help those who help themselves. (諺)
*whoever 的兩種用法：名詞子句 vs. 副詞子句
whoever anyone who 例：Whoever breaks the rule will be punished.
no matter who 例：Whoever breaks the rule, he/she will be punished.
○ 4 I was not interested in golf, _________ would I want to learn its rules.
○ 5 If she doesn't agree to the plan, _________ will Tom.
○ 6 "Would you like the metal or plastic one?" "_________ will do."
○ 2 用法：動名詞可當主詞(例 1)、動詞/介系詞的受詞(例 2-3)、主詞補語(例 4)。
例 1: Consuming too much greasy food is harmful to your health.
例 2: After he finished doing the domestic chores, he went out to do some shopping.
例 3: The clown is good at making people laugh, especially children.