○ 2 用法：動名詞可當主詞(例 1)、動詞/介系詞的受詞(例 2-3)、主詞補語(例 4)。
例 1: Consuming too much greasy food is harmful to your health.
例 2: After he finished doing the domestic chores, he went out to do some shopping.
例 3: The clown is good at making people laugh, especially children.
2. 在否定句時可變化成這兩種句型：○ 1 It be not until…that-clause 強調句 ○ 2 Not until…+ aux/be + S + VR/adj 倒裝句 (否定副詞移至句首)
例 1: She didn’t come home until midnight. (原句) 例 2: Not until midnight did she come home. (倒裝句)
○ 1 a _____________ of misfortune 一次不幸 ○ 3 a _____________ of delight 喜悅感
○ 2 a _____________ of elephants 一群大象 ○ 4 the _____________ of my heart 心跳聲 Extra Reading Conquering Stage Fright
Public speaking is said to be the biggest fear reported by many American adults, topping flying, financial ruin, sickness, and even death.
○ 2 Despite living in different countries, the two families have ___________ close links.
○ 3 Security during the president's visit must be ___________ at all costs.
○ 4 The bank will ___________ open during the national lockdown.
○ 5 We have to invest in new technology if we are to ___________ competitive.
當形容詞用的過去分詞 pp. 有被動、已經、感到……的意思。
*我不會照顧正在哭的嬰兒。 I can’t take care of a crying baby. 主動正在哭的 我父親是一位退休的將軍。My father is a retired general. 已經退休的 這是一項令人振奮的消息。This is a piece of exciting news. 令人振奮的 激動的暴民縱火燒大樓。 The excited mob set fire to the building. 感到激動的 口語英文比較難。 Spoken English is more difficult 被說的
例 2. God help those who help themselves. (諺)
*whoever 的兩種用法：名詞子句 vs. 副詞子句
whoever anyone who 例：Whoever breaks the rule will be punished.
no matter who 例：Whoever breaks the rule, he/she will be punished.
From the back seat of a rental car, a concerned 2-year-old boy repeatedly asked his parents the same question: “Where’s Buzz?”
Ashley Davis frantically sifted through the family’s luggage in search of her son Hagen’s beloved Buzz Lightyear action figure. It was
Chorus 2: Meanwhile, on Earth, three nymphs are in a meadow.
Nymph 1: What a beautiful day for picking flowers!
Nymph 2: It’s awesome!
Echo: (Speaking very quickly) Well, the weather report showed a cold front moving in. Soon there will be clouds and pretty heavy winds. Maybe even some rain. I really don’t mind the rain, though. It does help these beautiful flowers grow. And I love flowers. I think my favorite is the violet. However, I’m also quite fond of the evening primrose.
After Bopsy’s death, Trujillo 26 distracted herself with work and graduate school. She earned her PhD in 1991, became the first chairwoman for the Pascua Yaqui Tribe of Arizona in 1994, and was hired as a professor of American Indian education at Northern Arizona University in 2002.
But Bopsy’s been with her all along. He’s been with her in the 27 dozens of letters from strangers she’s received and in phone calls from family members and friends. He’s with her every October when, as part of a 28 Yaqui custom, she puts an 29 altar in her yard to 30 commemorate him. And he’s with her every Nov. 2 when the Yaqui community in Guadalupe, Ariz., gathers at its